The Expression of BTLA Was Increased and the Expression of HVEM and LIGHT Were Decreased in the T Cells of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis [corrected].
ABSTRACT: Currently, the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not clearly understood. The LIGHT/HVEM/BTLA co-signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA, although reports on the expression levels of LIGHT, HVEM and BTLA in T lymphocytes from RA patients are limited.In this study, we recruited 30 healthy controls and 21 RA patients. Clinical characteristics were collected for RA patients. The levels of LIGHT, HVEM and BTLA expressed on the surface of circulating T cells of RA patients and healthy controls were measured by flow cytometry.The percentages of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes that expressed BTLA from RA patients were all higher than those of the controls (all p < 0.05), while the percentages of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes that expressed HVEM and LIGHT were all lower than those of the controls (all p < 0.05). The rheumatoid factor and the percentage of HVEM+CD4+ T lymphocytes showed a statistically significant negative correlation in RA patients (r = -0.453, p = 0.039), as did the swollen joint count and the percentage of BTLA+CD8+ T lymphocytes (r = -0.501, p = 0.021).Here, we provide the first report on the increased expression of BTLA in T lymphocytes and on the decreased expression of HVEM and LIGHT in RA patients. BTLA, HVEM and LIGHT might be involved in the pathogenesis of RA and have the potential to be new clinically useful characteristics of RA.
Project description:The B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an Ig super family member that binds to the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), a TNF receptor super family (TNFRSF) member. Engagement of BTLA by HVEM triggers inhibitory signals, although recent evidence indicates that BTLA also may act as an activating ligand for HVEM. In this study, we reveal a novel role for the BTLA-HVEM pathway in promoting the survival of activated CD8(+) T cells in the response to an oral microbial infection. Our data show that both BTLA- and HVEM-deficient mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes had significantly reduced numbers of primary effector and memory CD8(+) T cells, despite normal proliferation and expansion compared to controls. In addition, blockade of the BTLA-HVEM interaction early in the response led to significantly reduced numbers of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. HVEM expression on the CD8(+) T cells as well as BTLA expression on a cell type other than CD8(+) T lymphocytes, was required. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the function of the BTLA-HVEM pathway is not limited to inhibitory signaling in T lymphocytes, and instead, that BTLA can provide crucial, HVEM-dependent signals that promote survival of antigen activated CD8(+) T cell during bacterial infection.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: It has been demonstrated that signals from the inhibitory receptor B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) are involved in regulating the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. However, the expression and anatomical distribution of BTLA and its ligand, the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), have not yet been determined in cases of HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) patients. METHODS: In this study, the expression of BTLA and HVEM in liver tissues from HBV-ACLF, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and healthy individuals was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The results of this analysis demonstrated that both molecules were observed in the HBV-ACLF samples and that their expression was chiefly in the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the damaged bile ducts. However, they were absent in liver sections from CHB patients and healthy controls. Immunofluorescence double-staining indicated that BTLA was found on CK-18+ epithelial cells, CD31+ endothelial cells, CD68+ macrophages, CD56+ NK cells, CD16+ monocytes, CD3+ , CD8+ T cells, and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). By contrast, HVEM expression was restricted to CK18+ epithelial cells and CD68+ macrophages. Moreover, the expression of several members of the B7 superfamily, including PD-L1, PD-L2, B7-H3 and B7-H4, was also detected in these liver tissues, and these proteins were co-expressed with HVEM. Interestingly, the expression of fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2), a virus-induced procoagulant molecule, was also found in liver sections from HBV-ACLF, this molecule also co-expresses with BTLA and HVEM. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BTLA-HVEM signaling is likely to affect the pathogenesis of HBV-ACLF, a clear understanding of the functional roles of these proteins should further elucidate the disease process. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8080806838149123.
Project description:Defining the molecular interactions required to program activated CD8 T cells to survive and become memory cells may allow us to understand how to augment anti-viral immunity. HVEM (herpes virus entry mediator) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family that interacts with ligands in the TNF family, LIGHT and Lymphotoxin-?, and in the Ig family, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160. The Ig family members initiate inhibitory signaling when engaged with HVEM, but may also activate survival gene expression. Using a model of vaccinia virus infection, we made the unexpected finding that deficiency in HVEM or BTLA profoundly impaired effector CD8 T cell survival and development of protective immune memory. Mixed adoptive transfer experiments indicated that BTLA expressed in CD8?+ dendritic cells functions as a trans-activating ligand that delivers positive co-signals through HVEM expressed in T cells. Our data demonstrate a critical role of HVEM-BTLA bidirectional cosignaling system in antiviral defenses by driving the differentiation of memory CD8 T cells.
Project description:The inhibitory cosignaling pathway formed between the TNF receptor herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM, TNFRSF14) and the Ig superfamily members, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160, limits the activation of T cells. However, BTLA and CD160 can also serve as activating ligands for HVEM when presented in trans by adjacent cells, thus forming a bidirectional signaling pathway. BTLA and CD160 can directly activate the HVEM-dependent NF-kappaB RelA transcriptional complex raising the question of how NF-kappaB activation is repressed in naive T cells. In this study, we show BTLA interacts with HVEM in cis, forming a heterodimeric complex in naive T cells that inhibits HVEM-dependent NF-kappaB activation. The cis-interaction between HVEM and BTLA is the predominant form expressed on the surface of naive human and mouse T cells. The BTLA ectodomain acts as a competitive inhibitor blocking BTLA and CD160 from binding in trans to HVEM and initiating NF-kappaB activation. The TNF-related ligand, LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, or TNFSF14) binds HVEM in the cis-complex, but NF-kappaB activation was attenuated, suggesting BTLA prevents oligomerization of HVEM in the cis-complex. Genetic deletion of BTLA or pharmacologic disruption of the HVEM-BTLA cis-complex in T cells promoted HVEM activation in trans. Interestingly, herpes simplex virus envelope glycoprotein D formed a cis-complex with HVEM, yet surprisingly, promoted the activation NF-kappaB RelA. We suggest that the HVEM-BTLA cis-complex competitively inhibits HVEM activation by ligands expressed in the surrounding microenvironment, thus helping maintain T cells in the naive state.
Project description:In a recent adoptive cell therapy (ACT) clinical trial using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with metastatic melanoma, we found an association between CD8+ T cells expressing the inhibitory receptor B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and clinical response. Here, we further characterized this CD8+BTLA+ TIL subset and their CD8+BTLA- counterparts. We found that the CD8+ BTLA+ TILs had an increased response to IL-2, were less-differentiated effector-memory (TEM) cells, and persisted longer in vivo after infusion. In contrast, CD8+BTLA- TILs failed to proliferate and expressed genes associated with T-cell deletion/tolerance. Paradoxically, activation of BTLA signaling by its ligand, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), inhibited T-cell division and cytokine production, but also activated the Akt/PKB pathway thus protecting CD8+BTLA+ TILs from apoptosis. Our results point to a new role of BTLA as a useful T-cell differentiation marker in ACT and a dual signaling molecule that curtails T-cell activation while also conferring a survival advantage for CD8+ T cells. These attributes may explain our previous observation that BTLA expression on CD8+ TILs correlates with clinical response to adoptive T-cell therapy in metastatic melanoma.
Project description:Immune cell cosignaling receptors are important modulators of immune cell function. For T cells, cosignaling receptors supply necessary secondary signals supporting activation or attenuation after engagement of antigen-presenting cells. The primary cosignaling receptors belong to either the Ig (CD28-like) or TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamilies. The CD28 family is comprised of coinhibitory and costimulatory receptors. The three coinhibitory receptors are cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, programmed death-1, and B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). Although cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed death-1 interact with B7-Ig family counter receptors, the ligand for BTLA is less clear. From a protein-protein interaction screen, we identified the TNFR family member herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) as a counter receptor for BTLA. Here we show that HVEM binds BTLA with high affinity and can form a ternary complex with its known ligands homologous to lymphotoxin, showing inducible expression, and competing with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes (LIGHT) or lymphotoxin alpha and BTLA. In addition, binding of HVEM to BTLA attenuates T cell activation, identifying HVEM/BTLA as a coinhibitory receptor pair. This study is a demonstration of a direct interaction between the primary T cell cosignaling receptors of the CD28 and TNFR families.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic persistent infections have been associated with T lymphocytes functional impairment. The aim of this study was to compare the activation status, the proliferative potential and the expression of CD28 and CD3? chain on T lymphocytes between chronic chagasic patients and uninfected controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-two chronic chagasic patients, 28 healthy individuals and 32 non-chagasic cardiomyopathy donors were included. Peripheral blood was marked for CD3, CD4, CD8, HLA-DR, CD28, CD38 and intracellular CD3?. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidylester and incubated with T. cruzi lysate or phytohemagglutinin for five days. Cells from 3 healthy controls were incubated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes separated with transwells; and the expression of CD3? chain and proliferation index was determined. Heart-infiltrating cells from two chronic chagasic patients were tested for the aforementioned cellular markers. Chagasic patients displayed higher frequencies of CD4+/HLA-DR+/CD38+ (8.1% ± 6.1) and CD8+/HLA-DR+/CD38+ (19.8 ± 8.9) T cells in comparison with healthy (1.6 ± 1.0; 10.6 ± 8.0) and non-chagasic cardiomyopathy donors (2.9 ± 2.9; 5.8 ± 6.8). Furthermore, the percentage of CD4+ activated T cells was higher in chagasic patients with cardiac involvement. CD8+ T cells proliferation index in chagasic donors (1.7 ± 0.3) was lower when compared with healthy (2.3 ± 0.3) and non-chagasic cardiomyopathy individuals (3.1 ± 1.1). The frequencies of CD4+/CD28+ and CD8+/CD28+ T cells, as well as the CD3?(bright)/CD3?(dim)% ratios in CD4+ and CD8+ were lower in chagasic patients when compared with both control groups. The CD3?(bright)/CD3?(dim)% ratio and proliferative indexes for CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes decreased gradually in those cells cultivated with parasites and displayed lower values than those incubated with medium alone. Finally, heart-infiltrating T cells from two T. cruzi infected patients also expressed activation markers and down-regulate CD28 and CD3?. CONCLUSIONS: CD8+ T lymphocytes from chagasic donors displayed reduced proliferative capacity, which might be associated with CD3? down-regulation and diminished CD28 expression on CD4 T cells.
Project description:The herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM; TNFRSF14) activates NF-kappaB through the canonical TNF-related cytokine LIGHT, serving as a costimulatory pathway during activation of T cells. HVEM also functions as a ligand for the Ig superfamily members B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160, both of which limit inflammatory responses initiated by T cells. Emerging evidence indicates BTLA also promotes T cell survival, but its structural differences from LIGHT intimate BTLA is unlikely to function as an activator of HVEM. We demonstrate here that BTLA, CD160, and herpes simplex virus envelope glycoprotein D (gD) function as activating ligands for HVEM, promoting NF-kappaB activation and cell survival. Membrane-expressed BTLA and CD160, as well as soluble dimeric receptor surrogates BTLA-Fc and gD-Fc specifically activated HVEM-dependent NF-kappaB. BTLA and CD160 engagement induced recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), but not TRAF3, to HVEM that specifically activated the RelA but not the RelB form of NF-kappaB in a mucosal epithelial tumor cell line. Moreover, Btla(-/-) T cells survived poorly following activation but were rescued with BTLA-Fc, indicating HVEM-BTLA bidirectional signaling may serve as a critical cell-survival system for lymphoid and epithelial cells.
Project description:The herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), a member of the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily, can act as a molecular switch that modulates T cell activation by propagating positive signals from the TNF-related ligand LIGHT (TNFR superfamily 14), or inhibitory signals through the Ig superfamily member B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). Competitive binding analysis and mutagenesis reveals a unique BTLA binding site centered on a critical lysine residue in cysteine-rich domain 1 of HVEM. The BTLA binding site on HVEM overlaps with the binding site for the herpes simplex virus 1 envelope glycoprotein D, but is distinct from where LIGHT binds, yet glycoprotein D inhibits the binding of both ligands, potentially nullifying the pathway. The binding site on HVEM for BTLA is conserved in the orphan TNFR, UL144, present in human CMV. UL144 binds BTLA, but not LIGHT, and inhibits T cell proliferation, selectively mimicking the inhibitory cosignaling function of HVEM. The demonstration that distinct herpesviruses target the HVEM-BTLA cosignaling pathway suggests the importance of this pathway in regulating T cell activation during host defenses.
Project description:The function of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, which may protect against both infectious and malignant diseases, can be impaired by ligation of their inhibitory receptors, which include CTL-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Recently, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) was identified as a novel inhibitory receptor with structural and functional similarities to CTLA-4 and PD-1. BTLA triggering leads to decreased antimicrobial and autoimmune T cell responses in mice, but its functions in humans are largely unknown. Here we have demonstrated that as human viral antigen-specific CD8+ T cells differentiated from naive to effector cells, their surface expression of BTLA was gradually downregulated. In marked contrast, human melanoma tumor antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells persistently expressed high levels of BTLA in vivo and remained susceptible to functional inhibition by its ligand herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM). Such persistence of BTLA expression was also found in tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells from melanoma patients with spontaneous antitumor immune responses and after conventional peptide vaccination. Remarkably, addition of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides to the vaccine formulation led to progressive downregulation of BTLA in vivo and consequent resistance to BTLA-HVEM-mediated inhibition. Thus, BTLA activation inhibits the function of human CD8+ cancer-specific T cells, and appropriate immunotherapy may partially overcome this inhibition.