A tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 gain-of-function mutation enhances malignancy of breast carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that Src homologous protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2 (SHP2) mutations promote cancer development in several solid tumours. In this study, we focused on the in vivo and in vitro effects of an SHP2 mutation on the breast cancer phenotype to determine whether this mutation is correlated with a malignant phenotype.Mutant PTPN11 cDNA (D61G) was transduced into MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 cells. The effects of the D61G mutation on tumourigenesis and malignant behaviours, such as cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion, were examined. Potential underlying molecular mechanisms, i.e., activation of the Gab1-Ras-Erk axis, were also examined.In vitro experiments revealed that tumour adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion were significantly increased in the SHP2 D61G mutant groups. Consistently, in vivo experiments also showed that the tumour sizes and weights were increased significantly in the SHP2 D61G-MB231 group (p < 0.001) in association with tumour metastasis. Mechanistically, the PTPN11 mutation resulted in activation of the Ras-ErK pathway. The binding between Gab1 and mutant SHP2 was significantly increased.Mutant SHP2 significantly promotes tumour migration and invasion at least partially through activation of the Gab1-Ras-Erk axis. This finding could have direct implications for breast cancer therapy.
Project description:Noonan syndrome (NS), a genetic disease caused in half of cases by activating mutations of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (PTPN11), is characterized by congenital cardiopathies, facial dysmorphic features, and short stature. How mutated SHP2 induces growth retardation remains poorly understood. We report here that early postnatal growth delay is associated with low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in a mouse model of NS expressing the D61G mutant of SHP2. Conversely, inhibition of SHP2 expression in growth hormone (GH)-responsive cell lines results in increased IGF-1 release upon GH stimulation. SHP2-deficient cells display decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and rat sarcoma (RAS) activation in response to GH, whereas expression of NS-associated SHP2 mutants results in ERK1/2 hyperactivation in vitro and in vivo. RAS/ERK1/2 inhibition in SHP2-deficient cells correlates with impaired dephosphorylation of the adaptor Grb2-associated binder-1 (GAB1) on its RAS GTPase-activating protein (RASGAP) binding sites and is rescued by interfering with RASGAP recruitment or function. We demonstrate that inhibition of ERK1/2 activation results in an increase of IGF-1 levels in vitro and in vivo, which is associated with significant growth improvement in NS mice. In conclusion, NS-causing SHP2 mutants inhibit GH-induced IGF-1 release through RAS/ERK1/2 hyperactivation, a mechanism that could contribute to growth retardation. This finding suggests that, in addition to its previously shown beneficial effect on NS-linked cardiac and craniofacial defects, RAS/ERK1/2 modulation could also alleviate the short stature phenotype in NS caused by PTPN11 mutations.
Project description:Mutations in RAS signaling pathway components cause diverse neurodevelopmental disorders, collectively called RASopathies. Previous studies have suggested that dysregulation in RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is restricted to distinct cell types in different RASopathies. Some cases of Noonan syndrome (NS) are associated with gain-of-function mutations in the phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11); however, SHP2 is abundant in multiple cell types, so it is unclear which cell type(s) contribute to NS phenotypes. Here, we found that expressing the NS-associated mutant SHP2D61G in excitatory, but not inhibitory, hippocampal neurons increased ERK signaling and impaired both long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory in mice, although endogenous SHP2 was expressed in both neuronal types. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the genes encoding SHP2-interacting proteins that are critical for ERK activation, such as GAB1 and GRB2, were enriched in excitatory neurons. Accordingly, expressing a dominant-negative mutant of GAB1, which reduced its interaction with SHP2D61G, selectively in excitatory neurons, reversed SHP2D61G-mediated deficits. Moreover, ectopic expression of GAB1 and GRB2 together with SHP2D61G in inhibitory neurons resulted in ERK activation. These results demonstrate that RAS-ERK signaling networks are notably different between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, accounting for the cell type-specific pathophysiology of NS and perhaps other RASopathies.
Project description:In Noonan syndrome (NS) 30-50% of subjects show cognitive deficits of unknown etiology and with no known treatment. Here, we report that knock-in mice expressing either of two NS-associated mutations in Ptpn11, which encodes the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, show hippocampal-dependent impairments in spatial learning and deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In addition, viral overexpression of an NS-associated allele PTPN11(D61G) in adult mouse hippocampus results in increased baseline excitatory synaptic function and deficits in LTP and spatial learning, which can be reversed by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor. Furthermore, brief treatment with lovastatin reduces activation of the GTPase Ras-extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk) pathway in the brain and normalizes deficits in LTP and learning in adult Ptpn11(D61G/+) mice. Our results demonstrate that increased basal Erk activity and corresponding baseline increases in excitatory synaptic function are responsible for the LTP impairments and, consequently, the learning deficits in mouse models of NS. These data also suggest that lovastatin or MEK inhibitors may be useful for treating the cognitive deficits in NS.
Project description:Shp2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) related to adult acute myelogenous leukemia and human solid tumors. In this report, we describe identification of a potent Shp2 inhibitor, Fumosorinone (Fumos) from entomogenous fungi, which shows selective inhibition of Shp2 over other tested PTPs. Using a surface plasmon resonance analysis, we further confirmed the physical interaction between Shp2 and Fumos. Fumos inhibits Shp2-dependent activation of the Ras/ERK signal pathway downstream of EGFR, and interrupts EGF-induced Gab1-Shp2 association. As expected, Fumos shows little effects on the Shp2-independent ERK1/2 activation induced by PMA or oncogenic Ras. Furthermore, Fumos down-regulates Src activation, inhibits phosphorylation of Paxillin and prevents tumor cell invasion. These results suggest that Fumos can inhibit Shp2-dependent cell signaling in human cells and has a potential for treatment of Shp2-associated diseases.
Project description:Shp2, an ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase, is essential for regulation of Ras/ERK signaling pathway and tumorigenesis. Here we report that Shp2 is modified by SUMO1 at lysine residue 590 (K590) in its C-terminus, which is reduced by SUMO1-specific protease SENP1. Analysis of wild-type Shp2 and SUMOylation-defective Shp2(K590R) mutant reveals that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes EGF-stimulated ERK signaling pathway and increases anchorage-independent cell growth and xenografted tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Furthermore, we find that mutant Shp2(K590R) reduces its binding with the scaffolding protein Gab1, and consistent with this, knockdown of SENP1 increased the interaction between Shp2 and Gab1. More surprisingly, we show that human Shp2 (hShp2) and mouse Shp2 (mShp2) have differential effects on ERK activation as a result of different SUMOylation level, which is due to the event of K590 at hShp2 substituted by R594 at mShp2. In summary, our data demonstrate that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes ERK activation via facilitating the formation of Shp2-Gab1 complex and thereby accelerates HCC cell and tumor growth, which presents a novel regulatory mechanism underlying Shp2 in regulation of HCC development.
Project description:Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common single-gene cause of congenital heart disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder that also features proportionate short stature, facial abnormalities, and an increased risk of myeloproliferative disease. Germline-activating mutations in PTPN11, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, cause about half of NS cases; other causative alleles include KRAS, SOS1, and RAF1 mutants. We showed previously that knock-in mice bearing the NS mutant Ptpn11(D61G) on a mixed 129S4/SvJae X C57BL6/J background exhibit all major NS features, including a variety of cardiac defects, with variable penetrance. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying NS cardiac defects and whether genetic background and/or the specific NS mutation contribute to the NS phenotype remained unclear. Here, using an inducible knock-in approach, we show that all cardiac defects in NS result from mutant Shp2 expression in the endocardium, not in the myocardium or neural crest. Furthermore, the penetrance of NS defects is affected by genetic background and the specific Ptpn11 allele. Finally, ex vivo assays and pharmacological approaches show that NS mutants cause cardiac valve defects by increasing Erk MAPK activation, probably downstream of ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases, extending the interval during which cardiac endocardial cells undergo endocardial-mesenchymal transformation. Our data provide a mechanistic underpinning for the cardiac defects in this disorder.
Project description:Growing evidence suggests a major role for Src-homology-2-domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2/PTPN11) in MYCN-driven high-risk neuroblastoma, although biologic confirmation and a plausible mechanism for this contribution are lacking. Using a zebrafish model of MYCN-overexpressing neuroblastoma, we demonstrate that mutant ptpn11 expression in the adrenal gland analog of MYCN transgenic fish promotes the proliferation of hyperplastic neuroblasts, accelerates neuroblastomagenesis, and increases tumor penetrance. We identify a similar mechanism in tumors with wild-type ptpn11 and dysregulated Gab2, which encodes a Shp2 activator that is overexpressed in human neuroblastomas. In MYCN transgenic fish, Gab2 overexpression activated the Shp2-Ras-Erk pathway, enhanced neuroblastoma induction, and increased tumor penetrance. We conclude that MYCN cooperates with either GAB2-activated or mutant SHP2 in human neuroblastomagenesis. Our findings further suggest that combined inhibition of MYCN and the SHP2-RAS-ERK pathway could provide effective targeted therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients with MYCN amplification and aberrant SHP2 activation.
Project description:Germline and somatic gain-of-function mutations in tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11 (SHP-2) are associated with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), a myeloproliferative disease (MPD) of early childhood. The mechanism by which PTPN11 mutations induce this disease is not fully understood. Signaling partners that mediate the pathogenic effects of PTPN11 mutations have not been explored. Here we report that germ line mutation Ptpn11(D61G) in mice aberrantly accelerates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) cycling, increases the stem cell pool, and elevates short-term and long-term repopulating capabilities, leading to the development of MPD. MPD is reproduced in primary and secondary recipient mice transplanted with Ptpn11(D61G/+) whole bone marrow cells or purified Lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) cells, but not lineage committed progenitors. The deleterious effects of Ptpn11(D61G) mutation on HSCs are attributable to enhancing cytokine/growth factor signaling. The aberrant HSC activities caused by Ptpn11(D61G) mutation are largely corrected by deletion of Gab2, a prominent interacting protein and target of Shp-2 in cell signaling. As a result, MPD phenotypes are markedly ameliorated in Ptpn11(D61G/+)/Gab2(-/-) double mutant mice. Collectively, our data suggest that oncogenic Ptpn11 induces MPD by aberrant activation of HSCs. This study also identifies Gab2 as an important mediator for the pathogenic effects of Ptpn11 mutations.
Project description:Crosstalk mechanisms have not been studied as thoroughly as individual signaling pathways. We exploit experimental and computational approaches to reveal how a concordant interplay between the insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling networks can potentiate mitogenic signaling. In HEK293 cells, insulin is a poor activator of the Ras/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) cascade, yet it enhances ERK activation by low EGF doses. We find that major crosstalk mechanisms that amplify ERK signaling are localized upstream of Ras and at the Ras/Raf level. Computational modeling unveils how critical network nodes, the adaptor proteins GAB1 and insulin receptor substrate (IRS), Src kinase, and phosphatase SHP2, convert insulin-induced increase in the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) concentration into enhanced Ras/ERK activity. The model predicts and experiments confirm that insulin-induced amplification of mitogenic signaling is abolished by disrupting PIP(3)-mediated positive feedback via GAB1 and IRS. We demonstrate that GAB1 behaves as a non-linear amplifier of mitogenic responses and insulin endows EGF signaling with robustness to GAB1 suppression. Our results show the feasibility of using computational models to identify key target combinations and predict complex cellular responses to a mixture of external cues.
Project description:Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (Shp2), encoded by Ptpn11, is a member of the nonreceptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase family, and functions in cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation in many tissues. Here we report that loss of Ptpn11 in murine hematopoietic cells leads to bone marrow aplasia and lethality. Mutant mice show rapid loss of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and immature progenitors of all hematopoietic lineages in a gene dosage-dependent and cell-autonomous manner. Ptpn11-deficient HSCs and progenitors undergo apoptosis concomitant with increased Noxa expression. Mutant HSCs/progenitors also show defective Erk and Akt activation in response to stem cell factor and diminished thrombopoietin-evoked Erk activation. Activated Kras alleviates the Ptpn11 requirement for colony formation by progenitors and cytokine/growth factor responsiveness of HSCs, indicating that Ras is functionally downstream of Shp2 in these cells. Thus, Shp2 plays a critical role in controlling the survival and maintenance of HSCs and immature progenitors in vivo.