KIR3DL1 and HLA-B Density and Binding Calibrate NK Education and Response to HIV.
ABSTRACT: NK cells recognize self-HLA via killer Ig-like receptors (KIR). Homeostatic HLA expression signals for inhibition via KIR, and downregulation of HLA, a common consequence of viral infection, allows NK activation. Like HLA, KIR are highly polymorphic, and allele combinations of the most diverse receptor-ligand pair, KIR3DL1 and HLA-B, correspond to hierarchical HIV control. We used primary cells from healthy human donors to demonstrate how subtype combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA-B calibrate NK education and their consequent capacity to eliminate HIV-infected cells. High-density KIR3DL1 and Bw4-80I partnerships endow NK cells with the greatest reactivity against HLA-negative targets; NK cells exhibiting the remaining KIR3DL1/HLA-Bw4 combinations demonstrate intermediate responsiveness; and Bw4-negative KIR3DL1(+) NK cells are poorly responsive. Cytotoxicity against HIV-infected autologous CD4(+) T cells strikingly correlated with reactivity to HLA-negative targets. These findings suggest that the programming of NK effector function results from defined features of receptor and ligand subtypes. KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtypes exhibit an array of binding strengths. Like KIR3DL1, subtypes of HLA-Bw4 are expressed at distinct, predictable membrane densities. Combinatorial permutations of common receptor and ligand subtypes reveal binding strength, receptor density, and ligand density to be functionally important. These findings have immediate implications for prognosis in patients with HIV infection. Furthermore, they demonstrate how features of KIR and HLA modified by allelic variation calibrate NK cell reactive potential.
Project description:Combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4 alleles protect against HIV infection and/or disease progression. These combinations enhance NK cell responsiveness through the ontological process of education. However, educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cells do not have enhanced degranulation upon direct recognition of autologous HIV-infected cells. Since antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is associated with improved HIV infection outcomes and NK cells overcome inhibition through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) to mediate ADCC, we hypothesized that KIR3DL1-educated NK cells mediate anti-HIV ADCC against autologous cells. A whole-blood flow cytometry assay was used to evaluate ADCC-induced activation of NK cells. This assay assessed activation (gamma interferon [IFN-?] production and/or CD107a expression) of KIR3DL1(+) and KIR3DL1(-) NK cells, from HLA-Bw4(+) and HLA-Bw4(-) HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, in response to autologous HIV-specific ADCC targets. KIR3DL1(+) NK cells were more functional than KIR3DL1(-) NK cells from HLA-Bw4(+), but not HLA-Bw4(-), healthy controls. In HIV-infected individuals, no differences in NK cell functionality were observed between KIR3DL1(+) and KIR3DL1(-) NK cells in HLA-Bw4(+) individuals, consistent with dysfunction of NK cells in the setting of HIV infection. Reflecting the partial normalization of NK cell responsiveness following initiation of antiretroviral therapy, a significant correlation was observed between the peripheral CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts in antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects and the functionality of NK cells. However, peripheral CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts were not correlated with an anti-HIV ADCC functional advantage in educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cells. The abrogation of the functional advantage of educated NK cells may enhance HIV disease progression. Strategies to enhance the potency of NK cell-mediated ADCC may improve HIV therapies and vaccines.
Project description:NK cell activity is regulated by the integration of positive and negative signals. One important source of these signals for human NK cells is the killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) family, which includes both members that transduce positive and those that generate negative signals. KIR3DL1 inhibits NK cell activity upon engagement by its ligand HLA-Bw4. The highly homologous KIR3DS1 is an activating receptor, which is implicated in the outcome of a variety of pathological situations. However, unlike KIR3DL1, direct binding of KIR3DS1(+) cells to HLA has not been demonstrated. We analyzed four key amino acid differences between KIR3DL1*01502 and KIR3DS1*013 to determine their role in KIR binding to HLA. Single substitutions of these residues dramatically reduced binding by KIR3DL1. In the reciprocal experiment, we found that the rare KIR3DS1 allotype KIR3DS1*014 binds HLA-Bw4 even though it differs from KIR3DS1*013 at only one of these positions (position 138). This reactivity was unexpectedly dependent on residues at other variable positions, as HLA-Bw4 binding was lost in receptors with KIR3DL1-like residues at both positions 199 and 138. These data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the direct binding of KIR3DS1(+) cells to HLA-Bw4 and highlight the key role for position 138 in determining ligand specificity of KIR3DS1. They also reveal that KIR3DS1 reactivity and specificity is dictated by complex interactions between the residues in this region, suggesting a unique functional evolution of KIR3DS1 within the activating KIR family.
Project description:Carriage of the natural killer (NK) receptor genotype KIR3DL1*h/*y with its HLA-B*57 ligand (*h/*y+B*57) is associated with slow time to AIDS and low viral load (VL). To provide a functional basis for these epidemiological observations, we assessed whether HIV-1-infected slow progressors (SP) carrying the *h/*y+B*57 compound genotype would have increased NK cell polyfunctional potential in comparison to SP with other killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)/HLA compound genotypes and whether this enhanced polyfunctionality was dependent upon the coexpression of both KIR3DL1*h/*y and HLA-B*57. The functional potential of NK cells was investigated by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with HLA-devoid targets or single HLA transfectants. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to detect NK cells with seven functional profiles representing all permutations of CD107a expression and gamma interferon (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) secretion. NK cells from individuals carrying KIR3DL1 receptor-HLA-Bw4 ligand pairs had greater trifunctional responses than those from KIR3DL1 homozygotes (hmz), who were Bw6 homozygotes. NK cells from subjects carrying the *h/*y+B*57 genotypes exhibited the highest trifunctional potential, and this was dependent on cocarriage of the NK receptor and its ligand. Trifunctional cells secreted more of each function tested on a per-cell basis than each corresponding monofunctional NK subset. Although VL influenced NK functionality, individuals with defined KIR/HLA genotypes exhibited differences in NK cell polyfunctionality that could not be accounted for by VL alone. The protective effect of HLA-B*57 on slow progression to AIDS and low VL may be mediated through its interaction with KIR3DL1 alleles to educate NK cells for potent activity upon stimulation.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>In patients with neuroblastoma (NB), treatment with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) directs natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells. However, tumor cytotoxicity is attenuated by ligation of inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) by HLA class I molecules. KIR3DL1 polymorphism influences its ability to engage HLA-Bw4 ligands. We tested the hypothesis that poorly interacting combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA ligands are more permissive of mAb-mediated antitumor effect.<h4>Methods</h4>KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtyping were performed with a multiplex intermediate-resolution polymerase chain reaction assay for a cohort of 245 patients who were treated with antibody 3F8 for high-risk NB. Patient outcomes were analyzed according to expected degree of interaction between KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtypes and grouped as strong, weak, or noninteractors. A comparison of NK response to 3F8 mAb opsonized NB cells between strong- and noninteracting donors was performed by flow cytometry.<h4>Results</h4>KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations associated with noninteraction as a result of lack of receptor expression [KIR3DL1(-)], failure of interaction with inhibitory ligands [KIR3DS1(+)], or absence of KIR ligands resulted in significantly improved overall and progression-free survival. Patients with KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations that were predictive of weak interaction had superior outcomes compared with those that were predictive of strong interaction; however, both groups were inferior to those with noninteracting subtype combinations. In vitro analysis of 3F8-mediated ADCC showed that KIR3DL1(-) and 3DS1(+) NK cells were insensitive to inhibition by HLA-Bw4-expressing NB targets.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We conclude that KIR3LD1 and HLA-B allele combinations can have a prognostic impact on patient survival after treatment with anti-GD2 mAb that relies on NK-ADCC. The survival advantage seen in noninteracting combinations supports the therapeutic disinhibition of individuals with strongly interacting KIR and ligand pairs.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have associated certain human disease outcomes with particular killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) and HLA genotypes. However, the functional explanation for these associations is poorly understood, because the KIRs were initially described as natural killer (NK) cell inhibitory receptors with specificity for HLA molecules on their cellular targets. Yet resolution of infections is often associated with genotypic pairing of inhibitory KIRs with their cognate HLA ligands. Recent studies in mice indicate a second role for MHC-specific inhibitory receptors, i.e., self-MHC recognition confers functional competence on the NK cell to be triggered through their activation receptors, a process termed licensing. As a result, licensed NK cells with self-MHC-specific receptors are more readily activated as compared with unlicensed NK cells without self-MHC-specific receptors. Such results predict that human NK cells may undergo a similar process. Here, we examined the human NK cell subset expressing KIR3DL1, the only known KIR specific for HLA-Bw4 alleles. The KIR3DL1(+) subset in normal donors with two HLA-B-Bw4 genes displayed increased responsiveness to tumor stimulation compared with the KIR3DL1(+) subset from individuals with only one or no Bw4 genes. By contrast, NK cells lacking KIR3DL1 showed no differences. Therefore, these data indicate that particular KIR and HLA alleles are associated with more responsive NK cells, strongly suggesting that human NK cells are also subjected to NK cell licensing, and providing a potential functional explanation for the influence of KIR and HLA genes in disease as well as interindividual differences in NK cell potency.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells have emerged as pivotal players in innate immunity, especially in the defense against viral infections and tumors. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs)--an important recognition receptor expressed on the surface of NK cells--regulate the inhibition and/or activation of NK cells after interacting with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands. Various KIR genes might impact the prognosis of many different diseases. The implications of KIR-HLA interaction in HIV disease progression remains poorly understood. METHODS: Here, we studied KIR genotypes, mRNA levels, HLA genotypes, CD4+ T cell counts and viral loads in our cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals, a group that includes HIV long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and typical progressors (TPs). RESULTS: We found that the frequency of KIR3DS1/L1 heterozygotes with HLA-Bw4-80I gene was much higher in LTNPs than in TPs (P?=?0.001) and that the KIR3DL1 homozygotes without HLA-Bw4-80I gene had higher viral loads and lower CD4+ T cell counts (P?=?0.014 and P?=?0.021, respectively). Our study also confirmed that homozygosity for the HLA-Bw6 allele was associated with rapid disease progression. In addition to the aforementioned results on the DNA level, we observed that higher level expression of KIR3DS1 mRNA was in LTNP group, and that higher level expression of KIR3DL1 mRNA was in TP group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that different KIR-HLA genotypes and different levels of transcripts associate with HIV disease progression.
Project description:Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells are killer lymphocytes that provide defense against viral infections and tumor transformation. Analogous to that of CTL, interactions of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands calibrate NK cell education and response. Gene families encoding KIRs and HLA ligands are located on different chromosomes, and feature variation in the number and type of genes. The independent segregation of KIR and HLA genes results in variable KIR-HLA interactions in individuals, which may impact disease susceptibility. We tested whether KIR-HLA combinations are associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease, a bilateral granulomatous panuveitis that has strong association with HLA-DR4. We present a case control study of 196 VKH patients and 209 controls from a highly homogeneous native population of Japan. KIR and HLA class I genes were typed using oligonucleotide hybridization method and analyzed using two-tailed Fisher's exact probabilities. The incidence of Bx-KIR genotypes was decreased in VKH patients (odds ratio [OR] 0.58, P = 0.007), due primarily to a decrease in centromeric B-KIR motif and its associated KIRs 2DS2, 2DL2, 2DS3, and 2DL5B. HLA-B22, implicated in poor immune response, was increased in VKH (OR = 4.25, P = 0.0001). HLA-Bw4, the ligand for KIR3DL1, was decreased in VKH (OR = 0.59, P = 0.01). The KIR-HLA combinations 2DL2+C1/C2 and 3DL1+Bw4, which function in NK education, were also decreased in VKH (OR = 0.49, P = 0.012; OR = 0.59, P = 0.013). Genotypes missing these two inhibitory KIR-HLA combinations in addition to missing activating KIRs 2DS2 and 2DS3 were more common in VKH (OR = 1.90, P = 0.002). These results suggest that synergistic hyporesponsiveness of NK cells (due to poor NK education along with missing of activating KIRs) and CTL (due to HLA-B22 restriction) fail to mount an effective immune response against viral-infection that may trigger VKH pathogenesis in genetically susceptible individuals, such as HLA-DR4 carriers.
Project description:A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant (CNV) in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) associates with HIV-1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry. This CNV encompasses the KIR3DL1-KIR3DS1 locus, encoding receptors that interact with specific HLA-Bw4 molecules to regulate the activation of lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells. We quantified the number of copies of KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 in a large HIV-1 positive cohort, and showed that an increase in KIR3DS1 count associates with a lower viral set point if its putative ligand is present (p = 0.00028), as does an increase in KIR3DL1 count in the presence of KIR3DS1 and appropriate ligands for both receptors (p = 0.0015). We further provide functional data that demonstrate that NK cells from individuals with multiple copies of KIR3DL1, in the presence of KIR3DS1 and the appropriate ligands, inhibit HIV-1 replication more robustly, and associated with a significant expansion in the frequency of KIR3DS1+, but not KIR3DL1+, NK cells in their peripheral blood. Our results suggest that the relative amounts of these activating and inhibitory KIR play a role in regulating the peripheral expansion of highly antiviral KIR3DS1+ NK cells, which may determine differences in HIV-1 control following infection.
Project description:KIR3DL1 is among the most interesting receptors studied, within the killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) family. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I Bw4 epitope inhibits strongly Natural Killer (NK) cell's activity through interaction with KIR3DL1 receptor, while Bw6 generally does not. This interaction has been indicated to play an important role in the immune control of different viral infectious diseases. However, the structural interaction between the KIR3DL1 receptor and different HLA-B alleles has been scarcely studied. To understand the complexity of KIR3DL1-HLA-B interaction, HLA-B alleles carrying Bw4/Bw6 epitope and KIR3DL1?001 allele in presence of different peptides has been evaluated by using a structural immunoinformatic approach. Different energy minimization force fields (ff) have been tested and NOVA ff enables the successful prediction of ligand-receptor interaction. HLA-B alleles carrying Bw4 epitope present the highest capability of interaction with KIR3DL1?001 compared to the HLA-B alleles presenting Bw6. The presence of the epitope Bw4 determines a conformational change which leads to a stronger interaction between nonpolymorphic arginine at position 79 of HLA-B and KIR3DL1?001 136-142 loop. The data shed new light on the modalities of KIR3DL1 interaction with HLA-B alleles essential for the modulation of NK immune-mediated response.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells are key participants in the innate immune response. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are involved in the activation and inhibition of NK cells through the recognition of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. We investigated the impact of KIR/HLA combinations on susceptibility and long-term clinical outcome in Japanese patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Methods:A total of 154 cases of AIH were recruited at Shinshu University Hospital between 1974 and 2018. KIR genes and HLA class I and II alleles were genotyped in all patients along with 201 healthy individuals. Associations between KIR/HLA pairs and clinical outcomes (liver decompensation and liver-related death) were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model with stepwise method. Results:After a median follow-up period of 11.1 years, 12% of patients experienced liver decompensation and 8% died from liver disease. KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-80Ile (p = 0.0062) and the HLA-DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01 haplotype (p ?0.001) were significantly associated with AIH. Conversely, significant protective associations were found for KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-80Thr (p = 0.0092) and KIR2DL1/HLA-C2 (p = 0.0025). The KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-positive phenotype was strongly associated with a favorable clinical outcome (liver decompensation: hazard ratio [HR] 0.37, p = 0.037; liver-related death: HR 0.26, p = 0.038). Cirrhosis was detected in 16 (10%) patients at diagnosis and was significantly related to poor survival (HR 17.87, p ?0.001) and progression to liver decompensation (HR 9.00, p ?0.001). Conclusions:This study revealed the impact of specific KIR/HLA pairs in AIH susceptibility and progression in Japanese patients. KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-negative patients with AIH and cirrhosis at diagnosis are at high risk of adverse outcomes and require careful surveillance. Lay summary:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a disease of the liver that can present in acute or chronic hepatitis. We examined whether KIR/HLA pairs were associated with AIH susceptibility or disease progression. KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4 was a novel KIR/HLA pair related to a favorable clinical outcome, while cirrhosis at the initial diagnosis was a risk factor for poor prognosis. Thus, frequent and careful surveillance is advised for KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-negative patients with AIH and cirrhosis.