Increasing the immune activity of exosomes: the effect of miRNA-depleted exosome proteins on activating dendritic cell/cytokine-induced killer cells against pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT: Tumor-derived exosomes were considered to be potential candidates for tumor vaccines because they are abundant in immune-regulating proteins, whereas tumor exosomal miRNAs may induce immune tolerance, thereby having an opposite immune function.This study was designed to separate exosomal protein and depleted exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs), increasing the immune activity of exosomes for activating dendritic cell/cytokine-induced killer cells (DC/CIKs) against pancreatic cancer (PC).PC-derived exosomes (PEs) were extracted from cultured PANC-1 cell supernatants and then ruptured; this was followed by ultrafiltered exosome lysates (UELs). DCs were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), PE, and UEL, followed by co-culture with CIKs. The anti-tumor effects of DC/CIKs against PC were evaluated by proliferation and killing rates, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and perforin secretion. Exosomal miRNAs were depleted after lysis and ultrafiltration, while 128 proteins were retained, including several immune-activating proteins.UEL-stimulated DC/CIKs showed a higher killing rate than LPS- and PE-stimulated DC/CIKs.miRNA-depleted exosome proteins may be promising agonists for specifically activating DC/CIKs against PC.
Project description:It has been reported tumor-derived exosomes can transfer miRNAs to recipient cells in the tumor microenvironment, promoting tumor invasion and metastasis. The present research aimed to explore how pancreatic cancer (PC) derived exosomal miRNAs inhibited mRNA expression of dendritic cells and induced immune tolerance. Our study revealed that 9 PC-related miRNAs were increased and 208 mRNAs were inhibited in exosome-stimulated dendritic cells (exo-iDCs) compared to immature dendritic cells (iDCs). A target prediction between the 9 miRNAs and 208 mRNAs was performed by bioinformatics database analysis. From the target prediction, it was predicted and validated that regulatory factor X-associated protein (RFXAP), an important transcription factor for MHC II, was inhibited by miR-212-3p transferred from PC-secreted exosomes, resulting in decreased MHC II expression. Moreover, a clinical study showed a negative correlation between miR-212-3p and RFXAP in PC tissue. From these data, we concluded that PC-related miRNAs can be transferred to dendritic cells via exosome and inhibit target mRNA expression. More importantly, PC-derived exosomes inhibit RFXAP expression via miR-212-3p, which decrease MHC II expression and induce immune tolerance of dendritic cells. RFXAP deficiency has never been reported in solid tumors. The functions and mechanisms of RFXAP in tumors deserve future explorations.
Project description:Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are important components of the tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer (PC) and contribute to its development and metastasis through mechanisms that remain incompletely characterized. Tumor hypoxia affects the function and behavior of PC and stromal cells, and can alter exosomal content to modify cell-cell communication. The present study explored the effects of exosomal miRNAs produced by hypoxia-preconditioned PSCs on the growth and metastatic potential of PC cells. Subcutaneous xenografts and liver metastasis mouse models revealed increased tumorigenic potential upon co-implantation of PC cells and PSCs as compared to PC cells alone. Screening miRNA profiles of mouse plasma exosomes and cultured PSCs, followed by miRNA overexpression and inhibition assays, enabled us to identify miR-4465 and miR-616-3p as prominent hypoxia-induced, PSC-derived, exosomal miRNAs promoting PC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Proteomics analysis of PC cells incubated with exosomes derived from hypoxic PSCs showed significant downregulation of PTEN. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and western blotting showed that both miR-4465 and miR-616-3p target PTEN and activate AKT signaling in PC cells. We conclude that hypoxia upregulates miR-4465 and miR-616-3p expression in PSC-derived exosomes. Following exosome uptake, these miRNAs promote PC progression and metastasis by suppressing the PTEN/AKT pathway.
Project description:Tumor microenvironment (TME) is the internal environment in which tumor cells survive, consisting of tumor cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells, as well as non-cellular components, such as exosomes and cytokines. Exosomes are tiny extracellular vesicles (40-160nm) containing active substances, such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Exosomes carry biologically active miRNAs to shuttle between tumor cells and TME, thereby affecting tumor development. Tumor-derived exosomal miRNAs induce matrix reprogramming in TME, creating a microenvironment that is conducive to tumor growth, metastasis, immune escape and chemotherapy resistance. In this review, we updated the role of exosomal miRNAs in the process of TME reshaping.
Project description:Human breast milk (HBM) provides essential nutrients for newborn growth and development, and contains a variety of biologically active ingredients that can affect gastrointestinal tract and immune system development in breastfed infants. HBM also contains mRNAs, microRNAs and lncRNAs, most of which are encapsulated in milk-derived exosomes and exhibit various important infant development related biological functions. While previous studies have shown that exosomal circRNAs are involved in the intestinal epithelial cells' proliferation and repair. However, the effect of HBM exosomal circRNAs on intestinal development is not clear. In this study, we identified 6756 circRNAs both in preterm colostrum (PC) and term colostrum (TC), of which 66 were upregulated, and 42 were downregulated <i>(|fold change>2|, p < 0.05)</i> in PC. Pathway analysis showed that the VEGF signalling pathway was involved, and network analysis revealed that the differentially expressed circRNAs bound various miRNAs. Further analyses showed that has_circRNA_405708 and has_circRNA_104707 were involved in the VEGF signalling pathway, and that they all bound various mirRNAs. Exosomes found in preterm colostrum (PC) and term colostrum (TC) promoted VEGF protein expression and induced the proliferation and migration of small intestinal epithelial cells (FHCs). Exosomal circRNAs found in human colostrum (HC) binding to related miRNAs may regulate VEGF signalling, and intestinal development.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains a major health concern, with conventional cancer treatments exerting little influence on the disease course. MicroRNA-520b (miR-520b) functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of human cancers, whereas its anti-tumor property in the context of PC is still fundamental. The aim of this study is to identify the potential therapeutic role of miR-520b, transferred by exosomes, derived from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in PC progression. A gain-of-function study was performed to examine the roles of miR-520b in PC cell line SW1990, which suggested that miR-520b served as a tumor suppressor in PC. In order to confirm the role of exosomal miR-520b, exosomes were isolated from NF culture medium and cocultured with SW1990 cells. During the coculture experiments, we disrupted exosome secretion and upregulated exosomal miR-520b. The in vitro coculture studies revealed that miR-520b was transferred from NF-derived exosomes to PC cells and thereby suppressed PC cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and stimulated apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibited tumor growth and live metastasis upon elevated miR-520b in exosomes were observed in vivo. Conjointly, our study demonstrates that NF-derived exosomal miR-520b impedes the progression of PC, which contributes to a novel, therapeutic role of exosomal miR-520b for treating PC.
Project description:Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently suggested that pancreatic cancer-associated new-onset diabetes mellitus (PC-DM) represents a potential platform for early diagnose of pancreatic cancer (PC). Despite the studies performed, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains ambiguous. In this study, we explored the effects of two types of exosomes released by murine pancreatic cancer and ductal epithelial cells on murine skeletal muscle cells. The results show that PC-derived exosomes can readily enter C2C12 myotubes, triggering lipidosis and glucose intake inhibition. We also demonstrate that PC-derived exosomes can inhibit insulin and PI3K/Akt signalling, in which insulin-induced FoxO1 nuclear exclusion is preserved and Glut4 trafficking is impaired. Microarray and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses show that exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) probably play key roles in this process, an assumption that is corroborated by in vitro studies. These results confirm that the insulin resistance (IR) of skeletal muscle cells is governed by PC-derived exosomes through the insulin and PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signalling pathways, where exosomal miRNAs potentially contribute to this phenomenon. These novel findings pave the way towards a comprehensive understanding of the cancer theories: "metabolic reprogramming" and "metabolic crosstalk".
Project description:MicroRNAs are regulatory molecules that can be packaged into exosomes to modulate cellular response of recipients. While the role of exosomes during viral infection is beginning to be appreciated, the involvement of exosomal miRNAs in immunoregulation in invertebrates has not been addressed. Here, we observed that exosomes released from WSSV-injected mud crabs could suppress viral replication by inducing apoptosis of hemocytes. Besides, miR-137 and miR-7847 were found to be less packaged in mud crab exosomes during viral infection, with both miR-137 and miR-7847 shown to negatively regulate apoptosis by targeting the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Our data also revealed that AIF translocated to the nucleus to induce DNA fragmentation, and could competitively bind to HSP70 to disintegrate the HSP70-Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein) complex, thereby activating the mitochondria apoptosis pathway by freeing Bax. The present finding therefore provides a novel mechanism that underlies the crosstalk between exosomal miRNAs and apoptosis pathway in innate immune response in invertebrates.
Project description:The hypoxic microenvironment, an important feature of solid tumors, promotes tumor cells to release exosomes and enhances tumor angiogenesis. However, the detailed functions of hypoxic exosomes and the mechanisms underlying their effects in pancreatic cancer (PC) remain mysterious. Here, we observed that hypoxic exosomes derived from PC cells promoted cell migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) UCA1, a key factor, was highly expressed in exosomes derived from hypoxic PC cells and could be transferred to HUVECs through the exosomes. In addition, the expression levels of UCA1 in exosomes derived from PC patients' serum were higher than in healthy controls and were associated with poor survival of PC patients. Moreover, hypoxic exosomal UCA1 could promote angiogenesis and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. With respect to the functional mechanism, UCA1 acted as a sponge of microRNA (miR)-96-5p, relieving the repressive effects of miR-96-5p on the expression of its target gene AMOTL2. Collectively, these results indicate that hypoxic exosomal UCA1 could promote angiogenesis and tumor growth through the miR-96-5p/AMOTL2/ERK1/2 axis and therefore, serve as a novel target for PC treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exosomes from cancer cells or immune cells, carrying bio-macromolecules or microRNAs (miRNAs), participate in tumor pathogenesis and progression by modulating microenvironment. Our study aims to investigate the role of these microRNA-501-3p (miR-501-3p) containing exosomes derived from tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) in the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS:Firstly, the function of TAM recruitment in PDAC tissues was assessed, followed by identification of the effects of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes on PDAC cell activities and tumor formation and metastasis in mice. In silico analysis was conducted to predict differentially expressed genes and regulatory miRNAs related to PDAC treated with macrophages, which determined miR-501-3p and TGFBR3 for subsequent experiments. Next, gain- and loss-of-function experiments were performed to examine their role in PDAC progression with the involvement of the TGF-? signaling pathway. RESULTS:TAM recruitment in PDAC tissues was associated with metastasis. Highly expressed miR-501-3p was observed in PDAC tissues and TAM-derived exosomes. Both M2 macrophage-derived exosomes and miR-501-3p promoted PDAC cell migration and invasion, as well as tumor formation and metastasis in nude mice. MiR-501-3p was verified to target TGFBR3. PDAC cells presented with down-regulated TGFBR3, which was further decreased in response to M2 macrophage treatment. TGF-? signaling pathway activation was implicated in the promotion of miR-501-3p in PDAC development. The suppression of macrophage-derived exosomal miR-501-3p resulted in the inhibition of tumor formation and metastasis in vivo. CONCLUSION:M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-501-3p inhibits tumor suppressor TGFBR3 gene and facilitates the development of PDAC by activating the TGF-? signaling pathway, which provides novel targets for the molecular treatment of PDAC.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, are critical mediators of intercellular communication between tumor cells and other cells located in the microenvironment but also in more distant sites. Exosomes are small EVs that can carry a variety of molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and non-coding RNA, especially microRNAs (miRNAs). In thoracic cancers, including lung cancers and malignant pleural mesothelioma, EVs contribute to the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment and to tumor growth and metastasis. In this review, we discuss the recent understanding of how exosomes behave in thoracic cancers and how and why they are promising liquid biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy, with a special focus on exosomal miRNAs.