Combinatorial metabolic engineering of industrial Gluconobacter oxydans DSM2343 for boosting 5-keto-D-gluconic acid accumulation.
ABSTRACT: L-(+)-tartaric acid (L-TA) is an important organic acid, which is produced from the cream of tartar or stereospecific hydrolysis of the cis-epoxysuccinate. The former method is limited by the availability of raw material and the latter is dependent on the petrochemical material. Thus, new processes for the economical preparation of L-TA from carbohydrate or renewable resource would be much more attractive. Production of 5-keto-D-gluconate (5-KGA) from glucose by Gluconobacter oxydans is the first step to produce L-TA. The aim of this work is to enhance 5-KGA accumulation using combinatorial metabolic engineering strategies in G. oxydans. The sldAB gene, encoding sorbitol dehydrogenase, was overexpressed in an industrial strain G. oxydans ZJU2 under a carefully selected promoter, P0169. To enhance the efficiency of the oxidation by sldAB, the coenzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and respiratory chain were engineered. Besides, the role in sldAB overexpression, coenzyme and respiratory chain engineering and their subsequent effects on 5-KGA production were investigated.An efficient, stable recombinant strain was constructed, whereas the 5-KGA production could be enhanced. By self-overexpressing the sldAB gene in G. oxydans ZJU2 under the constitutive promoter P0169, the resulting strain, G. oxydans ZJU3, produced 122.48 ± 0.41 g/L of 5-KGA. Furthermore, through the coenzyme and respiratory chain engineering, the titer and productivity of 5-KGA reached 144.52 ± 2.94 g/L and 2.26 g/(L · h), respectively, in a 15 L fermenter. It could be further improved the 5-KGA titer by 12.10 % through the fed-batch fermentation under the pH shift and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) control condition, obtained 162 ± 2.12 g/L with the productivity of 2.53 g/(L · h) within 64 h.The 5-KGA production could be significantly enhanced with the combinatorial metabolic engineering strategy in Gluconobacter strain, including sldAB overexpression, coenzyme and respiratory chain engineering. Fed-batch fermentation could further enlarge the positive effect and increase the 5-KGA production. All of these demonstrated that the robust recombinant strain can efficiently produce 5-KGA in larger scale to fulfill the industrial production of L-TA from 5-KGA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:5-Ketofructose (5-KF) has recently been identified as a promising non-nutritive natural sweetener. Gluconobacter oxydans strains have been developed that allow efficient production of 5-KF from fructose by plasmid-based expression of the fructose dehydrogenase genes fdhSCL of Gluconobacter japonicus. As plasmid-free strains are preferred for industrial production of food additives, we aimed at the construction of efficient 5-KF production strains with the fdhSCL genes chromosomally integrated. RESULTS:For plasmid-free 5-KF production, we selected four sites in the genome of G. oxydans IK003.1 and inserted the fdhSCL genes under control of the strong P264 promoter into each of these sites. All four recombinant strains expressed fdhSCL and oxidized fructose to 5-KF, but site-specific differences were observed suggesting that the genomic vicinity influenced gene expression. For further improvement, a second copy of the fdhSCL genes under control of P264 was inserted into the second-best insertion site to obtain strain IK003.1::fdhSCL2. The 5-KF production rate and the 5-KF yield obtained with this double-integration strain were considerably higher than for the single integration strains and approached the values of IK003.1 with plasmid-based fdhSCL expression. CONCLUSION:We identified four sites in the genome of G. oxydans suitable for expression of heterologous genes and constructed a strain with two genomic copies of the fdhSCL genes enabling efficient plasmid-free 5-KF production. This strain will serve as basis for further metabolic engineering strategies aiming at the use of alternative carbon sources for 5-KF production and for bioprocess optimization.
Project description:2,5-Diketo-d-gluconate (2,5DKG) is a compound that can be the intermediate for d-tartrate and also vitamin C production. Although Gluconobacter oxydans NBRC3293 produces 2,5DKG from d-glucose via d-gluconate and 2-keto-d-gluconate (2KG), with accumulation of the product in the culture medium, the efficiency of 2,5DKG production is unsatisfactory because there is a large amount of residual d-gluconate at the end of the biotransformation process. Oxidation of 2KG to 2,5DKG is catalyzed by a membrane-bound flavoprotein-cytochrome c complex: 2-keto-gluconate dehydrogenase (2KGDH). Here, we studied the kgdSLC genes encoding 2KGDH in G. oxydans NBRC3293 to improve 2,5DKG production by Gluconobacter spp. The kgdS, kgdL, and kgdC genes correspond to the small, large, and cytochrome subunits of 2KGDH, respectively. The kgdSLC genes were cloned into a broad-host-range vector carrying a DNA fragment of the putative promoter region of the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase gene of G. oxydans for expression in Gluconobacter spp. According to our results, 2KGDH that was purified from the recombinant Gluconobacter cells showed characteristics nearly the same as those reported previously. We also expressed the kgdSLC genes in a mutant strain of Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3271 (formerly Gluconobacter dioxyacetonicus IFO3271) engineered to produce 2KG efficiently from a mixture of d-glucose and d-gluconate. This mutant strain consumed almost all of the starting materials (d-glucose and d-gluconate) to produce 2,5DKG quantitatively as a seemingly unique metabolite. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Gluconobacter strain that produces 2,5DKG efficiently and homogeneously.
Project description:We have purified L-sorbose dehydrogenase (SDH) and L-sorbosone dehydrogenase (SNDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans T-100 that showed an ability to convert D-sorbitol to 2-keto-L-gulonate (2-KLGA). A genomic library of Gluconobacter oxydans T-100 was screened with a probe, a 180-bp PCR product which was obtained from degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotides based on the elucidated sequence of the purified SDH (used as primers) and the genomic DNA of G. oxydans T-100 (used as a template). From sequencing of the DNA from a clone positive to the probe, the SNDH and the SDH were estimated to be coded in sequential open reading frames with 1,497 and 1,599 nucleotides, respectively, which was confirmed by expression of the DNA in Escherichia coli that showed both enzymatic activities. The DNA was introduced to a shuttle vector which was prepared from a plasmid of G. oxydans T-100 and pHSG298 to obtain an expression vector designated pSDH155. The production of 2-KLGA by pSDH155 in G. oxydans G624, an L-sorbose-accumulating strain, was improved to 230% compared to that of G. oxydans T-100. Chemical mutation of the host strain to suppress the L-idonate pathway and replacement of the original promoter with that of E. coli tufB resulted in improving the production of 2-KLGA. Consequently, high-level production from D-sorbitol to 2-KLGA (130 mg/ml) was achieved by simple fermentation of the recombinant Gluconobacter.
Project description:A novel bacterial strain of acetic acid bacteria capable of producing riboflavin was isolated from the soil sample collected in Wuhan, China. The isolated strain was identified as Gluconobacter oxydans FBFS97 based on several phenotype characteristics, biochemicals tests, and 16S rRNA gene sequence conducted. Furthermore, the complete genome sequencing of the isolated strain has showed that it contains a complete operon for the biosynthesis of riboflavin. In order to obtain the maximum concentration of riboflavin production, Gluconobacter oxydans FBFS97 was optimized in shake flask cultures through response surface methodology employing Plackett-Burman design (PBD), and Central composite design (CCD). The results of the pre-experiments displayed that fructose and tryptone were found to be the most suitable sources of carbon and nitrogen for riboflavin production. Then, PBD was conducted for initial screening of eleven minerals (FeSO4, FeCl3, KH2PO4, K2HPO4, MgSO4, ZnSO4, NaCl, CaCl2, KCl, ZnCl2, and AlCl3.6H2O) for their significances on riboflavin production by Gluconobacter oxydans strain FBFS97. The most significant variables affecting on riboflavin production are K2HPO4 and CaCl2, the interaction affects and levels of these variables were optimized by CCD. After optimization of the medium compositions for riboflavin production were determined as follows: fructose 25 g/L, tryptone 12.5 g/L, K2HPO4 9 g/L, and CaCl2 0.06 g/L with maximum riboflavin production 23.24 mg/L.
Project description:Gluconobacter oxydans is characterized by its ability to incompletely oxidize carbohydrates and alcohols. The high yields of its oxidation products and complete secretion into the medium make it important for industrial use. We report the finished genome sequence of Gluconobacter oxydans H24, an industrial strain with high l-sorbose productivity.
Project description:Toxic inhibitory compounds from lignocellulose pretreatment are the major obstacle to achieve high bioconversion efficiency in biorefinery fermentations. This study shows a unique glucose oxidation catalysis of Gluconobacter oxydans with its gluconic acid productivity free of inhibitor disturbance. The microbial experimentations and the transcriptome analysis revealed that both the activity of the membrane-bound glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH) and the transcription level of the genes in periplasmic glucose oxidation respiratory chain of G. oxydans were essentially not affected under the existence of inhibitory compounds. G. oxydans also rapidly converted furan and phenolic aldehyde inhibitors into the less toxic alcohols or acids. The synergy of the robust periplasmic glucose oxidation and the rapid inhibitor conversion of G. oxydans significantly elevated the efficiency of the oxidative fermentation in lignocellulose hydrolysate. The corresponding genes responsible for the conversion of furan and phenolic aldehyde inhibitors were also mined by DNA microarrays. The synergistic mechanism of G. oxydans provided an important option of metabolic modification for enhancing inhibitor tolerance of general fermentation strains. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, aldehyde treated vs. untreated Gluconobacter oxydans cells. Biological replicates: 3 control replicates, 3 furfural treated replicates, 3 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) treated replicates, 3 4-hydroxybenaldehyde treated replicates, 3 syringaldehyde treated replicates, 3 vanillin treated replicates.
Project description:2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) is widely used as a chemical intermediate in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and environmental industries. Several microbial fermentation processes have been developed for production of 2KGA but these suffer from substrate/product inhibition, byproduct formation and low productivity. In previous work, we showed that 2KGA can be specifically produced from glucose (Glu) or gluconic acid (GA) by resting wild-type Gluconobacter oxydans DSM2003 cells, although substrate concentration was relatively low. In this study, we attempted to improve 2KGA productivity by G. oxydans DSM2003 by overexpressing the ga2dh gene, which encodes the membrane-bound gluconate-2-dehydrogenase enzyme (GA2DH).The ga2dh gene was overexpressed in G. oxydans DSM2003 under the control of three promoters, P tufB , P ga2dh or P ghp0169 , respectively. Among the recombinant strains obtained, G. oxydans_tufB_ga2dh showed a similar growth rate to that of the control strain and displayed the highest specific productivity of 2KGA from GA, which was increased nearly twofold compared with that of the control strain during batch biotransformation. When biocatalysis conditions were optimized, with provision of sufficient oxygen during biotransformation, up to 480 g/L GA was completely utilized over 45 h by resting cells of G. oxydans_tufB_ga2dh and 453.3 g/L 2KGA was produced. A productivity of 10.07 g/L/h and a yield of 95.3 % were obtained. Overexpression of the ga2dh gene also significantly improved the conversion of Glu to 2KGA. Under optimized conditions, 270 g/L Glu was converted to 321 g/L 2KGA over 18 h, with a yield of 99.1 % and a productivity of 17.83 g/L/h. The glucose concentrations during the batch biotransformation and the 2KGA productivities achieved in this study were relatively high compared with the results of previous studies.This study developed an efficient bacterial strain (G. oxydans_tufB_ga2dh) for the production of 2KGA by overexpressing the ga2dh gene in G. oxydans. Supply of sufficient oxygen enhanced the positive effect of gene overexpression on 2KGA production. Gluconobacter oxydans_tufB_ga2dh is thus a competitive species for use in 2KGA production.
Project description:Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process.
Project description:Gluconobacter oxydans NL71, a selected strain in the crude lignocellulosic hydrolysate, catalyzed 600 g/liter xylose to 586.3 g/liter xylonic acid at 95.1% yield. The biocatalysis of xylose yielded three times higher than the best previous output, providing a possibility of the industrial scale utilization of lignocellulosic xylose. Due to its promising industrial applications, we sequenced the complete genome of strain G. oxydans NL71 to further our understanding of its overall metabolism.
Project description:Gluconobacter oxydans is known for its incomplete oxidation of a wide range of alcohols, sugars, and acids in a bioprocess. The corresponding oxidation products are secreted almost completely into the medium. Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of G. oxydans WSH-003, an industrial strain with both high l-sorbose productivity and extreme tolerance to saccharides and alditols.