Association of glutathione S-transferase T1, M1, and P1 polymorphisms in the breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Several case-control studies investigating the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 (rs1695) and the risk of breast cancer have reported contradictory results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to clarify this issue.An updated meta-analysis using PubMed and Web of Knowledge databases for the eligible case-control studies was performed. Random- or fixed-effects model was used.A total of 10,067 cancer cases and 12,276 controls in 41 independent case-control studies from 19 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Significant increase in risk of breast cancer for Asians was found in GSTM1-null genotype (P=0.012, odds ratio [OR] =1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.04-1.32) and GSTT1-null genotype (P=0.039, OR =1.19, 95% CI =1.01-1.41). In addition, our results showed that the GSTP1 (rs1695) polymorphisms can significantly increase the risk among Caucasians (P=0.042, OR =1.16, 95% CI =1.01-1.34). Sensitivity analysis and publication bias further confirmed the dependability of the results in this meta-analysis.Our results demonstrate that both GSTM1- and GSTT1-null polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Asians and that GSTP1 Val105Ile (rs1695) polymorphism is associated with an increased breast cancer risk in Caucasians.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fourteen previous meta-analyses have been published to analyze the polymorphisms of individual GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null, and GSTP1 IIe105Val on breast cancer (BC) risk. However, their meta-analyses did not explore the combined effects of the three genetic polymorphisms on BC risk. In addition, they did not evaluate the credibility of statistically significant associations. Furthermore, a multitude of new articles have been published on these themes, and therefore a meta-analysis and re-analysis of systematic previous meta-analyses were performed to further explore these issues. OBJECTIVES:To determine the association between the individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms on breast cancer risk. METHODS:Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to estimate the association between individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms on BC risk. To evaluate the credibility of statistically significant associations in the current and previous meta-analyses, we applied the the false-positive report probabilities (FPRP) test and the Venice criteria. RESULTS:101 publications were selected to evaluate the individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms on BC risk. Overall, statistically significant elevated BC risk was found in any individual and combined effects of GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms. However, when we restricted studies only involving with high-quality, matching, HWE, and genotyping examination performed blindly or with quality control, significantly increased BC risk was only found in overall population for GSTM1 null genotype, among all populations, Caucasians, and postmenopausal women for the combined effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, and in overall analysis for the combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms. Further, less-credible positive results were identified when we evaluated the credibility of positive results of the current and previous meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS:This meta-analysis indicates that the individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms may be not associated with increased BC risk.
Project description:Here we assessed associations between null mutations in glutathione-S-transferase (GST)T1 and GSTM1 genes, and the rs1695 polymorphism in GSTP1 (Ile(105)Val), and risk of breast cancer-specific (n=45) and all-cause (n=99) mortality in a multiethnic, prospective cohort of 533 women diagnosed with stage I-IIIA breast cancer in 1995-1999, enrolled in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study.We measured the presence of the null mutation in GSTT1 and GSTM1, and the rs1695 polymorphism in GSTP1 by polymerase chain reaction. We assessed associations between breast-cancer specific and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards models.Participants with ER-negative tumors were more likely to be GSTT1 null (χ(2)=4.52; P=0.03), and African American women were more likely to be GSTM1 null (χ(2)=34.36; P<0.0001). Neither GSTM1 nor GSTT1 null mutations were associated with breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality. In a model adjusted for body mass index, race/ethnicity, tumor stage and treatment received at diagnosis, the variant Val allele of rs1695 was associated with increased risk of all-cause (HR=1.81, 95% CI 1.16-2.82, P=0.008), but not breast cancer-specific mortality. The GSTT1 null mutation was associated with significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein.GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes had no effect on outcome; however the variant allele of rs1695 appears to confer increased risk for all-cause mortality in breast-cancer survivors. Given the limited sample size of most studies examining associations between GST polymorphisms with breast cancer survival, and the lack of women undergoing more contemporary treatment protocols (treated prior to 1999), it may be helpful to re-examine this issue among larger samples of women diagnosed after the late 1990s, who all received some form of chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical response to chemotherapy and treatment outcome of breast cancers patients in the presence of the GSTM1 null/present, GSTT1 null/present, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms. Genotyping of GSTP1 rs1695, GSTT1 deletion and GSTM1 deletion was carried out on a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Of 382 patients, 202 patients showed good response to chemotherapy, 51 died, and 155 showed progression at the end of the study. Patients carrying GG genotype and G allele of GSTP1 rs1695 were associated with poor response to chemotherapy. In the Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, patients carrying GG genotype and G allele of GSTP1 rs1695 were correlated with a shorter overall survival (OS). Variants of GSTP1 rs1695 are associated with response to chemotherapy and PFS and OS of breast cancer patients, and this gene polymorphism could help in the design of individualized therapy.
Project description:Association of GSTM1- and GSTT1-null genotypes, GSTP1 A/G gene polymorphism with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) susceptibility was detected, and the relationship between the GSTM1/GSTT1-null genotype and clinical TNM stages of RCC was assessed, using meta-analysis method.Association investigations according to eligibility criteria were searched and identified from the databases of Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase from establishment time of databases to July 1, 2017, and eligible reports were analyzed by meta-analysis. 95% confidence intervals (CI) were also detected, and odds ratios (OR) was used to express the results for dichotomous data.This meta-analysis indicated that there was no an association between GSTM1-null genotype, GSTT1-null genotype, GSTP1 A/G gene polymorphism and RCC risk in the overall population of Caucasians or Asians. The dual GSTM1-GSTT1-null genotype was also not associated with RCC in the overall population of Caucasians. Interestingly, there was an association between the dual GSTM1-GSTT1-null genotype and the susceptibility of RCC in Asians. Relationship of the GSTM1-null genotype with clinical TNM stage of RCC was not observed in the overall population of Asians or Caucasians. In this meta-analysis, no association between the GSTT1-null genotype and clinical TNM stage of RCC was observed in Caucasians or Asians. Interestingly, GSTT1-null genotype was detected to be associated with the clinical TNM stages in patients with RCC in the overall population.The dual GSTM1-GSTT1-null genotype is detected to be associated with the onset of RCC in Asians, and there is an association between the GSTT1-null genotype and the clinical TNM stages in patients with RCC in the overall population.
Project description:Age-related cataract (ARC) is one of the most common eye diseases in the elderly worldwide, especially in China. The genetic polymorphisms of many glutathione S-transferases coding genes are likely to be closely related to the development of ARC, especially the GSTT1, the GSTM1 and the GSTP1. This investigation is aimed to determine the possible associations of GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms with the susceptibility of ARC in Chinese Han Population.A case-control study including ARC cases (n = 312) and controls (n = 256) in Chinese Han Population was performed. GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms were detected by duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and two SNPs (rs1695, A/G and rs1138272, C/T) in GSTP1 gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, all the results were verified by sequencing method.The GSTT1 null genotype carriers had a much higher risk of ARC compared with non-null genotype (χ(2) = 14.091, P<0.001), and the allele G carriers also had a increased risk over the allele A carriers in the SNP (rs1695, A/G) in GSTP1 gene (χ(2) = 7.696, P = 0.006), while the GSTM1 polymorphism and the SNP (rs1138272, C/T) in GSTP1 gene seem had no association with the susceptibility of ARC in Chinese Han Population.These preliminary results indicated carriage of null GSTT1 and GSTP1 Val/Val genotypes may contribute to genetic susceptibility to ARC in Chinese Han Population, and these genetic polymorphisms might be used as molecular markers for detecting ARC susceptibility.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms might be involved in inactivation of procarcinogens that contribute to the genesis and progression of cancers. However, studies investigating the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms and prostate cancer (PCa) risk report conflicting results, therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to re-examine the controversy. METHODS: Published literature from PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched (updated to June 2, 2012). According to our inclusion criteria, studies that observed the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms and PCa risk were included. The principal outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of PCa associated with GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms. RESULTS: Fifty-seven studies involving 11313 cases and 12934 controls were recruited. The overall OR, which was 1.2854 (95% CI?=?1.1405-1.4487), revealed a significant risk of PCa and GSTM1 null genotype, and the similar results were observed when stratified by ethnicity and control source. Further, the more important is that the present study first reported the high risks of PCa for people who with dual null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 (OR?=?1.4353, 95% CI?=?1.0345-1.9913), or who with GSTT1 null genotype and GSTP1 A131G polymorphism (OR?=?1.7335, 95% CI?=?1.1067-2.7152). But no association was determined between GSTT1 null genotype (OR?=?1.102, 95% CI?=?0.9596-1.2655) or GSTP1 A131G polymorphism (OR?=?1.0845, 95% CI?=?0.96-1.2251) and the PCa risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggested that the people with GSTM1 null genotype, with dual null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1, or with GSTT1 null genotype and GSTP1 A131G polymorphism are associated with high risks of PCa, but no association was found between GSTT1 null genotype or GSTP1 A131G polymorphism and the risk of PCa. Further rigorous analytical studies are highly expected to confirm our conclusions and assess gene-environment interactions with PCa risk.
Project description:Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences.The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis.Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=-0.08, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=-0.75, 95% CI -1.16 to -0.33, p=4×10(-4)), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed.Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide.
Project description:PURPOSE: NRF2 transcription factor is involved in modulation of various antioxidant and metabolic genes and, therefore, may modulate anti-carcinogenic potential. Association between polymorphisms of NRF2 and five NRF2-regulated genes and urinary bladder cancer (BC) risk was analyzed. METHODS: The study group included 244 BC patients, while the control group comprised 365 individuals with no evidence of malignancy. Genotyping of GSTM1 (deletion), GSTT1 (deletion), GSTA1 -69C/T (rs3957357), GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695), SOD2 Ala16Val (rs4880) and NRF2 -617C/A (rs6721961) in blood genomic DNA was performed by means of real-time PCR assays. The associations between gene polymorphism and BC risk were computed by logistic regression. RESULTS: The frequency of GSTA1, GSTP1, SOD2 and NRF2 genotypes did not differ in both groups. A significantly higher BC risk was associated with GSTM1 null genotype after adjusting to age, sex and smoking habit (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.30-2.62; P = 0.001). GSTT1 null (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.31-0.81; P = 0.005) and GSTP1 Val105Val (OR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.27-0.98; P = 0.04) genotypes were associated with reduced BC risk separately or in combination (OR 0.24, 95 % CI 0.11-0.51; P < 0.0001) (P heterogeneity = 0.01). Combined GSTT1 null and SOD2 with at least one 16Val allele among never smokers encompass reduced BC risk (OR 0.14, 95 % CI 0.03-0.63; P = 0.01) (P heterogeneity = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports hypothesis that GSTM1 null genotype may be a moderate BC risk factor. The gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with combined GSTP1/GSTT1 and combined GSTT1/SOD2 genetic polymorphisms along with cigarette smoking habit may play a significant role in BC risk modulation.
Project description:Background and Objectives: One of the most frequent genetic alterations reported to date in prostate cancer (PC) is aberrant methylation of glutathione transferase P1 (GSTP1). Taking into consideration the involvement of oxidative stress in PC pathogenesis and recent advances in scientific understanding of the role of GSTP1*Ala114Val rs1138272 polymorphism in carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) influences the risk of PC independently of, or in combination with, other GST polymorphisms, including GSTP1*IIe105Val rs1695 or GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: Genotyping was performed in 237 PC cases and in 236 age-matched controls by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for deletion of GST polymorphisms and by quantitative PCR for SNPs. Results: We found that carriers of either GSTP1*Val (rs1138272) or GSTP1*Val (rs1695) variant alleles had a PC risk compared to individuals with both referent alleles (OR = 4.93, 95%CI: 2.89-8.40, p < 0.001 and OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.19-2.73, p = 0.006, respectively). Additionally, in a haplotype analysis we found that individuals with GSTP1*C haplotype, represented by both variant alleles (GSTP1*Val rs1695 + GSTP1*Val rs1138272), had a 5.46 times higher risk of PC development compared to individuals with the most frequent haplotype (95%CI = 2.56-11.65, p < 0.001), suggesting a potential role of those variants in PC susceptibility. A regression analysis on the number of risk-associated alleles per individual (GSTM1*active, GSTT1*null, GSTP1*Val rs1695 and GSTP1*Val rs1138272) showed a significant increase in the risk of developing PC, from 3.65-fold in carriers of two risk alleles (95%CI = 1.55-8.61, p = 0.003) to an approximately 12-fold increase in carriers of all four risk alleles (95%CI = 3.05-44.93, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prostate cancer may be influenced by multiple glutathione transferase (GST) polymorphic genes, especially GSTP1, highlighting the role of gene-gene interactions in human susceptibility to this cancer.
Project description:The GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 detoxification genes all have functional polymorphisms that are common in the general population. A single study of 320 BRCA1/2 carriers previously assessed their effect in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. This study showed no evidence for altered risk of breast cancer for individuals with the GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion variants, but did report that the GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695) variant was associated with increased breast cancer risk in carriers. We investigated the association between these three GST polymorphisms and breast cancer risk using existing data from 718 women BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from Australia, the UK, Canada, and the USA. Data were analyzed within a proportional hazards framework using Cox regression. There was no evidence to show that any of the polymorphisms modified disease risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers, and there was no evidence for heterogeneity between sites. These results support the need for replication studies to confirm or refute hypothesis-generating studies.