Cortical Amyloid ? Deposition and Current Depressive Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.
ABSTRACT: Depressive symptoms are frequently seen in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Evidence suggests that there may be a link between current depressive symptoms and Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated pathological changes, such as an increase in cortical amyloid-? (A?). However, limited in vivo studies have explored the relationship between current depressive symptoms and cortical A? in patients with MCI and AD. Our study, using a large sample of 455 patients with MCI and 153 patients with AD from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiatives, investigated whether current depressive symptoms are related to cortical A? deposition. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-depression/dysphoria. Cortical A? was quantified using positron emission tomography with the A? probe(18)F-florbetapir (AV-45).(18)F-florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio (AV-45 SUVR) from the frontal, cingulate, parietal, and temporal regions was estimated. A global AV-45 SUVR, defined as the average of frontal, cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex, was also used. We observed that current depressive symptoms were not related to cortical A?, after controlling for potential confounds, including history of major depression. We also observed that there was no difference in cortical A? between matched participants with high and low depressive symptoms, as well as no difference between matched participants with the presence and absence of depressive symptoms. The association between depression and cortical A? deposition does not exist, but the relationship is highly influenced by stressful events in the past, such as previous depressive episodes, and complex interactions of different pathways underlying both depression and dementia.
Project description:An (18)F-labeled PET amyloid-beta (Abeta) imaging agent could facilitate the clinical evaluation of late-life cognitive impairment by providing an objective measure for Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Here we present the results of a clinical trial with (E)-4-(2-(6-(2-(2-(2-(18)F-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-N-methyl benzenamine ((18)F-AV-45 or florbetapir [corrected] F 18).An open-label, multicenter brain imaging, metabolism, and safety study of (18)F-AV-45 was performed on 16 patients with AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 19.3 +/- 3.1; mean age +/- SD, 75.8 +/- 9.2 y) and 16 cognitively healthy controls (HCs) (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 29.8 +/- 0.45; mean age +/- SD, 72.5 +/- 11.6 y). Dynamic PET was performed over a period of approximately 90 min after injection of the tracer (370 MBq [10 mCi]). Standardized uptake values and cortical-to-cerebellum standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated. A simplified reference tissue method was used to generate distribution volume ratio (DVR) parametric maps for a subset of subjects.Valid PET data were available for 11 AD patients and 15 HCs. (18)F-AV-45 accumulated in cortical regions expected to be high in Abeta deposition (e.g., precuneus and frontal and temporal cortices) in AD patients; minimal accumulation of the tracer was seen in cortical regions of HCs. The cortical-to-cerebellar SUVRs in AD patients showed continual substantial increases through 30 min after administration, reaching a plateau within 50 min. The 10-min period from 50 to 60 min after administration was taken as a representative sample for further analysis. The cortical average SUVR for this period was 1.67 +/- 0.175 for patients with AD versus 1.25 +/- 0.177 for HCs. Spatially normalized DVRs generated from PET dynamic scans were highly correlated with SUVR (r = 0.58-0.88, P < 0.005) and were significantly greater for AD patients than for HCs in cortical regions but not in subcortical white matter or cerebellar regions. No clinically significant changes in vital signs, electrocardiogram, or laboratory values were observed.(18)F-AV-45 was well tolerated, and PET showed significant discrimination between AD patients and HCs, using either a parametric reference region method (DVR) or a simplified SUVR calculated from 10 min of scanning 50-60 min after (18)F-AV-45 administration.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain amyloid load has been suggested as a core biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of using PET imaging with (18)F-AV-45 (florbetapir) in a routine clinical environment to differentiate between patients with mild to moderate AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal healthy controls (HC).<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, 46 subjects (20 men and 26 women, mean age of 69.0 ± 7.6 years), including 13 with AD, 12 with MCI and 21 HC subjects, were enrolled from three academic memory clinics. PET images were acquired over a 10-min period 50 min after injection of florbetapir (mean ± SD of radioactivity injected, 259 ± 57 MBq). PET images were assessed visually by two individuals blinded to any clinical information and quantitatively via the standard uptake value ratio (SUVr) in the specific regions of interest, which were defined in relation to the cerebellum as the reference region.<h4>Results</h4>The mean values of SUVr were higher in AD patients (median 1.20, Q1-Q3 1.16-1.30) than in HC subjects (median 1.05, Q1-Q3 1.04-1.08; p = 0.0001) in the overall cortex and all cortical regions (precuneus, anterior and posterior cingulate, and frontal median, temporal, parietal and occipital cortex). The MCI subjects also showed a higher uptake of florbetapir in the posterior cingulate cortex (median 1.06, Q1-Q3 0.97-1.28) compared with HC subjects (median 0.95, Q1-Q3 0.82-1.02; p = 0.03). Qualitative visual assessment of the PET scans showed a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% CI 0.55-0.98) and a specificity of 38.1% (95% CI 0.18-0.62) for discriminating AD patients from HC subjects; however, the quantitative assessment of the global cortex SUVr showed a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 90.5% with a cut-off value of 1.122 (area under the curve 0.894).<h4>Conclusion</h4>These preliminary results suggest that PET with florbetapir is a safe and suitable biomarker for AD that can be used routinely in a clinical environment. However, the low specificity of the visual PET scan assessment could be improved by the use of specific training and automatic or semiautomatic quantification tools.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate differences in the structural connectome among patients with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) and to determine associations between the structural connectome and cortical amyloid deposition.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Patients enrolled in a multicenter biomarker study (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [ADNI] 2) who had both baseline diffusion-tensor (DT) and florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) data at the time of data analyses in November 2012 were studied. All institutions received institutional review board approval. There were 102 patients in ADNI 2 who met criteria for analysis. Patients' T1-weighted images were automatically parcellated into cortical regions of interest. Standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) was calculated from florbetapir PET images for composite cortical regions (frontal, cingulate, parietal, and temporal). Structural connectome graphs were created from DT images, and connectome topology was analyzed in each region by using graph theoretical metrics. Analysis of variance of structural connectome metrics and florbetapir SUVr across diagnostic group was performed. Linear mixed-effects models were fit to analyze the effect of florbetapir SUVr on structural connectome metrics.<h4>Results</h4>Diagnostic group (NC, MCI, or AD) was associated with changes in weighted structural connectome metrics, with decreases from the NC group to the MCI group to the AD group shown for (a) strength in the bilateral frontal, right parietal, and bilateral temporal regions (P < .05); (b) weighted local efficiency in the left temporal region (P < .05); and (c) weighted clustering coefficient in the bilateral frontal and left temporal regions (P < .05). Increased cortical florbetapir SUVr was associated with decreases in weighted structural connectome metrics; namely, strength (P = .00001), weighted local efficiency (P = .00001), and weighted clustering coefficient (P = .0006), independent of brain region. For every 0.1-unit increase in florbetapir SUVr, there was a 14% decrease in strength, an 11% decrease in weighted local efficiency, and a 9% decrease in weighted clustering coefficient, regardless of the analyzed cortical region or, in the case of weighted local efficiency and clustering coefficient, diagnostic group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Increased amyloid burden, as measured with florbetapir PET imaging, is related to changes in the topology of the large-scale cortical network architecture of the brain, as measured with graph theoretical metrics of DTI tractography, even in the preclinical stages of AD. Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Project description:The strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the Apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (ApoE ε4). The interaction between sex and ApoE ε4 carrier status on AD risk remains an area of intense investigation. We hypothesized that sex modulates the relationship between ApoE ε4 carrier status and brain tau deposition (a quantitative endophenotype in AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Preprocessed 18F-AV-1451 tau and 18F-AV-45 amyloid PET images, T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, demographic information, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) measurements from 108 MCI subjects in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were included. After downloading pre-processed images from ADNI, an iterative reblurred Van Cittertiteration partial volume correction (PVC) method was applied to all PET images. MRIs were used for PET spatial normalization. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in standard space, and standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) images relative to cerebellum were computed. ApoE ε4 by sex interaction analyses on 18F-AV-1451 and CSF tau (t-tau, p-tau) were assessed using generalized linear models. The association between 18F-AV-1451 SUVR and CSF tau (t-tau, p-tau) was assessed. Results: After applying PVC and controlling for age, education level and global cortical 18F-AV-45 SUVR, we found that the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate, and occipital ROIs exhibited a significant ApoE ε4 by sex interaction effect (false discovery rate P < 0.1) among MCI individuals. We also found a significant ApoE ε4 by sex interaction effect on CSF t-tau and p-tau. 18F-AV-1451 SUVR in the 5 ROIs with ApoE ε4 by sex interaction was significantly correlated with CSF p-tau and t-tau. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that women are more susceptible to ApoE ε4-associated accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles in MCI compared to males. Both CSF tau (p-tau, t-tau) and brain tau PET are robust quantitative biomarkers for studying ApoE ε4 by sex effects on brain tau deposition in MCI participants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy shows progressive amyloid-? deposition in the wall of small arterioles and capillaries of the leptomeninges and cerebral cortex. OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether amyloid load and distribution, assessed by florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET), differs between patients with probable CAA-related intracerebral hemorrhage (CAA-ICH) and mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD). METHODS:We assessed [18F]florbetapir uptake in 15 patients with probable CAA-ICH and 20 patients with MCI-AD patients. Global and regional florbetapir retention were assessed using standard uptake values ratio (SUVr) in region-based and voxel-wise approaches. Visual reading of florbetapir scans was performed for all participants. Group comparisons were performed using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Global florbetapir retention was lower in patients with CAA-ICH than MCI-AD (median SUVr, 1.33 [1.21-1.41] versus 1.44 [1.35-1.66]; p?=?0.032). In the region-based analysis, regional florbetapir distribution was similar between the two groups. There was a trend for an increased occipital/global ratio in CAA-ICH patients compared to MCI-AD (p?=?0.060). In the voxel-wise approach, two clusters, one in parietal regions and the other in temporal regions, had higher uptake in MCI-AD relative to CAA patients. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with CAA-ICH had a lower global florbetapir PET burden than patients with MCI-AD. Relative florbetapir retention in the posterior regions tended to be higher in CAA patients in region-based analysis but was not statistically different between groups. Investigation on differences in amyloid deposits distribution between groups required a fine-grained voxel-wise analysis. In future studies, selective amyloid tracers are needed to differentiate vascular from parenchymal amyloid.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Florbetapir (AV-45) has been shown to be a reliable tool for assessing in vivo amyloid load in patients with Alzheimer's disease from the early stages. However, nonspecific white matter binding has been reported in healthy subjects as well as in patients with Alzheimer's disease. To avoid this issue, cortical quantification might increase the reliability of AV-45 PET analyses. In this study, we compared two quantification methods for AV-45 binding, a classical method relying on PET template registration (route 1), and a MRI-based method (route 2) for cortical quantification.<h4>Methods</h4>We recruited 22 patients at the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease and 17 matched controls. AV-45 binding was assessed using both methods, and target-to-cerebellum mean global standard uptake values (SUVr) were obtained for each of them, together with SUVr in specific regions of interest. Quantification using the two routes was compared between the clinical groups (intragroup comparison), and between groups for each route (intergroup comparison). Discriminant analysis was performed.<h4>Results</h4>In the intragroup comparison, differences in uptake values were observed between route 1 and route 2 in both groups. In the intergroup comparison, AV-45 uptake was higher in patients than controls in all regions of interest using both methods, but the effect size of this difference was larger using route 2. In the discriminant analysis, route 2 showed a higher specificity (94.1 % versus 70.6 %), despite a lower sensitivity (77.3 % versus 86.4 %), and D-prime values were higher for route 2.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings suggest that, although both quantification methods enabled patients at early stages of Alzheimer's disease to be well discriminated from controls, PET template-based quantification seems adequate for clinical use, while the MRI-based cortical quantification method led to greater intergroup differences and may be more suitable for use in current clinical research.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Florbetapir (AV-45) has been shown to be a reliable tool to assess amyloid load in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at demential stages. Longitudinal studies also suggest that AV-45 has the ability to bind amyloid in the early stages of AD. In this study, we investigated AV-45 binding and its relation with cognitive performance in a group of patients at the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease, recruited according to strict inclusion criteria.<h4>Methods</h4>We recruited patients at the prodromal stage of AD and matched control subjects. AV-45 binding was assessed using an innovative extraction method allowing quantifying uptake in the cortex only. AV-45 uptake was compared between groups in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, and orbito-frontal regions. Correlations between AV-45 uptake and cognitive performance were assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-two patients and 17 matched control subjects were included in the study. We report a significant increase of cortical AV-45 uptake in the patients compared to the control subjects in all regions of interest. Specific correlations were found within the patient group between mean global amyloid cortical load and cognitive performance in three different memory tests.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings suggest that at the prodromal stage of AD, memory decline is linked to an increase of cortical β-amyloid load.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the clinical and biomarker characteristics of patients with amyloid-negative Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), a prospective cohort study.<h4>Methods</h4>We first investigated the reliability of florbetapir- PET in patients with AD and patients with MCI using CSF-A?1-42 as a comparison amyloid measurement. We then compared florbetapir- vs florbetapir+ patients with respect to several AD-specific biomarkers, baseline and longitudinal cognitive measurements, and demographic and clinician report data.<h4>Results</h4>Florbetapir and CSF-A?1-42 +/- status agreed for 98% of ADs (89% of MCIs), indicating that most florbetapir- scans were a reliable representation of amyloid status. Florbetapir- AD (n = 27/177; 15%) and MCI (n = 74/217, 34%) were more likely to be APOE4-negative (MCI 83%, AD 96%) than their florbetapir+ counterparts (MCI 30%, AD 24%). Florbetapir- patients also had less AD-specific hypometabolism, lower CSF p-tau and t-tau, and better longitudinal cognitive performance, and were more likely to be taking medication for depression. In MCI only, florbetapir- participants had less hippocampal atrophy and hypometabolism and lower functional activity questionnaire scores compared to florbetapir+ participants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, image analysis problems do not appear to be a primary explanation of amyloid negativity. Florbetapir- ADNI patients have a variety of clinical and biomarker features that differ from their florbetapir+ counterparts, suggesting that one or more non-AD etiologies (which may include vascular disease and depression) account for their AD-like phenotype.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Amyloid deposition and white matter lesions (WMLs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both considered clinically significant while a larger brain volume is thought to provide greater brain reserve (BR) against these pathological effects. This study identified the topography showing BR in patients with mild AD and explored the clinical balances among BR, amyloid, and WMLs burden.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty patients with AD were enrolled, and AV-45 positron emission tomography was conducted to measure the regional standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) in 8 cortical volumes-of- interests (VOIs). The quantitative WMLs burden was measured from magnetic resonance imaging while the normalized VOIs volumes represented BR in this study. The cognitive test represented major clinical correlates.<h4>Results</h4>Significant correlations between the prefrontal volume and global (r = 0.470, p = 0.024), but not regional (r = 0.264, p = 0.223) AV-45 SUVr were found. AD patients having larger regional volume in the superior- (r = 0.572, p = 0.004), superior medial- (r = 0.443, p = 0.034), and middle-prefrontal (r = 0.448, p = 0.032) regions had higher global AV-45 SUVr. For global WML loads, the prefrontal (r = -0.458, p = 0.019) and hippocampal volume (r = -0.469, p = 0.016) showed significant correlations while the prefrontal (r = -0.417, p = 0.043) or hippocampal volume (r = -0.422, p = 0.04) also predicted better composite memory scores. There were no interactions between amyloid SUVr and WML loads on the prefrontal volume.<h4>Conclusions</h4>BR of the prefrontal region might modulate the adverse global pathological burden caused by amyloid deposition. While prefrontal volume positively associated with hippocampal volume, WMLs had an adverse impact on the hippocampal volume that predicts memory performance in mild stage AD.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the in vivo whole-brain relationship between uptake of [18F]THK-5351 on PET and cortical atrophy on structural MRI according to the presence and severity of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sixty-five participants (21 normal controls, 32 mild cognitive impairment [MCI] subjects, and 12 AD patients) were enrolled from a prospective multicenter clinical trial (NCT02656498). Structural MRI and [18F]THK-5351 PET were performed within a 2-month interval. Cortical volume and standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) were calculated from MRI and PET images, respectively, for 35 FreeSurfer-derived cortical regions. Pearson's correlation coefficients between SUVR and cortical volume were calculated for the same regions, and correlated regions were compared according to disease severity and ?-amyloid PET positivity. RESULTS:No significantly correlated regions were found in the normal controls. Negative correlations between SUVR and cortical volume were found in the MCI and AD groups, mainly in limbic locations in MCI and isocortical locations in AD. The AD group exhibited stronger correlations (r = -0.576-0.781) than the MCI group (r = 0.368-0.571). Hippocampal atrophy did not show any correlation with SUVR in the ?-amyloid PET-negative group, but negatively correlated with SUVR (r = -0.494, P = .012) in the ?-amyloid PET-positive group. CONCLUSIONS:Regional THK-5351 uptake correlated more strongly with cortical atrophy in AD compared with MCI, thereby demonstrating a close relationship between the neuro-pathologic process and cortical atrophy. Hippocampal atrophy was associated with both ?-amyloid and THK-5351 uptake, possibly reflecting an interaction between ?-amyloid and tau deposition in the neurodegeneration process.