Abnormal Changes of Brain Cortical Anatomy and the Association with Plasma MicroRNA107 Level in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.
ABSTRACT: UNLABELLED:MicroRNA107 (Mir107) has been thought to relate to the brain structure phenotype of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we evaluated the cortical anatomy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and the relation between cortical anatomy and plasma levels of Mir107 and beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Twenty aMCI (20 aMCI) and 24 cognitively normal control (NC) subjects were recruited, and T1-weighted MR images were acquired. Cortical anatomical measurements, including cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), and local gyrification index (LGI), were assessed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine plasma expression of Mir107, BACE1 mRNA. Thinner cortex was found in aMCI in areas associated with episodic memory and language, but with thicker cortex in other areas. SA decreased in aMCI in the areas associated with working memory and emotion. LGI showed a significant reduction in aMCI in the areas involved in language function. Changes in Mir107 and BACE1 messenger RNA plasma expression were correlated with changes in CT and SA. We found alterations in key left brain regions associated with memory, language, and emotion in aMCI that were significantly correlated with plasma expression of Mir107 and BACE1 mRNA. This combination study of brain anatomical alterations and gene information may shed lights on our understanding of the pathology of AD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01819545.
Project description:Among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, those with memory impairment (amnestic MCI, aMCI) are at a high risk of dementia. However, the precise cognitive domain, beside memory, that predicts dementia conversion is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the cognitive domain that predicts dementia conversion in a longitudinal aMCI cohort. We collected data of 482 aMCI patients who underwent neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and were followed for at least 1 year. The patients were categorized according to number (1-4) and type of impaired cognitive domains (memory, language, visuospatial, and frontal-executive function). We evaluated dementia conversion risk in each group when compared to single-domain aMCI after controlling for age, education, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Baseline cortical thickness of each group was compared to that of 410 cognitively normal controls (NCs) after controlling for age, intracranial volume, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Compared to single-domain aMCI, aMCI patients with frontal-executive dysfunction at baseline had a higher risk of dementia conversion than aMCI patients with visuospatial or language dysfunction. Compared to NCs, aMCI patients with frontal-executive dysfunction had overall cortical thinning including frontal areas. Our findings suggest that aMCI patients with frontal-executive dysfunction have poor prognosis and,thus, should be considered for intervention therapy with a higher priority among aMCI patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is generally considered to be a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease, patients with aMCI show heterogeneous patterns of progression. Moreover, there are few studies investigating data-driven cognitive trajectory in aMCI. We therefore classified patients with aMCI based on their cognitive trajectory, measured by clinical dementia rating sum of boxes (CDR-SOB). Then, we compared the clinical and neuroimaging features among groups classified by cognitive trajectory. METHODS:We retrospectively recruited 278 patients with aMCI who underwent three or more timepoints of neuropsychological testing. They also had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including structured three-dimensional volume images. Cortical thickness was measured using surface-based methods. We performed trajectory analyses to classify our aMCI patients according to their progression and investigate their cognitive trajectory using CDR-SOB. RESULTS:Trajectory analyses showed that patients with aMCI were divided into three groups: stable (61.8%), slow decliner (31.7%), and fast decliner (6.5%). Changes throughout a mean follow-up duration of 3.7?years in the CDR-SOB for the subgroups of stable/slow/fast decliners were 1.3-, 6.4-, and 12-point increases, respectively. Decliners were older and carried apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotypes more frequently than stable patients. Compared with the stable group, decliners showed a higher frequency of aMCI patients with both visual and verbal memory dysfunction, late stage aMCI, and multiple domain dysfunction. In addition, compared with the stable group, the slow decliners showed cortical thinning predominantly in bilateral parietotemporal areas, while the fast decliners showed cortical thinning predominantly in bilateral frontotemporal areas. Both decliner groups showed worse cognitive function in attention, language, visuospatial, memory, and frontal/executive domains than the stable group. CONCLUSIONS:Our data-driven trajectory analysis provides new insights into heterogeneous cognitive trajectories of aMCI and further suggests that baseline clinical and neuroimaging profiles might predict aMCI patients with poor prognosis.
Project description:Adolescence is a period of significant brain changes; however, the effects of age and sex on cortical development are yet to be fully characterized. Here, we utilized innovative intrinsic curvature (IC) analysis, along with the traditional cortical measures [cortical thickness (CT), local gyrification index (LGI), and surface area (SA)], to investigate how these indices (1) relate to each other and (2) depend on age and sex in adolescent cortical development. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from 218 healthy volunteers (age range 8.3-29.2 years, M[SD] = 16.5[3.4]) were collected at two sites and processed with FreeSurfer and Caret software packages. Surface indices were extracted per cortex area (frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula, and cingulate). Correlation analyses between the surface indices were conducted and age curves were modelled using generalized additive mixed-effect models. IC showed region-specific associations with LGI, SA, and CT, as did CT with LGI. SA was positively associated with LGI in all regions and CT in none. CT and LGI, but not SA, were inversely associated with age in all regions. IC was inversely associated with age in all but the occipital region. For all regions, males had larger cortical SA than females. Males also had larger LGI in all regions and larger IC of the frontal area; however, these effects were accounted for by sex differences in SA. There were no age-by-sex interactions. The study of IC adds a semi-independent, sensitive measure of cortical morphology that relates to the underlying cytoarchitecture and may aid understanding of normal brain development and deviations from it.
Project description:Extensive MRI evidence indicates early brain overgrowth in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Local gyrification may reflect the distribution and timing of aberrant cortical expansion in ASDs. We examined MRI data from (Study 1) 64 individuals with ASD and 64 typically developing (TD) controls (7-19 years), and from (Study 2) an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (n = 31/group). Local Gyrification Index (lGI), cortical thickness (CT), and surface area (SA) were measured. In Study 1, differences in lGI (ASD > TD) were found in left parietal and temporal and right frontal and temporal regions. lGI decreased bilaterally with age, but more steeply in ASD in left precentral, right lateral occipital, and middle frontal clusters. CT differed between groups in right perisylvian cortex (TD > ASD), but no differences were found for SA. Partial correlations between lGI and CT were generally negative, but associations were weaker in ASD in several clusters. Study 2 results were consistent, though less extensive. Altered gyrification may reflect unique information about the trajectory of cortical development in ASDs. While early overgrowth tends to be undetectable in later childhood in ASDs, findings may indicate that a trace of this developmental abnormality could remain in a disorder-specific pattern of gyrification.
Project description:Degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) is evident in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the correlation of microstructural damage in the CC on the cognitive performance of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD dementia is undetermined. We enrolled 26 normal controls, 24 patients with AD dementia, and 40 single-domain aMCI patients with at least grade 1 hippocampal atrophy and isolated memory impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR) were measured. The entire CC was parcellated based on fiber trajectories to specific cortical Brodmann areas using a probabilistic tractography method. The relationship between the DTI measures in the subregions of the CC and cognitive performance was examined. Although the callosal degeneration in the patients with aMCI was less extended than in the patients with AD dementia, degeneration was already exhibited in several subregions of the CC at the aMCI stage. Scores of various neuropsychological tests were correlated to the severity of microstructural changes in the subregional CC connecting to functionally corresponding cortical regions. Our results confirm that CC degeneration is noticeable as early as the aMCI stage of AD and the disconnection of the CC subregional fibers to the corresponding Brodmann areas has an apparent impact on the related cognitive performance.
Project description:Background: The "primacy effect," i.e., increased memory recall for the first items of a series compared to the following items, is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Memory task-fMRI studies demonstrated that primacy recall is associated with higher activation of the hippocampus and temporo-parietal and frontal cortical regions in healthy subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at resting state revealed that hippocampus functional connectivity (FC) with neocortical brain areas, including regions of the default mode network (DMN), is altered in aMCI. The present study aimed to investigate whether resting state fMRI FC between the hippocampus and cortical brain regions, especially the DMN, is associated with primacy recall performance in aMCI. Methods: A number of 87 aMCI patients underwent resting state fMRI and verbal episodic memory assessment. FC between the left or right hippocampus, respectively, and all other voxels in gray matter was mapped voxel-wise and used in whole-brain regression analyses, testing whether FC values predicted delayed primacy recall score. The delayed primacy score was defined as the number of the first four words recalled on the California Verbal Learning Test. Additionally, a partial least squares (PLS) analysis was performed, using DMN regions as seeds to identify the association of their functional interactions with delayed primacy recall. Results: Voxel-based analyses indicated that delayed primacy recall was mainly (positively) associated with higher FC between the left and right hippocampus. Additionally, significant associations were found for higher FC between the left hippocampus and bilateral temporal cortex, frontal cortical regions, and for higher FC between the right hippocampus and right temporal cortex, right frontal cortical regions, left medial frontal cortex and right amygdala (p < 0.01, uncorr.). PLS analysis revealed positive associations of delayed primacy recall with FC between regions of the DMN, including the left and right hippocampus, as well as middle cingulate cortex and thalamus (p < 0.04). In conclusion, in the light of decreased hippocampus function in aMCI, inter-hemispheric hippocampus FC and hippocampal FC with brain regions predominantly included in the DMN may contribute to residual primacy recall in aMCI.
Project description:This study investigated patterns of cortical organization in adolescents who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) during early childhood to determine ways in which early head injury may alter typical brain development. Increased gyrification in other patient populations is associated with polymicrogyria and aberrant development, but this has not been investigated in TBI. Seventeen adolescents (mean age = 14.1 ± 2.4) who sustained a TBI between 1-8 years of age, and 17 demographically-matched typically developing children (TDC) underwent a high-resolution, T1-weighted 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 6-15 years post-injury. Cortical white matter volume and organization was measured using FreeSurfer's Local Gyrification Index (LGI). Despite a lack of significant difference in white matter volume, participants with TBI demonstrated significantly increased LGI in several cortical regions that are among those latest to mature in normal development, including left parietal association areas, bilateral dorsolateral and medial frontal areas, and the right posterior temporal gyrus, relative to the TDC group. Additionally, there was no evidence of increased surface area in the regions that demonstrated increased LGI. Higher Vineland-II Socialization scores were associated with decreased LGI in right frontal and temporal regions. The present results suggest an altered pattern of expected development in cortical gyrification in the TBI group, with changes in late-developing frontal and parietal association areas. Such changes in brain structure may underlie cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with pediatric TBI. Alternatively, increased gyrification following TBI may represent a compensatory mechanism that allows for typical development of cortical surface area, despite reduced brain volume.
Project description:Neurobiological basis for cognitive development and psychiatric conditions remains unexplored in children with the FMR1 premutation (PM). Knock-in mouse models of PM revealed defects in embryonic cortical development that may affect cortical folding. Cortical-folding complexity quantified using local gyrification index (LGI) was examined in 61 children (age 8-12 years, 19/14 male/female PM carriers, 15/13 male/female controls). Whole-brain vertex-wise analysis of LGI was performed for group comparisons and correlations with IQ. Individuals with aberrant gyrification in 68 cortical areas were identified using Z-scores of LGI (hyper: Z???2.58, hypo: Z???-?2.58). Significant group-by-sex-by-age interaction in LGI was detected in right inferior temporal and fusiform cortices, which correlated negatively with CGG repeat length in the PM carriers. Sixteen PM boys (hyper/hypo: 7/9) and 10 PM girls (hyper/hypo: 2/5, 3 both) displayed aberrant LGI in 1-17 regions/person while 2 control boys (hyper/hypo: 0/2) and 2 control girls (hyper/hypo: 1/1) met the same criteria in only 1 region/person. LGI in the precuneus and cingulate cortices correlated positively with IQ scores in PM and control boys while negatively in PM girls and no significant correlation in control girls. These findings reveal aberrant gyrification, which may underlie cognitive performance in children with the PM.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To compare the neocortical amyloid loads among cognitively normal (CN), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects with [(18)F]AV-45 positron emission tomography (PET).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>[(18)F]AV-45 PET was performed in 11 CN, 13 aMCI, and 12 AD subjects to compare the cerebral cortex-to-whole cerebellum standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) of global and individual volumes of interest (VOIs) cerebral cortex. The correlation between global cortical [(18)F]AV-45 SUVRs and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores was analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>The global cortical [(18)F]AV-45 SUVRs were significantly different among the CN (1.08±0.08), aMCI (1.27±0.06), and AD groups (1.34±0.13) (p?=?0.0003) with amyloidosis positivity rates of 9%, 62%, and 92% in the three groups respectively. Compared to CN subjects, AD subjects had higher SUVRs in the global cortical, precuneus, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and posterior cingulate areas; while aMCI subjects had higher values in the global cortical, precuneus, frontal, occipital and posterior cingulate areas. There were negative correlations of MMSE scores with SUVRs in the global cortical, precuneus, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, posterior cingulate and anterior cingulate areas on a combined subject pool of the three groups after age and education attainment adjustment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Amyloid deposition occurs relatively early in precuneus, frontal and posterior cingulate in aMCI subjects. Higher [(18)F]AV-45 accumulation is present in parietal, occipital and temporal gyri in AD subjects compared to the aMCI group. Significant correlation between MMSE scores and [(18)F]AV-45 SUVRs can be observed among CN, aMCI and AD subjects.
Project description:Nigrostriatal terminal losses are known to progress most rapidly in early-stage Parkinson disease (PD) and then plateau, whereas cortical pathology continues and may provide a better marker of PD progression in later stages. We investigated cortical gyrification indices in patients with different durations of PD, since cortical folding may capture complex processes involving transverse forces of neuronal sheets or underlying axonal connectivity.Longitudinal cohort structural MRI were obtained at baseline, 18 months, and 36 months from 70 patients with PD without dementia and 70 control participants. Cortical local gyrification index (LGI) was compared between controls and PD subgroups based upon duration of illness (DOI, <1 year [PDE, n = 17], 1-5 years [PDM, n = 19], >5 years [PDL, n = 24]) and adjusted using false discovery rate. Associations between LGI and clinical measurements were assessed using multiple linear regression. Areas having significantly reduced LGI also were analyzed using baseline data from a newly established cohort (PD n = 87, control n = 66) to validate our findings.In the longitudinal cohort, PDL had significantly reduced overall gyrification, and bilaterally in the inferior parietal, postcentral, precentral, superior frontal, and supramarginal areas, compared to controls (p < 0.05). Longitudinally, loss of gyrification was accelerated in PDM participants, compared to controls. LGI showed robust correlations with DOI and also was correlated with PD-related clinical measurements. Similar results were obtained in the validation sample.Loss of cortical gyrification may be accelerated within the first few years after PD diagnosis, and become particularly prominent in later stages. Thus, it may provide a metric for monitoring progression in vivo.