Fission Yeast SCYL1/2 Homologue Ppk32: A Novel Regulator of TOR Signalling That Governs Survival during Brefeldin A Induced Stress to Protein Trafficking.
ABSTRACT: Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling allows eukaryotic cells to adjust cell growth in response to changes in their nutritional and environmental context. The two distinct TOR complexes (TORC1/2) localise to the cell's internal membrane compartments; the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus and lysosomes/vacuoles. Here, we show that Ppk32, a SCYL family pseudo-kinase, is a novel regulator of TOR signalling. The absence of ppk32 expression confers resistance to TOR inhibition. Ppk32 inhibition of TORC1 is critical for cell survival following Brefeldin A (BFA) induced stress. Treatment of wild type cells with either the TORC1 specific inhibitor rapamycin or the general TOR inhibitor Torin1 confirmed that a reduction in TORC1 activity promoted recovery from BFA induced stress. Phosphorylation of Ppk32 on two residues that are conserved within the SCYL pseudo-kinase family are required for this TOR inhibition. Phosphorylation on these sites controls Ppk32 protein levels and sensitivity to BFA. BFA induced ER stress does not account for the response to BFA that we report here, however BFA is also known to induce Golgi stress and impair traffic to lysosomes. In summary, Ppk32 reduce TOR signalling in response to BFA induced stress to support cell survival.
Project description:Tight coupling of cell growth and cell cycle progression enable cells to adjust their rate of division, and therefore size, to the demands of proliferation in varying nutritional environments. Nutrient stress promotes inhibition of Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) activity. In fission yeast, reduced TORC1 activity advances mitotic onset and switches growth to a sustained proliferation at reduced cell size. A screen for mutants, that failed to advance mitosis upon nitrogen stress, identified a mutant in the PIKFYVE 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase fission yeast homolog Ste12. Ste12PIKFYVE deficient mutants were unable to advance the cell cycle to reduce cell size after a nitrogen downshift to poor nitrogen (proline) growth conditions. While it is well established that PI(3,5)P2 signalling is required for autophagy and that Ste12PIKFYVE mutants have enlarged vacuoles (yeast lysosomes), neither a block to autophagy or mutants that independently have enlarged vacuoles had any impact upon nitrogen control of mitotic commitment. The addition of rapamycin to Ste12PIKFYVE deficient mutants reduced cell size at division to suggest that Ste12PIKFYVE possibly functions upstream of TORC1. ste12 mutants display increased Torin1 (TOR inhibitor) sensitivity. However, no major impact on TORC1 or TORC2 activity was observed in the ste12 deficient mutants. In summary, Ste12PIKFYVE is required for nitrogen-stress mediated advancement of mitosis to reduce cell size at division.
Project description:The target of rapamycin (TOR), a central regulator for cell growth and metabolism, resides in the two functionally distinct complexes TORC1 and TORC2, which are defined by their adaptors Raptor and Rictor, respectively. How the formation of the two TORCs is orchestrated remains unclear. Here we show the control of TOR partnering by semaphorin-plexin signalling in Caenorhabditis elegans. In semaphorin and plexin mutants, TOR-Raptor association decreases whereas TOR-Rictor association increases, concomitantly with TORC1 down- and TORC2 up-regulation. Epidermal defects in the mutants are suppressed by inhibiting TORC2 or reinforcing TORC1 signalling. Conversely, inhibition of TORC1 signalling phenocopies the mutants. Thus, our results indicate that TORC formation is a singularly important step in semaphorin signalling that culminates in diverse outcomes including TORC1-promoted messenger RNA translation and TORC2-regulated cytoskeletal remodelling.
Project description:The target of rapamycin (TOR) complex 1 (TORC1) is a central cell growth regulator in response to a wide array of signals. The Rag GTPases play an essential role in relaying amino acid signals to TORC1 activation through direct interaction with raptor and recruitment of the TORC1 complex to lysosomes. Here we present the crystal structure of the Gtr1p-Gtr2p complex, the Rag homologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 2.8 Å resolution. The heterodimeric GTPases reveal a pseudo-twofold symmetric organization. Structure-guided functional analyses of RagA-RagC, the human homologs of Gtr1p-Gtr2p, show that both G domains (N-terminal GTPase domains) and dimerization are important for raptor binding. In particular, the switch regions of the G domain in RagA are indispensible for interaction with raptor, and hence TORC1 activation. The dimerized C-terminal domains of RagA-RagC display a remarkable structural similarity to MP1/p14, which is in a complex with lysosome membrane protein p18, and directly interact with p18, therefore recruiting mTORC1 to the lysosome for activation by Rheb. Our results reveal a structural model for the mechanism of the Rag GTPases in TORC1 activation and amino acid signaling.
Project description:Background:The protein kinase Target Of Rapamycin (TOR) is a nexus for the regulation of eukaryotic cell growth. TOR assembles into one of two distinct signalling complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TORC2 (mTORC1/2 in mammals), with a set of largely non-overlapping protein partners. (m)TORC1 activation occurs in response to a series of stimuli relevant to cell growth, including nutrient availability, growth factor signals and stress, and regulates much of the cell's biosynthetic activity, from proteins to lipids, and recycling through autophagy. mTORC1 regulation is of great therapeutic significance, since in humans many of these signalling complexes, alongside subunits of mTORC1 itself, are implicated in a wide variety of pathophysiologies, including multiple types of cancer, neurological disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic disorders including diabetes. Methodology:Recent years have seen numerous structures determined of (m)TOR, which have provided mechanistic insight into (m)TORC1 activation in particular, however the integration of cellular signals occurs upstream of the kinase and remains incompletely understood. Here we have collected and analysed in detail as many as possible of the molecular and structural studies which have shed light on (m)TORC1 repression, activation and signal integration. Conclusions:A molecular understanding of this signal integration pathway is required to understand how (m)TORC1 activation is reconciled with the many diverse and contradictory stimuli affecting cell growth. We discuss the current level of molecular understanding of the upstream components of the (m)TORC1 signalling pathway, recent progress on this key biochemical frontier, and the future studies necessary to establish a mechanistic understanding of this master-switch for eukaryotic cell growth.
Project description:The conserved TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase is part of a TORC1 complex that regulates cellular responses to environmental stress, such as amino acid starvation and hypoxia. Dysregulation of Akt-TOR signaling has also been linked to the genesis of cancer, and thus, this pathway presents potential targets for cancer chemotherapeutics. Here we report that rapamycin-sensitive TORC1 signaling is required for the S-phase progression and viability of yeast cells in response to genotoxic stress. In the presence of the DNA-damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), TOR-dependent cell survival required a functional S-phase checkpoint. Rapamycin inhibition of TORC1 signaling suppressed the Rad53 checkpoint-mediated induction of ribonucleotide reductase subunits Rnr1 and Rnr3, thereby abrogating MMS-induced mutagenesis and enhancing cell lethality. Moreover, cells deleted for RNR3 were hypersensitive to rapamycin plus MMS, providing the first demonstration that Rnr3 contributes to the survival of cells exposed to DNA damage. Our findings support a model whereby TORC1 acts as a survival pathway in response to genotoxic stress by maintaining the deoxynucleoside triphosphate pools necessary for error-prone translesion DNA polymerases. Thus, TOR-dependent cell survival in response to DNA-damaging agents coincides with increased mutation rates, which may contribute to the acquisition of chemotherapeutic drug resistance.
Project description:AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling coordinate cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and cell survival with the nutrient environment of cells. The poor vasculature and nutritional stress experienced by cells in solid tumours raises the question: how do they assimilate sufficient nutrients to survive? Here, we show that human and fission yeast cells import ATP and AMP from their external environment to regulate AMPK and TOR signalling. Exposure of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and human cells to external AMP impeded cell growth; however, in yeast this restraining impact required AMPK. In contrast, external ATP rescued the growth defect of yeast mutants with reduced TORC1 signalling; furthermore, exogenous ATP transiently enhanced TORC1 signalling in both yeast and human cell lines. Addition of the PANX1 channel inhibitor probenecid blocked ATP import into human cell lines suggesting that this channel may be responsible for both ATP release and uptake in mammals. In light of these findings, it is possible that the higher extracellular ATP concentration reported in solid tumours is both scavenged and recognized as an additional energy source beneficial for cell growth.
Project description:Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in the Caucasian population, is a multisystemic disease caused by a significant decrease in the frataxin level. To identify genes capable of modifying the severity of the symptoms of frataxin depletion, we performed a candidate genetic screen in a Drosophila RNAi-based model of FRDA. We found that genetic reduction in TOR Complex 1 (TORC1) signalling improves the impaired motor performance phenotype of FRDA model flies. Pharmacologic inhibition of TORC1 signalling by rapamycin also restored this phenotype and increased the lifespan and ATP levels. Furthermore, rapamycin reduced the altered levels of malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals and total glutathione of the model flies. The rapamycin-mediated protection against oxidative stress is due in part to an increase in the transcription of antioxidant genes mediated by cap-n-collar (Drosophila ortholog of Nrf2). Our results suggest that autophagy is indeed necessary for the protective effect of rapamycin in hyperoxia. Rapamycin increased the survival and aconitase activity of model flies subjected to high oxidative insult, and this improvement was abolished by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. These results point to the TORC1 pathway as a new potential therapeutic target for FRDA and as a guide to finding new promising molecules for disease treatment.
Project description:The rapamycin.FKBP12 complex inhibits target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in TORC1. We screened the yeast nonessential gene deletion collection to identify mutants that conferred rapamycin resistance, and we identified PMR1, encoding the Golgi Ca2+/Mn2+ -ATPase. Deleting PMR1 in two genetic backgrounds confers rapamycin resistance. Epistasis analyses show that Pmr1 functions upstream from Npr1 and Gln-3 in opposition to Lst8, a regulator of TOR. Npr1 kinase is largely cytoplasmic, and a portion localizes to the Golgi where amino acid permeases are modified and sorted. Nuclear translocation of Gln-3 and Gln-3 reporter activity in pmr1 cells are impaired, but expression of functional Gap1 in the plasma membrane of a pmr1 strain in response to nitrogen limitation is enhanced. These two phenotypes suggest up-regulation of Npr1 function in the absence of Pmr1. Together, our results establish that Pmr1-dependent Ca2+ and/or Mn2+ ion homeostasis is necessary for TOR signaling.
Project description:The proteasome has been implicated in gene transcription through a variety of mechanisms. How the proteasome regulates genome-wide transcription in relation to nutrient signalling pathways is largely unknown. Using chemical inhibitors to compromise the functions of the proteasome and/or TORC1, we reveal that the proteasome and TORC1 synergistically promote the expression of de novo purine and amino acid biosynthetic genes, and restrict the transcription of those associated with proteolysis, starvation and stress responses. Genetic analysis demonstrates that TORC1 negatively regulates both the Yak1 and Rim15 kinases to modulate starvation-specific gene expression mediated by the Msn2/4 and Gis1 transcription factors. Compromising proteasome function induces starvation-specific gene transcription in exponential-phase cells and abrogates the strict control of such expression by Yak1 and Rim15 in rapamycin-treated cells, confirming that the proteasome functions to ensure stringent control of the starvation response by the TOR pathway. Synergy between the two pathways is also exhibited on cell growth control. Rpn4-dependent upregulation of proteasomal genes and a catalytically competent 20S proteasome are essential for yeast cells to respond to reduced TORC1 activity. These data suggest that the proteasome and the TOR signalling pathway synergistically regulate a significant portion of the genome to coordinate cell growth and starvation response.
Project description:Central to cellular metabolism and cell proliferation are highly conserved signalling pathways controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)1,2, dysregulation of which are implicated in pathogenesis of major human diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. AMPK pathways leading to reduced cell proliferation are well established and, in part, act through inhibition of TOR complex-1 (TORC1) activity. Here we demonstrate reciprocal regulation, specifically that TORC1 directly down-regulates AMPK signalling by phosphorylating the evolutionarily conserved residue Ser367 in the fission yeast AMPK catalytic subunit Ssp2, and AMPK ?1Ser347/?2Ser345 in the mammalian homologs, which is associated with reduced phosphorylation of activation loop Thr172. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TORC1 signalling led to AMPK activation in the absence of increased AMP:ATP ratios; under nutrient stress conditions this was associated with growth limitation in both yeast and human cell cultures. Our findings reveal fundamental, bi-directional regulation between two major metabolic signalling networks and uncover new opportunity for cancer treatment strategies aimed at suppressing cell proliferation in the nutrient-poor tumor microenvironment.