Colonic tolerance develops in the iliac lymph nodes and can be established independent of CD103(+) dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT: Tolerance to harmless exogenous antigens is the default immune response in the gastrointestinal tract. Although extensive studies have demonstrated the importance of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in driving small intestinal tolerance to protein antigen, the structural and immunological basis of colonic tolerance remain poorly understood. We show here that the caudal and iliac lymph nodes (ILNs) are inductive sites for distal colonic immune responses and that colonic T cell-mediated tolerance induction to protein antigen is initiated in these draining lymph nodes and not in MLNs. In agreement, colonic tolerance induction was not altered by mesenteric lymphadenectomy. Despite tolerance development, CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs, which are the major migratory DC population in the MLNs, and the tolerance-related retinoic acid-generating enzyme RALDH2 were virtually absent from the ILNs. Administration of ovalbumin (OVA) to the distal colon did increase the number of CD11c(+)MHCII(hi) migratory CD103(-)CD11b(+) and CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs in the ILNs. Strikingly, colonic tolerance was intact in Batf3-deficient mice specifically lacking CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs, suggesting that CD103(-) DCs in the ILNs are sufficient to drive tolerance induction after protein antigen encounter in the distal colon. Altogether, we identify different inductive sites for small intestinal and colonic T-cell responses and reveal that distinct cellular mechanisms are operative to maintain tolerance at these sites.
Project description:Although CD103-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are widely present in nonlymphoid tissues, the transcription factors controlling their development and their relationship to other DC subsets remain unclear. Mice lacking the transcription factor Batf3 have a defect in the development of CD8alpha+ conventional DCs (cDCs) within lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that Batf3(-/-) mice also lack CD103+CD11b- DCs in the lung, intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), dermis, and skin-draining lymph nodes. Notably, Batf3(-/-) mice displayed reduced priming of CD8 T cells after pulmonary Sendai virus infection, with increased pulmonary inflammation. In the MLNs and intestine, Batf3 deficiency resulted in the specific lack of CD103+CD11b- DCs, with the population of CD103+CD11b+ DCs remaining intact. Batf3(-/-) mice showed no evidence of spontaneous gastrointestinal inflammation and had a normal contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response, despite previous suggestions that CD103+ DCs were required for immune homeostasis in the gut and CHS. The relationship between CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs implied by their shared dependence on Batf3 was further supported by similar patterns of gene expression and their shared developmental dependence on the transcription factor Irf8. These data provide evidence for a developmental relationship between lymphoid organ-resident CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs.
Project description:Migratory lung dendritic cells (DCs) transport viral antigen from the lungs to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) during influenza virus infection to initiate the adaptive immune response. Two major migratory DC subsets, CD103(+) DCs and CD11b(high) DCs participate in this function and it is not clear if these antigen presenting cell (APC) populations become directly infected and if so whether their activity is influenced by the infection. In these experiments we show that both subpopulations can become infected and migrate to the draining MLN but a difference in their response to type I interferon (I-IFN) signaling dictates the capacity of the virus to replicate. CD103(+) DCs allow the virus to replicate to significantly higher levels than do the CD11b(high) DCs, and they release infectious virus in the MLNs and when cultured ex-vivo. Virus replication in CD11b(high) DCs is inhibited by I-IFNs, since ablation of the I-IFN receptor (IFNAR) signaling permits virus to replicate vigorously and productively in this subset. Interestingly, CD103(+) DCs are less sensitive to I-IFNs upregulating interferon-induced genes to a lesser extent than CD11b(high) DCs. The attenuated IFNAR signaling by CD103(+) DCs correlates with their described superior antigen presentation capacity for naïve CD8(+) T cells when compared to CD11b(high) DCs. Indeed ablation of IFNAR signaling equalizes the competency of the antigen presenting function for the two subpopulations. Thus, antigen presentation by lung DCs is proportional to virus replication and this is tightly constrained by I-IFN. The "interferon-resistant" CD103(+) DCs may have evolved to ensure the presentation of viral antigens to T cells in I-IFN rich environments. Conversely, this trait may be exploitable by viral pathogens as a mechanism for systemic dissemination.
Project description:Influenza viruses (IVs) cause pneumonia in humans with progression to lung failure. Pulmonary DCs are key players in the antiviral immune response, which is crucial to restore alveolar barrier function. The mechanisms of expansion and activation of pulmonary DC populations in lung infection remain widely elusive. Using mouse BM chimeric and cell-specific depletion approaches, we demonstrated that alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) GM-CSF mediates recovery from IV-induced injury by affecting lung DC function. Epithelial GM-CSF induced the recruitment of CD11b+ and monocyte-derived DCs. GM-CSF was also required for the presence of CD103+ DCs in the lung parenchyma at baseline and for their sufficient activation and migration to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) during IV infection. These activated CD103+ DCs were indispensable for sufficient clearance of IVs by CD8+ T cells and for recovery from IV-induced lung injury. Moreover, GM-CSF applied intratracheally activated CD103+ DCs, inducing increased migration to MLNs, enhanced viral clearance, and attenuated lung injury. Together, our data reveal that GM-CSF-dependent cross-talk between IV-infected AECs and CD103+ DCs is crucial for effective viral clearance and recovery from injury, which has potential implications for GM-CSF treatment in severe IV pneumonia.
Project description:The question of which dendritic cells (DCs) respond to pulmonary antigens and cross-prime CD8(+) T cells remains controversial. We show here that influenza-specific CD8(+) T cell priming was controlled by different DCs at different times after infection. Whereas early priming was controlled by both CD103(+)CD11b(lo) and CD103(-)CD11b(hi) DCs, CD103(-)CD11b(hi) DCs dominated antigen presentation at the peak of infection. Moreover, CD103(-)CD11b(hi) DCs captured exogenous antigens in the lungs and directly cross-primed CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph nodes without transferring antigen to CD8alpha(+) DCs. Finally, we show that CD103(-)CD11b(hi) DCs were the only DCs to express CD70 after influenza infection and that CD70 expression on CD103(-)CD11b(hi) DCs licensed them to expand CD8(+) T cell populations responding to both influenza and exogenous ovalbumin.
Project description:Mucus alterations are a feature of ulcerative colitis (UC) and can drive inflammation by compromising the mucosal barrier to luminal bacteria. The exact pathogenesis of UC remains unclear, but CD4+ T cells reacting to commensal antigens appear to contribute to pathology. Given the unique capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate naive T cells, colon DCs may activate pathogenic T cells and contribute to disease. Using Muc2-/- mice, which lack a functional mucus barrier and develop spontaneous colitis, we show that colitic animals have reduced colon CD103+ CD11b- DCs and increased CD103- CD11b+ phagocytes. Moreover, changes in colonic DC subsets and distinct cytokine patterns distinguish mice with distally localized colitis from mice with colitis spread proximally. Specifically, mice with proximally spread, but not distally contained, colitis have increased IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, TNF?, and IFN? combined with decreased IL-10 in the distal colon. These individuals also have increased numbers of CD103+ CD11b+ DCs in the distal colon. CD103+ CD11b+ DCs isolated from colitic but not noncolitic mice induced robust differentiation of Th17 cells but not Th1 cells ex vivo. In contrast, CD103- CD11b+ DCs from colitic Muc2-/- mice induced Th17 as well as Th1 differentiation. Thus, the local environment influences the capacity of intestinal DC subsets to induce T cell proliferation and differentiation, with CD103+ CD11b+ DCs inducing IL-17-producing T cells being a key feature of extensively spread colitis.
Project description:Differential display of the integrins CD103 and CD11b are widely used to distinguish two major dendritic cell (DC) subsets in nonlymphoid tissues. CD103(+) DCs arise from FLT3-dependent DC precursors (preDCs), whereas CD11b(hi) DCs can arise either from preDCs or FLT3-independent monocytes. Functional characterization of these two lineages of CD11b(hi) DCs has been hindered by the lack of a widely applicable method to distinguish between them. We performed gene expression analysis of fractionated lung DCs from C57BL/6 mice and found that monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), including CD11b(hi)Ly-6C(lo) tissue-resident and CD11b(hi)Ly-6C(hi) inflammatory moDCs, express the complement 5a receptor 1/CD88, whereas preDC-derived conventional DCs (cDCs), including CD103(+) and CD11b(hi) cDCs, express dipeptidyl peptidase-4/CD26. Flow cytometric analysis of multiple organs, including the kidney, liver, lung, lymph nodes, small intestine, and spleen, confirmed that reciprocal display of CD88 and CD26 can reliably distinguish FLT3-independent moDCs from FLT3-dependent cDCs in C57BL/6 mice. Similar results were obtained when DCs from BALB/c mice were analyzed. Using this novel approach to study DCs in mediastinal lymph nodes, we observed that most blood-derived lymph node-resident DCs, as well as tissue-derived migratory DCs, are cDCs. Furthermore, cDCs, but not moDCs, stimulated naive T cell proliferation. We anticipate that the use of Abs against CD88 and CD26 to distinguish moDCs and cDCs in multiple organs and mouse strains will facilitate studies aimed at assigning specific functions to distinct DC lineages in immune responses.
Project description:The primacy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in dictating the outcome of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is broadly accepted; however, the mechanisms controlling this effect are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that GVHD markedly enhances alloantigen presentation within the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs), mediated by donor CD103(+)CD11b(-) dendritic cells (DCs) that migrate from the colon under the influence of CCR7. Expansion and differentiation of donor T cells specifically within the mLNs is driven by profound levels of alloantigen, IL-12, and IL-6 promoted by Toll-like receptor (TLR) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signals. Critically, alloantigen presentation in the mLNs imprints gut-homing integrin signatures on donor T cells, leading to their emigration into the GI tract where they mediate fulminant disease. These data identify a critical, anatomically distinct, donor DC subset that amplifies GVHD. We thus highlight multiple therapeutic targets and the ability of GVHD, once initiated by recipient antigen-presenting cells, to generate a profound, localized, and lethal feed-forward cascade of donor DC-mediated indirect alloantigen presentation and cytokine secretion within the GI tract.
Project description:Cross-presentation of cellular antigens is crucial for priming CD8(+) T cells, and generating immunity to intracellular pathogens--particularly viruses. It is unclear which intestinal phagocytes perform this function in vivo. To address this, we examined dendritic cells (DCs) from the intestinal lymph of IFABP-tOVA 232-4 mice, which express ovalbumin in small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Among lymph DCs (LDCs) only CD103(+) CD11b(-) CD8?(+) DCs cross-present IEC-derived ovalbumin to CD8(+) OT-I T cells. Similarly, in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), cross-presentation of IEC-ovalbumin was limited to the CD11c(+) MHCII(hi) CD8?(+) migratory DCs, but absent from all other subsets, including the resident CD8?(hi) DCs. Crucially, delivery of purified CD8?(+) LDCs, but not other LDC subsets, into the MLN subcapsular lymphatic sinus induced proliferation of ovalbumin-specific, gut-tropic CD8(+) T cells in vivo. Finally, in 232-4 mice treated with R848, CD8?(+) LDCs were uniquely able to cross-prime interferon ?-producing CD8(+) T cells and drive their migration to the intestine. Our results clearly demonstrate that migrating CD8?(+) intestinal DCs are indispensable for cross-presentation of cellular antigens and, in conditions of inflammation, for the initial differentiation of effector CD8(+) T cells. They may therefore represent an important target for the development of antiviral vaccinations.
Project description:Disruption of the homeostatic balance of intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MQs) may contribute to inflammatory bowel disease. We characterized DC and MQ populations, including their ability to produce retinoic acid, in clinical material encompassing Crohn's ileitis, Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis (UC) as well as mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) draining these sites. Increased CD14(+)DR(int) MQs characterized inflamed intestinal mucosa while total CD141(+) or CD1c(+) DCs numbers were unchanged. However, CD103(+) DCs, including CD141(+)CD103(+) and CD1c(+)CD103(+) DCs, were reduced in inflamed intestine. In MLNs, two CD14(-) DC populations were identified: CD11c(int)HLADR(hi) and CD11c(hi)HLADR(int) cells. A marked increase of CD11c(hi)HLADR(int) DC, particularly DR(int)CD1c(+) DCs, characterized MLNs draining inflamed intestine. The fraction of DC and MQ populations expressing aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, reflecting retinoic acid synthesis, in UC colon, both in active disease and remission, were reduced compared to controls and inflamed Crohn's colon. In contrast, no difference in the frequency of ALDH(+) cells among blood precursors was detected between UC patients and non-inflamed controls. This suggests that ALDH activity in myeloid cells in the colon of UC patients, regardless of whether the disease is active or in remission, is influenced by the intestinal environment.
Project description:CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) carry bacteria from the small intestine and can present antigens to T cells. Yet they have not been recorded sampling luminal bacteria or presenting bacterial antigens in mesentery lymph nodes. We used 2-photon microscopy in live Cx3cr1(+/gfp) ×Cd11c-YFP mice to study these processes. At steady state, sparse CD103+ DCs occupied the epithelium. They patrolled among enterocytes while extending dendrites toward the lumen, likely using tight-junction proteins to penetrate the epithelium. Challenge with Salmonella triggered chemokine- and toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent recruitment of additional DCs from the lamina propria (LP). The DCs efficiently phagocytosed the bacteria using intraepithelial dendrites. Noninvasive bacteria were similarly sampled. In contrast, CD103+ DCs sampled soluble luminal antigen inefficiently. In mice harboring CD103+ DCs, antigen-specific CD8 T cells were subsequently activated in MLNs. Intestinal CD103+ DCs are therefore equipped with unique mechanisms to independently complete the processes of uptake, transportation, and presentation of bacterial antigens.