Effects on the transcriptome upon deletion of a distal element cannot be predicted by the size of the H3K27Ac peak in human cells.
ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). A molecular understanding of the functional consequences of this genetic variation is complicated because most GWAS SNPs are located in non-coding regions. We used epigenomic information to identify H3K27Ac peaks in HCT116 colon cancer cells that harbor SNPs associated with an increased risk for CRC. Employing CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases, we deleted a CRC risk-associated H3K27Ac peak from HCT116 cells and observed large-scale changes in gene expression, resulting in decreased expression of many nearby genes. As a comparison, we showed that deletion of a robust H3K27Ac peak not associated with CRC had minimal effects on the transcriptome. Interestingly, although there is no H3K27Ac peak in HEK293 cells in the E7 region, deletion of this region in HEK293 cells decreased expression of several of the same genes that were downregulated in HCT116 cells, including the MYC oncogene. Accordingly, deletion of E7 causes changes in cell culture assays in HCT116 and HEK293 cells. In summary, we show that effects on the transcriptome upon deletion of a distal regulatory element cannot be predicted by the size or presence of an H3K27Ac peak.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). A molecular understanding of the functional consequences of this genetic variation is complicated because most GWAS SNPs are located in non-coding regions. After identifying H3K27Ac peaks in HCT116 colon cancer cells that harbor SNPs associated with an increased risk for CRC, we used CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease to delete 2 CRC risk-associated H3K27Ac peaks (E7 and E24), a peak that is not associated with CRC risk (18qE) and a region that doesn?t have H3K27Ac peak (18qNE) from HCT116 cells and analyzed effects on the transcriptome and epigenome. We also deleted E7 region from HEK 293 cells and analyzed effects on the transcriptome of HEK 293. We also confirmed the physical interaction between enhancers of our interest and their putative target genes. Analysis of RNA-seq data and ChIP-seq between control clones and enhancer deleted clones in HCT116 cell. For Control, gRNA empty vectorplasmid was transfected with Cas9-GFP. For Deletion, gRNAs that have enhancer target sequences were transfected along with Cas9-GFP. Cells with high GFP expression were identified using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Sorted cells were plated into individual wells of a 24 well plate and then re-plated as single cells in 10cm dishes and subsequently expanded for further analyses. Samples used in this study were clonal populations. Interaction profiling of enhancers of interest with putative target genes using 4C-seq
Project description:Defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 are frequently observed in sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers (CRC). Affected tumors generate much less metastatic potential than the MLH1 proficient forms. Although MLH1 has been shown to be not only involved in postreplicative MMR but also in several MMR independent processes like cytoskeletal organization, the connection between MLH1 and metastasis remains unclear. We recently identified non-erythroid spectrin ?II (SPTAN1), a scaffolding protein involved in cell adhesion and motility, to interact with MLH1. In the current study, the interaction of MLH1 and SPTAN1 and its potential consequences for CRC metastasis was evaluated.Nine cancer cell lines as well as fresh and paraffin embedded colon cancer tissue from 12 patients were used in gene expression studies of SPTAN1 and MLH1. Co-expression of SPTAN1 and MLH1 was analyzed by siRNA knock down of MLH1 in HeLa, HEK293, MLH1 positive HCT116, SW480 and LoVo cells. Effects on cellular motility were determined in MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T compared to their MLH1 proficient sister cells, respectively.MLH1 deficiency is clearly associated with SPTAN1 reduction. Moreover, siRNA knock down of MLH1 decreased the mRNA level of SPTAN1 in HeLa, HEK293 as well as in MLH1 positive HCT116 cells, which indicates a co-expression of SPTAN1 by MLH1. In addition, cellular motility of MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T cells was impaired compared to the MLH1 proficient sister clones. Consequently, overexpression of SPTAN1 increased migration of MLH1 deficient cells while knock down of SPTAN1 decreased cellular mobility of MLH1 proficient cells, indicating SPTAN1-dependent migration ability.These data suggest that SPTAN1 levels decreased in concordance with MLH1 reduction and impaired cellular mobility in MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells. Therefore, aggressiveness of MLH1-positive CRC might be related to SPTAN1.
Project description:Fusobacterium nucleatum is implicated in accelerating colorectal cancer (CRC) and is found within metastatic CRC cells in patient biopsies. Here, we found that bacterial invasion of CRC cells and cocultured immune cells induced a differential cytokine secretion that may contribute to CRC metastasis. We used a modified galactose kinase markerless gene deletion approach and found that F. nucleatum invaded cultured HCT116 CRC cells through the bacterial surface adhesin Fap2. In turn, Fap2-dependent invasion induced the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and CXCL1, which are associated with CRC progression and promoted HCT116 cell migration. Conditioned medium from F. nucleatum-infected HCT116 cells caused naïve cells to migrate, which was blocked by depleting CXCL1 and IL-8 from the conditioned medium. Cytokine secretion from HCT116 cells and cellular migration were attenuated by inhibiting F. nucleatum host-cell binding and entry using galactose sugars, l-arginine, neutralizing membrane protein antibodies, or fap2 deletion. F. nucleatum also induces the mobilization of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, in neutrophils and macrophages, the bacterial-induced secretion of cytokines was Fap2 independent. Thus, our findings show that F. nucleatum both directly and indirectly modulates immune and cancer cell signaling and migration. Because increased IL-8 and CXCL1 production in tumors is associated with increased metastatic potential and cell seeding, poor prognosis, and enhanced recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts, we propose that inhibition of host-cell binding and invasion, potentially through vaccination or novel galactoside compounds, could be an effective strategy for reducing F. nucleatum-associated CRC metastasis.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk for CRC. A molecular understanding of the functional consequences of this genetic variation has been complicated because each GWAS SNP is a surrogate for hundreds of other SNPs, most of which are located in non-coding regions. Here we use genomic and epigenomic information to test the hypothesis that the GWAS SNPs and/or correlated SNPs are in elements that regulate gene expression, and identify 23 promoters and 28 enhancers. Using gene expression data from normal and tumour cells, we identify 66 putative target genes of the risk-associated enhancers (10 of which were also identified by promoter SNPs). Employing CRISPR nucleases, we delete one risk-associated enhancer and identify genes showing altered expression. We suggest that similar studies be performed to characterize all CRC risk-associated enhancers.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been conducted primarily in European descendants. In a GWAS conducted in East Asians, we first analyzed approximately 1.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four studies with 1,773 CRC cases and 2,642 controls. We then selected 66 promising SNPs for replication and genotyped them in three independent studies with 3,612 cases and 3,523 controls. Five SNPs were further evaluated using data from four additional studies including up to 3,290 cases and 4,339 controls. SNP rs7229639 in the SMAD7 gene was found to be associated with CRC risk with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with the minor allele (A) of 1.22 (1.15-1.29) in the combined analysis of all 11 studies (p = 2.93 × 10(-11) ). SNP rs7229639 is 2,487 bp upstream from rs4939827, a risk variant identified previously in a European-ancestry GWAS in relation to CRC risk. However, these two SNPs are not correlated in East Asians (r(2) ?= 0.008) nor in Europeans (r(2) ?= 0.146). The CRC association with rs7229639 remained statistically significant after adjusting for rs4939827 as well as three additional CRC risk variants (rs58920878, rs12953717 and rs4464148) reported previously in this region. SNPs rs7229639 and rs4939827 explained approximately 1% of the familial relative risk of CRC in East Asians. This study identifies a new CRC risk variant in the SMAD7 gene, further highlighting the significant role of this gene in the etiology of CRC.
Project description:Chemo-resistance is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC), with the absence of early biomarker. Exosomes are microvesicles released by body cells for intercellular communication. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs with covalently closed loops and enriched in exosomes. Crosstalk between circRNAs in exosomes and chemo-resistance in CRC remains unknown. This research aims to identify exosomal circRNAs associated with FOLFOX-resistance in CRC. FOLFOX-resistant HCT116 CRC cells (HCT116-R) were generated from parental HCT116 cells (HCT116-P) using periodic drug induction. Exosomes were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zetasizer and Western blot. Our exosomes were translucent cup-shaped structures under TEM with differential expression of TSG101, CD9, and CD63. We performed circRNAs microarray using exosomal RNAs from HCT116-R and HCT116-P cells. We validated our microarray data using serum samples. We performed drug sensitivity assay and cell cycle analysis to characterize selected circRNA after siRNA-knockdown. Using fold change >2 and p?<?0.05, we identified 105 significantly upregulated and 34 downregulated circRNAs in HCT116-R exosomes. Knockdown of circ_0000338 improved the chemo-resistance of CRC cells. We have proposed that circ_0000338 may have dual regulatory roles in chemo-resistant CRC. Exosomal circ_0000338 could be a potential biomarker for further validation in CRC.
Project description:Lynch syndrome (LS) patients are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenotypic variability might in part be explained by common susceptibility loci identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Previous studies focused mostly on MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 carriers, with conflicting results. We aimed to determine the role of GWAS SNPs in PMS2 mutation carriers. A cohort study was performed in 507 PMS2 carriers (124 CRC cases), genotyped for 24 GWAS SNPs, including SNPs at 11q23.1 and 8q23.3. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a weighted Cox regression analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. Discrimination was assessed with a concordance statistic in a bootstrap cross-validation procedure. Individual SNPs only had non-significant associations with CRC occurrence with HRs lower than 2, although male carriers of allele A at rs1321311 (6p21.31) may have increased risk of CRC (HR?=?2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 24 HRs had an HR of 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.6) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile, but had no discriminative ability (c statistic 0.52). Previously suggested SNPs do not modify CRC risk in PMS2 carriers. Future large studies are needed for improved risk stratification among Lynch syndrome patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) monomethylase KMT2C is mutated across several cancer types; however, the effects of mutations on epigenome organization, gene expression, and cell growth are not clear. A frequently recurring mutation in colorectal cancer (CRC) with microsatellite instability is a single nucleotide deletion within the exon 38 poly-A(9) repeat (c.8390delA) which results in frameshift preceding the functional carboxy-terminal SET domain. To study effects of KMT2C expression in CRC cells, we restored one allele to wild type KMT2C in the two CRC cell lines RKO and HCT116, which both are homozygous c.8390delA mutant. RESULTS:Gene editing resulted in increased KMT2C expression, increased H3K4me1 levels, altered gene expression profiles, and subtle negative effects on cell growth, where higher dependence and stronger effects of KMT2C expression were observed in RKO compared to HCT116 cells. Surprisingly, we found that the two RKO and HCT116 CRC cell lines have distinct baseline H3K4me1 epigenomic profiles. In RKO cells, a flatter genome-wide H3K4me1 profile was associated with more increased H3K4me1 deposition at enhancers, reduced cell growth, and more differential gene expression relative to HCT116 cells when KMT2C was restored. Profiling of H3K4me1 did not indicate a highly specific regulation of gene expression as KMT2C-induced H3K4me1 deposition was found globally and not at a specific enhancer sub-set in the engineered cells. Although we observed variation in differentially regulated gene sets between cell lines and individual clones, differentially expressed genes in both cell lines included genes linked to known cancer signaling pathways, estrogen response, hypoxia response, and aspects of immune system regulation. CONCLUSIONS:Here, KMT2C restoration reduced CRC cell growth and reinforced genome-wide H3K4me1 deposition at enhancers; however, the effects varied depending upon the H3K4me1 status of KMT2C deficient cells. Results indicate that KMT2C inactivation may promote colorectal cancer development through transcriptional dysregulation in several pathways with known cancer relevance.
Project description:Despite their prime candidate status, polymorphisms near genes involved in DNA repair or in other functions related to genome stability have been conspicuously under-represented in the significant associations reported from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cancer susceptibility. In this study, we assessed a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near 157 DNA repair genes in three colorectal cancer (CRC) GWAS. Although no individual SNP showed evidence of association, the set of SNPs as a whole was associated with colorectal cancer risk. When candidate SNPs were examined, our data did not support most of the previously reported associations with CRC susceptibility, an exception being an effect of the MLH1 promoter SNP -93G>A (rs1800734). Rare variants in CHEK2 (I157T and possibly del1100C) also appear to be associated with CRC risk. Overall, the absence to date of disease-associated DNA repair SNPs in cancer GWAS may be explained by a combination of the following: (i) many loci with individually very small effects on risk; (ii) rare alleles of moderate effect and (iii) subgroups of CRC, such as those with microsatellite instability, associated with specific variants. It will be particularly intriguing to determine whether any GWAS across cancer types identify DNA variants that predispose to cancers of more than one site.
Project description:Oxaliplatin (Oxa)‑based chemotherapy is widely used as the first‑line treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, Oxa‑resistance is common for many postoperative CRC patients. To explore drug resistance in CRC, an Oxa‑resistant cell line, HCT116/Oxa, was established from parental HCT116 cells. These Oxa‑resistant cells exhibited characteristics of epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a higher migratory capacity than parental cells. Protein profiles of HCT116/Oxa and HCT116 cells were compared using a tandem mass tag‑based quantitative proteomics technique. The protein dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 2 (DHRS2) was revealed to be highly expressed in HCT116/Oxa cells. Silencing of DHRS2 in HCT116/Oxa cells effectively restored Oxa‑sensitivity by suppressing the expression of excision repair cross‑complementing group 1 protein via a p53‑dependent pathway, and reversed the EMT phenotype. Overall, the suppression of DHRS2 expression may be a promising strategy for the prevention of Oxa‑resistance in CRC.