Project description:Dietary iron intake and variation in iron homeostasis genes may affect colorectal neoplasia risk. We conducted two nested case-control studies within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial: one of advanced colorectal adenoma (1205 cases; 1387 controls) and one of colorectal cancer (370 cases; 401 controls). Iron intake was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire and genotyping was performed for 21 genes. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for colorectal neoplasia risk within quartiles of intake. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modified the association between iron intake and the risk of adenoma or cancer. Dietary iron was positively associated with colorectal adenoma among three SNPs of HEPHL1, including carriers of the AA genotype at rs7946162 (ORQ4-Q1 = 2.22, 95% CI 1.15-4.27, Ptrend = 0.03; Pinteraction = 0.10), the TT genotype at rs2460063 (ORQ4-Q1 = 2.39, 95% CI 1.26-4.54, Ptrend = 0.02; Pinteraction = 0.04) and the GG genotype at rs7127348 (ORQ4-Q1 = 2.40, 95% CI 1.23-4.67, Ptrend = 0.02; Pinteraction = 0.09). Heme iron was positively associated with colorectal cancer among those with GG genotypes for ACO1 rs10970985 (ORQ4-Q 1 = 2.45, 95% CI 3.40-8.06, Ptrend = 0.004; Pinteraction = 0.05). However, none of the associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Future studies should target the specific genes and SNPs for which the association was significant prior to multiple comparison correction.
Project description:Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to be involved in colorectal cancer development. These processes may contribute to leakage of bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin, across the gut barrier. The objective of this study, nested within a prospective cohort, was to examine associations between circulating LPS and flagellin serum antibody levels and colorectal cancer risk.A total of 1,065 incident colorectal cancer cases (colon, n = 667; rectal, n = 398) were matched (1:1) to control subjects. Serum flagellin- and LPS-specific IgA and IgG levels were quantitated by ELISA. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for multiple relevant confouding factors.Overall, elevated anti-LPS and anti-flagellin biomarker levels were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. After testing potential interactions by various factors relevant for colorectal cancer risk and anti-LPS and anti-flagellin, sex was identified as a statistically significant interaction factor (Pinteraction < 0.05 for all the biomarkers). Analyses stratified by sex showed a statistically significant positive colorectal cancer risk association for men (fully-adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartile for total anti-LPS + flagellin, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51; Ptrend, 0.049), whereas a borderline statistically significant inverse association was observed for women (fully-adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47-1.02; Ptrend, 0.18).In this prospective study on European populations, we found bacterial exposure levels to be positively associated to colorectal cancer risk among men, whereas in women, a possible inverse association may exist.Further studies are warranted to better clarify these preliminary observations.
Project description:Observational data on the association between circulating 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer risk are limited in women. To determine whether prediagnostic levels of 25(OH)D were associated with risk of incident colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Study (WHS), we conducted a nested case-control study using 274 colorectal cases and 274 controls. Each case was matched to a control by age, ethnicity, fasting status at the time of blood collection, time of day when blood was drawn, and month of blood draw. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for colorectal cancer by 25(OH)D quartiles. Mean plasma 25(OH)D was lower in cases versus controls (21.9 vs. 23.9 ng/mL, P = 0.01). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, plasma 25(OH)D was significantly and inversely associated with odds of colorectal cancer (quartile 4 [Q4] vs. quartile 1 [Q1]: OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.81; Ptrend 0.02). In addition, we observed a somewhat lower risk of colorectal cancer-related mortality after adjustment for matching variables, randomization treatment and other risk factors (Q4:Q1 OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.17-0.97; Ptrend 0.05). In this cohort of healthy women, we found a significant inverse association between prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels and risk of incident colorectal cancer, and a borderline significant inverse association between prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels and colorectal cancer-related mortality. These results support a possible association between plasma 25(OH)D and risk of colorectal cancer in women.
Project description:Fatty acid composition in plasma captures both dietary intake and endogenous synthesis. Prospective analyses of plasma fatty acid composition are needed to establish the role of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on risk of developing colorectal cancer. To evaluate associations between plasma fatty acid composition and colon or rectal cancer risk separately, a nested case-control study of 350 colorectal (211 colon and 139 rectal) cancer cases and an equal number of individually matched control subjects was conducted within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a cohort of 63,257 men and women recruited between 1993 and 1998. Fatty acids in pre-diagnostic plasma were quantified using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conditional odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing highest to lowest quartiles are presented. For colon cancer, inverse associations were reported with higher essential PUFAs, ?-linolenic acid (OR?=?0.41; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.73; Ptrend?=?0.005) and linoleic acid (OR?=?0.43; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.82; Ptrend?=?0.008). Higher desaturase activity in the n-6 PUFA synthesis pathway estimated by the arachidonic:linoleic acid ratio was associated with increased colon cancer risk (OR?=?3.53; 95% CI: 1.82, 6.85; Ptrend?=?0.006), whereas higher desaturase activity in the MUFA synthesis pathway estimated by the oleic:stearic acid ratio was associated with decreased colon cancer risk (OR?=?0.42; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.92; Ptrend?=?0.024). There was no significant association between the essential fatty acids or the desaturase indices and rectal cancer risk. Endogenous synthesis of arachidonic and oleic acids has an impact on colon cancer development.
Project description:Microsatellite instability (MSI-H) is caused by DNA mismatch repair deficiency and occurs in 15% of colorectal cancers. MSI-H cancers generate highly immunogenic frameshift peptide (FSP) antigens, which elicit pronounced local immune responses. A subset of MSI-H colorectal cancers develops in frame of Lynch syndrome, which represents an ideal human model for studying the concept of immunoediting. Immunoediting describes how continuous anti-tumoral immune surveillance of the host eventually leads to the selection of tumor cells that escape immune cell recognition and destruction. Between 30 and 40% of Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal cancers display loss of HLA class I antigen expression as a result of Beta2-microglobulin (B2M) mutations. Whether B2M mutations result from immunoediting has been unknown. To address this question, we related B2M mutation status of Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal cancer specimens (n = 30) to CD3-positive, CD8-positive and FOXP3-positive T cell infiltration in both tumor and normal mucosa. No significant correlation between B2M mutations and immune cell infiltration was observed in tumor tissue. However, FOXP3-positive T cell infiltration was significantly lower in normal mucosa adjacent to B2M-mutant (mt) compared to B2M-wild type (wt) tumors (mean: 0.98% FOXP3-positive area/region of interest (ROI) in B2M-wt vs. 0.52% FOXP3-positive area/ROI in B2M-mt, p = 0.023). Our results suggest that in the absence of immune-suppressive regulatory T cells (Treg), the outgrowth of less immunogenic B2M-mt tumor cells is favored. This finding supports the immunoediting concept in human solid cancer development and indicates a critical role of the immune milieu in normal colonic mucosa for the course of disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lipid biomarkers, such as HDL-cholesterol concentrations, have been shown to have positive, inverse, and null associations with total, breast, and colorectal cancer risks. Studies of novel lipid biomarkers, such as apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100), and cancer risk have been sparse, to our knowledge. OBJECTIVES:We evaluated the prospective association of total, breast, colorectal, and lung cancers and cancer mortality with circulating lipid biomarkers in 15,602 female health professionals in the Women's Health Study (aged ?45 y, free of cardiovascular disease and cancer, and without hormone replacement therapy or lipid-lowering medications at baseline). DESIGN:Cox regression models estimated HRs of cancer endpoints (19 y median follow-up) across quartiles 1 (reference) to 4 of each lipid biomarker after adjustment for cancer risk factors. RESULTS:Confirmed cases included 2163 incident cancer cases (864 breast, 198 colorectal, and 190 lung cancers) and 647 cancer deaths. Total cancer risk was significantly lower in the highest quartile of apo A-I (adjusted HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.90; P-trend = 0.0008) and HDL cholesterol (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.97; P-trend = 0.01). For site-specific cancers, significant associations included colorectal cancer risk with HDL cholesterol (HR: 0.63; 95% CI; 0.41, 0.98; P-trend = 0.03), triglycerides (HR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.97; P-trend = 0.02), and apo B-100 (HR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.49; P-trend = 0.006) and lung cancer risk with HDL cholesterol (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.93; P-trend = 0.01). LDL cholesterol was not significantly associated with risk of total cancer or any site-specific cancers. In time-dependent models that were adjusted for the use of a lipid-lowering medication after baseline, these associations remained. CONCLUSIONS:Lipids were associated with total, lung, and colorectal cancer risks in women. Lifestyle interventions for heart-disease prevention, which reduce apo B-100 or raise HDL cholesterol, may be associated with reduced cancer risk. The Women's Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000479.
Project description:The effect of duration of cigarette smoking cessation on colorectal cancer risk by molecular subtypes remains unclear. Using duplication-method Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses, we examined associations between duration of smoking cessation and colorectal cancer risk according to status of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), microsatellite instability, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutation, or DNA methyltransferase-3B (DNMT3B) expression. Follow-up of 134,204 individuals in 2 US nationwide prospective cohorts (Nurses' Health Study (1980-2008) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008)) resulted in 1,260 incident rectal and colon cancers with available molecular data. Compared with current smoking, 10-19, 20-39, and ?40 years of smoking cessation were associated with a lower risk of CIMP-high colorectal cancer, with multivariate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.53 (0.29, 0.95), 0.52 (0.32, 0.85), and 0.50 (0.27, 0.94), respectively (Ptrend = 0.001), but not with the risk of CIMP-low/CIMP-negative cancer (Ptrend = 0.25) (Pheterogeneity = 0.02, between CIMP-high and CIMP-low/CIMP-negative cancer risks). Differential associations between smoking cessation and cancer risks by microsatellite instability (Pheterogeneity = 0.02), DNMT3B expression (Pheterogeneity = 0.03), and BRAF (Pheterogeneity = 0.10) status appeared to be driven by the associations of CIMP-high cancer with microsatellite instability-high, DNMT3B-positive, and BRAF-mutated cancers. These molecular pathological epidemiology data suggest a protective effect of smoking cessation on a DNA methylation-related carcinogenesis pathway leading to CIMP-high colorectal cancer.
Project description:A strong positive association has been observed between circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a biomarker of ovarian reserve, and breast cancer risk in three prospective studies. Confirming this association is important because of the paucity of biomarkers of breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. We conducted a consortium study including ten prospective cohorts that had collected blood from premenopausal women. A nested case-control design was implemented within each cohort. A total of 2,835 invasive (80%) and in situ (20%) breast cancer cases were individually matched to controls (n?=?3,122) on age at blood donation. AMH was measured using a high sensitivity enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Conditional logistic regression was applied to the aggregated dataset. There was a statistically significant trend of increasing breast cancer risk with increasing AMH concentration (ptrend across quartiles <0.0001) after adjusting for breast cancer risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer in the top vs. bottom quartile of AMH was 1.60 (95% CI?=?1.31-1.94). Though the test for interaction was not statistically significant (pinteraction ?=?0.15), the trend was statistically significant only for tumors positive for both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR): ER+/PR+: ORQ4-Q1 ?=?1.96, 95% CI?=?1.46-2.64, ptrend <0.0001; ER+/PR-: ORQ4-Q1 ?=?0.82, 95% CI?=?0.40-1.68, ptrend ?=?0.51; ER-/PR+: ORQ4-Q1 ?=?3.23, 95% CI?=?0.48-21.9, ptrend ?=?0.26; ER-/PR-: ORQ4-Q1 ?=?1.15, 95% CI?=?0.63-2.09, ptrend ?=?0.60. The association was observed for both pre- (ORQ4-Q1 = 1.35, 95% CI?=?1.05-1.73) and post-menopausal (ORQ4-Q1 ?=?1.61, 95% CI?=?1.03-2.53) breast cancer (pinteraction ?=?0.34). In this large consortium study, we confirmed that AMH is associated with breast cancer risk, with a 60% increase in risk for women in the top vs. bottom quartile of AMH.
Project description:We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers.