Highly Stereoselective Intermolecular Haloetherification and Haloesterification of Allyl Amides.
ABSTRACT: An organocatalytic and highly regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective intermolecular haloetherification and haloesterification reaction of allyl amides is reported. A variety of alkene substituents and substitution patterns are compatible with this chemistry. Notably, electronically unbiased alkene substrates exhibit exquisite regio- and diastereoselectivity for the title transformation. We also demonstrate that the same catalytic system can be used in both chlorination and bromination reactions of allyl amides with a variety of nucleophiles with little or no modification.
Project description:We report a highly regio-, diastereo- and enantioselective vicinal dihalogenation of allyl amides. E- and Z-alkenes with both aryl and alkyl substituents were compatible with this chemistry. This is the result of exquisite catalyst controlled regioselectivity enabling use of electronically unbiased substrates. The reaction employs commercially available catalysts and halenium sources along with cheap inorganic halide salts to affect this transformation. A preliminary effort to extend this chemistry to heterodihalogenation is also presented.
Project description:Enamides represent bioactive pharmacophores in various natural products, and have become increasingly common reagents for asymmetric incorporation of nitrogen functionality. Yet the synthesis of the requisite geometrically defined enamides remains problematic, especially for highly substituted and Z-enamides. Herein we wish to report a general atom economic method for the isomerization of a broad range of N-allyl amides to form Z-di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted enamides with exceptional geometric selectivity. This report represents the first examples of a catalytic isomerization of N-allyl amides to form nonpropenyl disubstituted, tri- and tetrasubstituted enamides with excellent geometric control. Applications of these geometrically defined enamides toward the synthesis of cis vicinal amino alcohols and tetrasubstituted ?-borylamido complexes are discussed.
Project description:Lipoxygenases have been proposed to be a possible factor that is responsible for the pathology of certain diseases, including ischaemic injury. In the peroxidation process of linoleic acid by lipoxygenase, the E,Z-linoleate allyl radical-lipoxygenase complex seems to be generated as an intermediate. In the present study, we evaluated whether E,Z-linoleate allyl radicals on the enzyme are scavenged by radical scavengers. Linoleic acid, the content of which was greater than the dissolved oxygen content, was treated with soya bean lipoxygenase-1 (ferric form) in the presence of radical scavenger, CmP (3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-N-oxyl). The reaction rate between oxygen and lipid allyl radical is comparatively faster than that between CmP and lipid allyl radical. Therefore a reaction between linoleate allyl radical and CmP was not observed while the dioxygenation of linoleic acid was ongoing. After the dissolved oxygen was depleted, CmP stoichiometrically trapped linoleate-allyl radicals. Accompanied by this one-electron redox reaction, the resulting ferrous lipoxygenase was re-oxidized to the ferric form by hydroperoxylinoleate. Through the adduct assay via LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem MS), four E,Z-linoleate allyl radical-CmP adducts corresponding to regio- and diastereo-isomers were detected in the linoleate/lipoxygenase system, whereas E,E-linoleate allyl radical-CmP adducts were not detected at all. If E,Z-linoleate allyl radical is liberated from the enzyme, the E/Z-isomer has to reach equilibrium with the thermodynamically favoured E/E-isomer. These data suggested that the E,Z-linoleate allyl radicals were not liberated from the active site of lipoxygenase before being trapped by CmP. Consequently, we concluded that the lipid allyl radicals complexed with lipoxygenase could be scavenged by radical scavengers at lower oxygen content.
Project description:?,?-Unsaturated amides in which the alkene moiety bears an aryl or heteroaryl substituent undergo regioselective rhodium-catalyzed ?-borylation by pinacolborane to afford chiral secondary benzylic boronic esters. The results contrast the ?-borylation of ?,?-unsaturated amides in which the disubstituted alkene moiety bears only alkyl substituents; the reversal in regiochemistry is coupled with a reversal in the sense of ?-facial selectivity.
Project description:Dynamic kinetic resolutions of ?-stereogenic-?-formyl amides in asymmetric 2-aza-Cope rearrangements are described. Chiral phosphoric acids catalyze this rare example of a non-hydrogenative DKR of a ?-oxo acid derivative. The [3,3]-rearrangement occurs with high diastereo- and enantiocontrol, forming ?-imino amides that can be deprotected to the primary ?-amino amide or reduced to the corresponding diamine.
Project description:Emerging work on organocatalytic enantioselective halocyclizations naturally draws on conditions where both new bonds must be formed under delicate control, the reaction regime where the concerted nature of the AdE3 mechanism is of greatest importance. Without assistance, many simple alkene substrates react slowly or not at all with conventional halenium donors under synthetically relevant reaction conditions. As demonstrated earlier by Shilov, Cambie, Williams, Fahey, and others, alkenes can undergo a concerted AdE3-type reaction via nucleophile participation, which sets the configuration of the newly created stereocenters at both ends in one step. Herein, we explore the modulation of alkene reactivity and halocyclization rates by nucleophile proximity and basicity, through detailed analyses of starting material spectroscopy, addition stereopreferences, isotope effects, and nucleophile-alkene interactions, all obtained in a context directly relevant to synthesis reaction conditions. The findings build on the prior work by highlighting the reactivity spectrum of halocyclizations from stepwise to concerted, and suggest strategies for design of new reactions. Alkene reactivity is seen to span the range from the often overgeneralized "sophomore textbook" image of stepwise electrophilic attack on the alkene and subsequent nucleophilic bond formation, to the nucleophile-assisted alkene activation (NAAA) cases where electron donation from the nucleophilic addition partner activates the alkene for electrophilic attack. By highlighting the factors that control reactivity across this range, this study suggests opportunities to explain and control stereo-, regio-, and organocatalytic chemistry in this important class of alkene additions.
Project description:Herein is reported the first example of palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) reactions involving 2-aza-?-allyl palladium intermediates. The 2-aza-?-allyl complex was generated via a novel mode of activation of N-allyl imines. Pd-catalyzed C(sp3)-H activation of N-allyl imines and subsequent nucleophilic attack by glycinates delivered vicinal diamino derivatives as the sole regioisomers with high levels of diastereo- and enantio-control in the presence of the chiral, bidentate (S,S)-Cy-DIOP ligand. This procedure is highly atom economical and could also be performed by a simple one-pot operation starting from aldehydes, allyl amines and glycinates under mild conditions. The products of this transformation could be converted into various useful derivatives, where the allyl substitution serves as a unique tool for differentiating the two amino moieties in the products.
Project description:Under the influence of a chiral bidentate diphosphine ligand, the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric cross-coupling of allylboron reagents and allylic electrophiles establishes 1,5-dienes with adjacent stereocenters in high regio- and stereoselectivity. A mechanistic study of the coupling utilizing reaction calorimetry and density functional theory analysis suggests that the reaction operates through an inner-sphere 3,3'-reductive elimination pathway, which is both rate-defining and stereodefining. Coupled with optimized reaction conditions, this mechanistic detail is used to expand the scope of allyl-allyl couplings to allow the generation of 1,5-dienes with tertiary centers adjacent to quaternary centers as well as a unique set of cyclic structures.
Project description:We herein disclose the first report of a first-row transition metal-catalyzed ?,?-dehydrogenation of carbonyl compounds using allyl-nickel catalysis. This development overcomes several limitations of previously reported allyl-palladium-catalyzed oxidation, and is further leveraged for the development of an oxidative cycloalkenylation reaction that provides access to bicycloalkenones with fused, bridged, and spirocyclic ring systems using unactivated ketone and alkene precursors.
Project description:The ROCM reactions of exo- and endo-2-cyano-7-oxanorbornenes with allyl alcohol or allyl acetate promoted by different ruthenium alkylidene catalysts were studied. The stereochemical outcome of the reactions was established. The issues concerning chemo- (ROCM vs ROMP), regio- (1-2- vs 1-3-product formation), and stereo- (E/Z isomerism) selectivity of reactions under various conditions are discussed. Surprisingly good yields of the ROCM products were obtained under neat conditions.