Autoimmune conditions are associated with perioperative thrombotic complications in liver transplant recipients: A UNOS database analysis.
ABSTRACT: End stage liver disease (ESLD) is associated with significant thrombotic complications. In this study, we attempted to determine if patients with ESLD, due to oncologic or autoimmune diseases, are susceptible to thrombosis to a greater extent than patients with ESLD due to other causes.In this retrospective study, we analyzed the UNOS database to determine the incidence of thrombotic complications in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients with autoimmune and oncologic conditions. Between 2000 and 2012, 65,646 OLTs were performed. We found 4,247 cases of preoperative portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and 1,233 cases of postoperative vascular thrombosis (VT) leading to graft failure.Statistical evaluation demonstrated that patients with either hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIC) had a higher incidence of PVT (p = 0.05 and 0.03 respectively). Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and AIC had a higher incidence of postoperative VT associated with graft failure (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.05 respectively). Patients with preoperative PVT had a higher incidence of postoperative VT (p < 0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that patients with AIC, and BMI ≥40, having had a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and those with diabetes mellitus were more likely to have preoperative PVT: odds ratio (OR)(1.36, 1.19, 1.78, 1.22 respectively). Patients with PSC, PBC, AIC, BMI ≤18, or with a preoperative PVT were more likely to have a postoperative VT: OR (1.93, 2.09, 1.64, 1.60, and 2.01, respectively).Despite the limited number of variables available in the UNOS database potentially related to thrombotic complications, this analysis demonstrates a clear association between autoimmune causes of ESLD and perioperative thrombotic complications. Perioperative management of patients at risk should include strategies to reduce the potential for these complications.
Project description:In this review, we analyze the epidemiology of thromboses related to end-stage liver disease (ESLD), discuss causes of hypercoagulability, describe susceptible populations, and critically evaluate proposed prophylaxis and treatment of thromboses. Classically, ESLD has been regarded as a model for coagulopathy, and patients were deemed to be at high risk for bleeding complications. Patients with ESLD are not auto-anticoagulated, and they do not have a lower risk of portal vein thrombosis, intracardiac thrombus formation, pulmonary embolism or hepatic artery thrombosis. Though the cause of hypercoagulability is multifactorial, endothelial dysfunction likely plays a central role for all patients with ESLD. Some subpopulations, such as patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and autoimmune conditions, are at increased risk of thrombotic events as are patients of Hispanic ethnicity. The science behind prophylaxis of different types of clotting and treatment of thromboses is developing rapidly. A number of medications, including low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, aspirin, vitamin K antagonists, and direct oral anticoagulants can be used, but clear guidelines are lacking. Acute intraoperative clotting can be associated with high mortality. Routine use of transesophageal echocardiography can be helpful in early recognition and treatment of intraoperative thrombosis. Heparin should be reserved for cases of intracardiac thrombus/pulmonary embolism without hemodynamic instability. In unstable patients, low dose of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator can be used. In this new era of heightened awareness of thrombotic events in ESLD patients, prospective randomized trials are urgently needed to best guide clinical practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Thrombin formation commences perioperatively in orthopaedic surgery and therefore some surgeons prefer preoperative initiation of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. However, because of the potential for increased surgical bleeding, the postoperative initiation of thromboprophylaxis has been advocated to reduce blood loss, need for transfusion, and bleeding complications. Trials on timing of thromboprophylaxis have been designed primarily to detect thrombotic events, and it has been difficult to interpret the magnitude of blood loss and bleeding events owing to lack of information for bleeding volume and underpowered bleeding end points. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We therefore asked whether there are differences in blood loss, transfusion requirements, and other postoperative clinical complications with preoperative versus postoperative start of thromboprophylaxis with dalteparin. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 80 patients undergoing primary cemented THA were allocated to dalteparin injections starting 12 hours before or 6 hours after surgery. Blood loss was measured by weighing sponges and drapes, volume in suction drains during surgery, and wound drains until removal 24 hours postoperatively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were recorded at predefined times during and after surgery. RESULTS: We found no differences in blood loss (1081 mL ± 424 mL versus 1023 mL ± 238 mL), bleeding-related events (10% versus 17%), or number of patients who had transfusions (12 versus five) with preoperative and postoperative thromboprophylaxis, respectively. Other complications were few in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest blood loss is similar with preoperative and postoperative initiation of dalteparin thromboprophylaxis, but indicate a trend toward fewer transfusion requirements which might favor postoperative start of thromboprophylaxis.
Project description:The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease in which antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) cause vascular thrombosis (VT+) and/or pregnancy morbidity (PM+). The experiment aimed at determining whether specific aPL are associated with thrombotic or obstetric manifestations. In the present study we carried out microarray analysis comparing patterns of mRNA expression in monocytes from a healthy volunteer exposed to IgG from patients with a history of vascular thrombosis (VT+/PM-) or pregnancy morbidity (VT-/PM+) or to IgG from healthy controls (HC).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary vein thrombosis (PVT) and cerebral infarction are rare but critical complications after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). CASE PRESENTATION:We experienced two cases of massive middle cerebral artery infarction after VATS for the left upper lobe. Although the precise source of their embolus was never identified, both cases were clinically suspected PVT. Unfortunately, case 2 died because of progressive cerebral herniation. We decided to perform contrast-enhanced computed tomography routinely after VATS for the left upper lobectomy (VATS-LUL) after these cases. Case 3, a 79-year-old female patient, underwent VATS-LUL for lung cancer. She developed PVT in the stump of the left upper pulmonary vein on postoperative day 4. Anti-coagulation therapy was begun immediately and continued for 3 months. She was free of complications 7 months after the operation. CONCLUSION:PVT and cerebral infarction may occur after VATS-LUL. Appropriate postoperative management is required to recognize PVT and to prevent life-threatening stroke.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk of heart failure. It has been shown that diabetes leads to DM-cardiomyopathy, characterized by systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Pre-transplant diastolic dysfunction, has been associated with poor graft outcome and mortality. We assessed the hypothesis that end-stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with diabetes (DM-ESLD), have more advanced cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction, compared to ESLD patients without diabetes (Non DM-ESLD).<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively evaluated preoperative echocardiography of 1,319 consecutive liver transplant recipients (1,007 Non DM-ESLD vs. 312 DM-ESLD [23.7%]) January 2012-May 2016. Systolic and diastolic indices, such as left ventricular ejection fraction, transmital E/A ratio, tissue doppler s', e' velocity, and E/e' ratio (index of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure), were compared using 1:2 propensity-score matching.<h4>Results</h4>DM-ESLD patients showed no differences in systolic indices of left ventricular ejection fraction and s' velocity, whereas diastolic indices of E/A ratio ? 1 (49.0% vs. 40.2% P = 0.014), e' velocity (median = 7.0 vs. 7.4 cm/s, P < 0.001) and E/e' ratio (10.9 ± 3.2 vs. 10.1 ± 3.0, P < 0.001), showed worse diastolic function compare with Non DM-ESLD patients, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>DM-ESLD patients suffer higher degree of diastolic dysfunction compared with Non DM-ESLD patients. Based on this, careful preoperative screening for diastolic dysfunction in DM-ESLD patients is encouraged, because poor transplant outcomes have been noted in patients with preoperative diastolic dysfunction.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Vascular complications, such as HAT, are an important cause of graft loss and recipient mortality. We aimed to characterize post-transplant thrombotic events in a cohort of liver transplant recipients, and identify independent risk factors for these complications.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a thrombophilic study of 293 orthotopic liver transplants performed in the Digestive Surgery Department of the 12 de Octubre Hospital (Madrid, Spain) between January 2001 and December 2006.<h4>Results</h4>The most frequent post-transplant thrombotic events were HAT (9%) and PVT (1.7%). The one variable associated with post-transplant thrombotic event was a high fibrinogen level in the global cohort of liver transplantation. But toxicity as event post-OLT has been associated with post-transplant thrombotic event in the retrospective group and high fibrinogen level and low protein C levels were associated post-transplant thrombotic event in the prospective group. Liver disease relapse (HR 6.609, p < 0.001), high levels of FVIII (HR 1.008, p = 0.019)) and low levels of antithrombin (HR 0.946, p < 0.001) were associated with poor overall survival (OS).In conclusion, high fibrinogen and decreased protein C levels were associated with allograft thrombosis. Further studies are required in order to assess the clinical relevance of these parameters in prospective studies and to study the effect of anticoagulation prophylaxis in this group of risk.
Project description:Background:Visceral obesity is a risk factor for complications after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. However, it is unclear whether postoperative complications decrease with preoperative reduction of visceral fat without the achievement of a nonobese state. This is because previous studies have performed categorical comparisons of obesity and nonobesity. The current study was performed to estimate the impact of the preoperative visceral fat area (VFA) as a continuous variable on postoperative complications after gastrectomy. Methods:Consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy between June 2006 and August 2017 at the Kyoto University Hospital were included in this retrospective study. The VFA at the level of the umbilicus was measured using preoperative computed tomography. The relationship between postoperative complications and VFA was investigated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results:total of 566 patients were included in the study. Their mean VFA was 110?±?58?cm2, and postoperative complications occurred in 121 patients (21.4%). The larger the VFA (<50, 50-99, 100-149, and ?150?cm2), the higher the incidence of postoperative complications (11%, 14%, 21%, and 38%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the VFA was associated with postoperative complications (odds ratio: 1.009, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.004-1.013, P < 0.001), with an incidence of postoperative complications that was 9% (95% CI: 4%-12%) higher for every 10?cm2 increase in the VFA. Conclusion:The incidence of postoperative complications after gastrectomy increases in proportion to an increase in the preoperative VFA.
Project description:The association between preoperative use of infliximab and postoperative complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a subject of continued debate. Results from studies examining an association between the timing of last preoperative dose of infliximab and postoperative complications remain inconsistent.To assess whether timing of last dose of infliximab prior to surgery affects the rate of postoperative complications in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.Retrospective chart review of IBD patients who have undergone surgery while receiving therapy with infliximab was conducted. Forty-seven patients were included in the analysis.No significant association was found between timing of infliximab and the rate of postoperative complications. Age, gender, disease type, steroid use, preoperative status, surgery type, or surgeon type was not associated with increased rate of postoperative complications.Timing of last dose of infliximab does not affect the rate of postoperative complications in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
Project description:Introduction ?There is scarce real-world experience regarding direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) perioperative management. No study before has linked bridging therapy or DOAC-free time (pre-plus postoperative time without DOAC) with outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate real-world management and outcomes. Methods ?RA-ACOD is a prospective, observational, multicenter registry of adult patients on DOAC treatment requiring surgery. Primary outcomes were thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Follow-up was immediate postoperative (24-48?hours) and 30 days. Statistics were performed using a univariate and multivariate analysis. Data are presented as odds ratios (ORs [95% confidence interval]). Results ?From 26 Spanish hospitals, 901 patients were analyzed (53.5% major surgeries): 322 on apixaban, 304 on rivaroxaban, 267 on dabigatran, 8 on edoxaban. Fourteen (1.6%) patients suffered a thrombotic event, related to preoperative DOAC withdrawal (OR: 1.57 [1.03-2.4]) and DOAC-free time longer than 6 days (OR: 5.42 [1.18-26]). Minor bleeding events were described in 76 (8.4%) patients, with higher incidence for dabigatran (12.7%) versus other DOACs (6.6%). Major bleeding events occurred in 17 (1.9%) patients. Bridging therapy was used in 315 (35%) patients. It was associated with minor (OR: 2.57 [1.3-5.07]) and major (OR: 4.2 [1.4-12.3]) bleeding events, without decreasing thrombotic events. Conclusion ?This study offers real-world data on perioperative DOAC management and outcomes in a large prospective sample size to date with a high percentage of major surgery. Short-term preprocedural DOAC interruption depending on the drug, hemorrhagic risk, and renal function, without bridging therapy and a reduced DOAC-free time, seems the safest practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Compared with historic ventilation strategies, modern lung-protective ventilation includes lower tidal volumes (VT), lower driving pressures, and application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). The contributions of each component to an overall intraoperative protective ventilation strategy aimed at reducing postoperative pulmonary complications have neither been adequately resolved, nor comprehensively evaluated within an adult cardiac surgical population. The authors hypothesized that a bundled intraoperative protective ventilation strategy was independently associated with decreased odds of pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. METHODS:In this observational cohort study, the authors reviewed nonemergent cardiac surgical procedures using cardiopulmonary bypass at a tertiary care academic medical center from 2006 to 2017. The authors tested associations between bundled or component intraoperative protective ventilation strategies (VT below 8 ml/kg ideal body weight, modified driving pressure [peak inspiratory pressure - PEEP] below 16 cm H2O, and PEEP greater than or equal to 5 cm H2O) and postoperative outcomes, adjusting for previously identified risk factors. The primary outcome was a composite pulmonary complication; secondary outcomes included individual pulmonary complications, postoperative mortality, as well as durations of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay. RESULTS:Among 4,694 cases reviewed, 513 (10.9%) experienced pulmonary complications. After adjustment, an intraoperative lung-protective ventilation bundle was associated with decreased pulmonary complications (adjusted odds ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42-0.75). Via a sensitivity analysis, modified driving pressure below 16 cm H2O was independently associated with decreased pulmonary complications (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.39-0.66), but VT below 8 ml/kg and PEEP greater than or equal to 5 cm H2O were not. CONCLUSIONS:The authors identified an intraoperative lung-protective ventilation bundle as independently associated with pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The findings offer insight into components of protective ventilation associated with adverse outcomes and may serve as targets for future prospective interventional studies investigating the impact of specific protective ventilation strategies on postoperative outcomes after cardiac surgery.