Thalamic reticular impairment underlies attention deficit in Ptchd1(Y/-) mice.
ABSTRACT: Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood. Here we report that during early post-natal development, mouse Ptchd1 is selectively expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a group of GABAergic neurons that regulate thalamocortical transmission, sleep rhythms, and attention. Ptchd1 deletion attenuates TRN activity through mechanisms involving small conductance calcium-dependent potassium currents (SK). TRN-restricted deletion of Ptchd1 leads to attention deficits and hyperactivity, both of which are rescued by pharmacological augmentation of SK channel activity. Global Ptchd1 deletion recapitulates learning impairment, hyper-aggression, and motor defects, all of which are insensitive to SK pharmacological targeting and not found in the TRN-restricted deletion mouse. This study maps clinically relevant behavioural phenotypes onto TRN dysfunction in a human disease model, while also identifying molecular and circuit targets for intervention.
Project description:Deleterious mutations in patchd1 domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) gene have been identified in patients with intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To clarify the causal relationship between Ptchd1 deficiency and behavioral defects relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders, we generated global Ptchd1 knockout (KO) mice. Ptchd1 KO mice displayed hyperlocomotion, increased impulsivity, and lower recognition memory, which resemble attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behaviors. Acute or chronic treatment with atomoxetine ameliorated almost all behavioral deficits in Pthcd1 KO mice. We next determined possible involvement of the kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolites in neurodevelopmental disorders in Ptchd1 KO mice and assessed the potential of KP metabolites as biomarkers for ADHD and/or ASD. Ptchd1 KO mice showed drastic changes in KP metabolite concentrations in the serum and the brain, indicating that the activated KP is associated with ADHD-like behaviors. Our findings indicate that Ptchd1 KO mice can be used as an animal model of human ADHD and/or ASD, and KP metabolites are potential diagnostic biomarkers for neurodevelopmental disorders.
Project description:Synapse development and neuronal activity represent fundamental processes for the establishment of cognitive function. Structural organization as well as signalling pathways from receptor stimulation to gene expression regulation are mediated by synaptic activity and misregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). Deleterious mutations in the PTCHD1 (Patched domain containing 1) gene have been described in male patients with X-linked ID and/or ASD. The structure of PTCHD1 protein is similar to the Patched (PTCH1) receptor; however, the cellular mechanisms and pathways associated with PTCHD1 in the developing brain are poorly determined. Here we show that PTCHD1 displays a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif that binds to the postsynaptic proteins PSD95 and SAP102. We also report that PTCHD1 is unable to rescue the canonical sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway in cells depleted of PTCH1, suggesting that both proteins are involved in distinct cellular signalling pathways. We find that Ptchd1 deficiency in male mice (Ptchd1-/y) induces global changes in synaptic gene expression, affects the expression of the immediate-early expression genes Egr1 and Npas4 and finally impairs excitatory synaptic structure and neuronal excitatory activity in the hippocampus, leading to cognitive dysfunction, motor disabilities and hyperactivity. Thus our results support that PTCHD1 deficiency induces a neurodevelopmental disorder causing excitatory synaptic dysfunction.
Project description:Recent findings revealed rare copy number variants and missense changes in the X-linked gene PTCHD1 in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). Here, we aim to explore the contribution of common PTCHD1 variants in ASD and gain additional evidence for the role of rare variants of this gene in ASD and ID. A two-stage case-control association study investigated 28 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 994 ASD cases and 1035 controls from four European populations. Mutation screening was performed in 673 individuals who included 240 ASD cases, 183 ID patients and 250 controls. The case-control association study showed a significant association with rs7052177 (P=6.13E-4) in the ASD discovery sample that was replicated in an independent sample (P=0.03). A Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis for rs7052177T considering the four European populations showed an odds ratio of 0.58 (P=7E-05). This SNP is predicted to be located in a transcription factor binding site. No rare missense PTCHD1 variants were found in our ASD cohort and only one was identified in the ID sample. A duplication (27?bp) in the promoter region, absent from 590 controls, was found in three ASD patients (Fisher exact test, P=0.024). A gene reporter assay showed a significant decrease in the transcriptional activity (26%) driven by this variant. Moreover, we found that the longest allele of a trinucleotide repeat located upstream from PTCHD1 was associated with ASD (P=0.003, permP=0.0186). Our results further support the involvement of PTCHD1 in ASD, suggesting that both common and rare variants contribute to the disorder.
Project description:Synapse development and neuronal activity represent fundamental processes for the establishment of cognitive function. Structural organization as well as signalling pathways from receptor stimulation to gene expression regulation are mediated by synaptic activity and misregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). Deleterious mutations in the PTCHD1 (Patched domain containing 1) gene have been described in male patients with X-linked ID and/or ASD. The structure of PTCHD1 protein is similar to the Patched (PTCH1) receptor; however, the cellular mechanisms and pathways associated with PTCHD1 in the developing brain are poorly determined. Here we show that PTCHD1 displays a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif that binds to the postsynaptic proteins PSD95 and SAP102. We also report that PTCHD1 is unable to rescue the canonical sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway in cells depleted of PTCH1, suggesting that both proteins are involved in distinct cellular signalling pathways. We find that Ptchd1 deficiency in male mice (Ptchd1-/y) induces global changes in synaptic gene expression, affects the expression of the immediate-early expression genes Egr1 and Npas4 and finally impairs excitatory synaptic structure and neuronal excitatory activity in the hippocampus, leading to cognitive dysfunction, motor disabilities and hyperactivity. Thus our results support that PTCHD1 deficiency induces a neurodevelopmental disorder causing excitatory synaptic dysfunction. Overall design: 6 samples RNA-seq. 3 kos, 3wts.
Project description:Copy number variations (CNVs) are implicated across many neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and contribute to their shared genetic etiology. Multiple studies have attempted to identify shared etiology among NDDs, but this is the first genome-wide CNV analysis across autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia (SCZ), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) at once. Using microarray (Affymetrix CytoScan HD), we genotyped 2,691 subjects diagnosed with an NDD (204 SCZ, 1,838 ASD, 427 ADHD and 222 OCD) and 1,769 family members, mainly parents. We identified rare CNVs, defined as those found in <0.1% of 10,851 population control samples. We found clinically relevant CNVs (broadly defined) in 284 (10.5%) of total subjects, including 22 (10.8%) among subjects with SCZ, 209 (11.4%) with ASD, 40 (9.4%) with ADHD, and 13 (5.6%) with OCD. Among all NDD subjects, we identified 17 (0.63%) with aneuploidies and 115 (4.3%) with known genomic disorder variants. We searched further for genes impacted by different CNVs in multiple disorders. Examples of NDD-associated genes linked across more than one disorder (listed in order of occurrence frequency) are NRXN1, SEH1L, LDLRAD4, GNAL, GNG13, MKRN1, DCTN2, KNDC1, PCMTD2, KIF5A, SYNM, and long non-coding RNAs: AK127244 and PTCHD1-AS. We demonstrated that CNVs impacting the same genes could potentially contribute to the etiology of multiple NDDs. The CNVs identified will serve as a useful resource for both research and diagnostic laboratories for prioritization of variants.
Project description:Importance:Given the critical role that iron plays in neurodevelopment, an association between prenatal iron deficiency and later risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intellectual disability (ID), is plausible. Objective:To test the a priori hypothesis that anemia diagnosed in mothers during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of ASD, ADHD, and ID in offspring and that the magnitude of the risk varies with regard to the timing of anemia in pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study used health and population register data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort to evaluate 532 232 nonadoptive children born from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2010, in Sweden, with follow-up in health registers until December 31, 2016. Data analysis was performed from January 15, 2018, to June 20, 2018. Exposures:Registered diagnoses of anemia during pregnancy. Gestational timing of the first recorded anemia diagnosis (≤30 weeks or >30 weeks) was considered to assess potential critical windows of development. Main Outcomes and Measures:Registered diagnoses of ASD, ADHD, or ID or co-occurring combinations of these disorders. Results:The cohort included 532 232 individuals (272 884 [51.3%] male) between 6 and 29 years of age at the end of follow-up (mean [SD] age, 17.6 [7.1] years) and their 299 768 mothers. The prevalence of ASD, ADHD, and ID was higher among children born to mothers diagnosed with anemia within the first 30 weeks of pregnancy (4.9% ASD, 9.3% ADHD, and 3.1% ID) compared with mothers with anemia diagnosed later in pregnancy (3.8% ASD, 7.2% ADHD, and 1.1% ID) or mothers not diagnosed with anemia (3.5% ASD, 7.1% ADHD, and 1.3% ID). Anemia diagnosed during the first 30 weeks of pregnancy but not later was associated with increased risk of diagnosis of ASD (odds ratio [OR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.13-1.84), ADHD (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.14-1.64), and ID (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.61-3.01) in offspring in models that included socioeconomic, maternal, and pregnancy-related factors. Early anemia diagnosis was similarly associated with risk of ASD (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.24-4.11) and ID (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.08-6.22) in a matched sibling comparison. Considering mutually exclusive diagnostic groups, we observed the strongest association between anemia and ID without co-occurring ASD (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.84-4.01). Associations of these disorders with anemia diagnosed later in pregnancy were greatly diminished. Conclusions and Relevance:In contrast to maternal anemia diagnosed toward the end of pregnancy, anemia diagnosed earlier in pregnancy was associated with increased risk of the development of ASD, ADHD, and particularly ID in offspring. Given that iron deficiency and anemia are common among women of childbearing age, our findings emphasize the importance of early screening for iron status and nutritional counseling in antenatal care.
Project description:Children with learning disability (LD), intellectual disability (ID), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reported higher risk of being bullied compared to their peers. Controlling for the co-morbidity of different diagnosis is important in investigating the frequency of bullying. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the pathway relationship of adolescents' psychiatric diagnoses, including LD, ID, ADHD, ASD, with being bullied, their self-perceived psychological well-being (PWB) and social adaptation status (SAS) in 12-years-olds.The Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study dataset (N = 1561) was used. The Chinese Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to measure PWB and SAS.Adolescent-reported rate of bullying was 25.4%, while only 2.8% of the parents reported knowing their child had been bullied. Boys reported higher rate of being bullied than girls. Adolescents with ADHD were not at higher risk of being bullied compared to their peers, nevertheless, they perceived lower level of SAS. Adolescents diagnosed with ID and ASD reported 63% rate of bullying and those who have been bullied perceived lower level of happiness.Adolescents with ADHD reported lower level of SAS, for disruption of harmony is even less acceptable in the Asian culture. Adolescents with ID and ASD reported higher rate of bullying than their peers and perceived lower level of happiness. A gap was found between parent and adolescent-reported rate of bullying. Encouraging adolescents to seek adult protection and support to reduce the effect of bullying on the perceived level of happiness is important.
Project description:Neurodevelopmental disorders are defined by highly heritable problems during development and brain growth. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and intellectual disability (ID) are frequent neurodevelopmental disorders, with common comorbidity among them. Imaging genetics studies on the role of disease-linked genetic variants on brain structure and function have been performed to unravel the etiology of these disorders. Here, we reviewed imaging genetics literature on these disorders attempting to understand the mechanisms of individual disorders and their clinical overlap. For ADHD and ASD, we selected replicated candidate genes implicated through common genetic variants. For ID, which is mainly caused by rare variants, we included genes for relatively frequent forms of ID occurring comorbid with ADHD or ASD. We reviewed case-control studies and studies of risk variants in healthy individuals. Imaging genetics studies for ADHD were retrieved for SLC6A3/DAT1, DRD2, DRD4, NOS1, and SLC6A4/5HTT. For ASD, studies on CNTNAP2, MET, OXTR, and SLC6A4/5HTT were found. For ID, we reviewed the genes FMR1, TSC1 and TSC2, NF1, and MECP2. Alterations in brain volume, activity, and connectivity were observed. Several findings were consistent across studies, implicating, for example, SLC6A4/5HTT in brain activation and functional connectivity related to emotion regulation. However, many studies had small sample sizes, and hypothesis-based, brain region-specific studies were common. Results from available studies confirm that imaging genetics can provide insight into the link between genes, disease-related behavior, and the brain. However, the field is still in its early stages, and conclusions about shared mechanisms cannot yet be drawn.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls, to infer a structural equation model using a causal discovery algorithm. Three distinct pathways between ASD and ADHD were identified: (1) from impulsivity to difficulties with understanding social information, (2) from hyperactivity to stereotypic, repetitive behavior, (3) a pairwise pathway between inattention, difficulties with understanding social information, and verbal IQ. These findings may inform future studies on understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the overlap between ASD and ADHD.