ABSTRACT: In the classic Diels-Alder [4?+?2] cycloaddition reaction, the overall degree of unsaturation (or oxidation state) of the 4? (diene) and 2? (dienophile) pairs of reactants dictates the oxidation state of the newly formed six-membered carbocycle. For example, in the classic Diels-Alder reaction, butadiene and ethylene combine to produce cyclohexene. More recent developments include variants in which the number of hydrogen atoms in the reactant pair and in the resulting product is reduced by, for example, four in the tetradehydro-Diels-Alder (TDDA) and by six in the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reactions. Any oxidation state higher than tetradehydro (that is, lacking more than four hydrogens) leads to the production of a reactive intermediate that is more highly oxidized than benzene. This increases the power of the overall process substantially, because trapping of the reactive intermediate can be used to increase the structural complexity of the final product in a controllable and versatile manner. Here we report an unprecedented overall 4??+?2? cycloaddition reaction that generates a different, highly reactive intermediate known as an ?,3-dehydrotoluene. This species is in the same oxidation state as a benzyne. Like benzynes, ?,3-dehydrotoluenes can be captured by various trapping agents to produce structurally diverse products that are complementary to those arising from the HDDA process. We call this new cycloisomerization process a pentadehydro-Diels-Alder (PDDA) reaction-a nomenclature chosen for chemical taxonomic reasons rather than mechanistic ones. In addition to alkynes, nitriles (RC?N), although non-participants in aza-HDDA reactions, readily function as the 2? component in PDDA cyclizations to produce, via trapping of the ?,3-(5-aza)dehydrotoluene intermediates, pyridine-containing products.
Project description:The generation of pyridynes from diyne nitriles is reported. These cyano-containing precursors are analogues of the triyne substrates typically used for the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) cycloisomerization reactions that produce ring-fused benzynes. Hence, the new processes described represent aza-HDDA reactions. Depending on the location of the nitrile, either 3,4-pyridynes (from 1,3-diynes containing a tethered cyano group) or 2,3-pyridynes (from 1-cyanoethyne derivatives containing a tethered alkyne) are produced. In situ trapping of these reactive intermediates leads to highly substituted and functionalized pyridine derivatives. In several instances, unprecedented pyridyne trapping reactions are seen. Differences in reaction energetics between the aza-HDDA substrates and that of their analogous HDDA (triyne) substrates are discussed.
Project description:Here we report the use of the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction for the de novo construction of a benzenoid ring in fused polycyclic heteroaromatic carbazole (i.e., [2,3]-benzoindole) skeletons. The strategy allows creation of highly substituted benzenoids. We also describe the HDDA-enabled chemical synthesis of the natural product alkaloids mahanimbine and koenidine. Trapping of the intermediate carbazolyne with a conjugated enal, proceeding through formal [2+2] cycloaddition, 4?-electrocyclic ring opening, and 6?-electrocyclic ring-closing events, constitutes a robust method for producing pyranocarbazoles.
Project description:A synthetic strategy formally equivalent to an intermolecular hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction is described. Sulfur-based linkers were designed and constructed by joining terminal alkynes or diynes using alkyne thiolate chemistry. The resulting tetraynes and triynes successfully underwent HDDA cyclization and benzyne trapping. Linker removal by reductive desulfurization was uneventful. The strategy was also found suitable for the tetradehydro-Diels-Alder (TDDA) reaction.
Project description:We demonstrate that the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) cycloisomerization reaction to produce reactive benzyne derivatives can be initiated photochemically. As with the thermal variant of the HDDA process, the reactive intermediates are formed in the absence of reagents or the resulting byproducts required for the generation of benzynes by traditional methods. This photo-HDDA (or h?-HDDA) reaction occurs at much lower temperatures (including even at -70 °C) than the thermal HDDA, but the benzynes produced behave in the same fashion with respect to their trapping reactions, suggesting they are of the same electronic state.
Project description:The efficient dichlorination of benzynes prepared by the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction is reported. Cycloisomerization of a triyne substrate in the presence of dilithium tetrachlorocuprate is shown to provide dichlorinated products A by capture of the benzyne intermediate. A general strategy for discerning the kinetic order of an external aryne trapping agent is presented. It merely requires measurement of the competition between bimolecular vs unimolecular trapping events (here, dichlorination vs intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction to give A vs B, respectively) as a function of the concentration of the trapping agent.
Project description:Benzynes can be generated by the intramolecular thermal cycloisomerization of triynes-the title HDDA reaction. We report here that these can be trapped by cycloaddition reaction with trimethylsilyl azide (1,3-dipolar) or a furan or pyrrole (4+2 Diels-Alder).
Project description:A series of eight new 5-aryl-benzo[f][1,7]naphthyridines were synthesized in 17 to 64% overall yields via an improved MW-assisted cascade-like one pot process (Ugi?three component reaction/intramolecular aza-Diels-Alder cycloaddition) coupled to an aromatization process from tri-functional dienophile-containing ester-anilines, substituted benzaldehydes and the chain-ring tautomerizable 2-isocyano-1-morpholino-3-phenylpropan-1-one as starting reagents, under mild conditions. The doubly activated dienophile and the aza-diene functionalities of the eight new Ugi-adducts were exploited to perform an in situ aza-Diels-Alder cycloaddition/aromatization (dehydration/oxidation) process, toward the complex polysubstituted 5-aryl-polyheterocycles, which could be taken as starting point for further SAR studies because the benzo[f][1,7]naphthyridine is the core of various bioactive products. It is relevant to emphasize that the synthesis or isolation of benzo[f][1,7]naphthyridines containing a substituted aromatic ring in the C-5 position, has not been published before.
Project description:We report here experiments showing that the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) cycloisomerization reaction proceeds in a stepwise manner-i.e., via a diradical intermediate. Judicious use of substituent effects was decisive. We prepared (i) a series of triyne HDDA substrates that differed only in the R group present on the remote terminus of the diynophilic alkyne and (ii) an analogous series of dienophilic alkynes (n-C7H15COC?CR) for use in classical Diels-Alder (DA) reactions (with 1,3-cyclopentadiene). The R groups were CF3, CHO, COMe/Et, CO2Me, CONMe2/Et2, H, and 1-propynyl. The relative rates of both the HDDA cyclization reactions and the simple DA cycloadditions were measured. The reactivity trends revealed a dramatic difference in the behaviors of the CF3 (slowest HDDA and nearly fastest DA) and 1-propynyl (fastest HDDA and slowest DA) containing members of each series. These differences can be explained by invoking radical-stabilizing energies rather than electron-withdrawing effects as the dominating feature of the HDDA reaction.
Project description:We report here thermal reactions between furan and one of three related triyne substrates. Each triyne is capable of reacting initially in two modes: (i) unimolecular hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction or (ii) bimolecular Diels-Alder reaction between one of its alkynes with furan. The relative rates of these initial events are such that two of the substrates react essentially in only one of modes (i) or (ii). The third is intermediate in behavior; its bifurcation is dependent on the concentration of the furan reactant. These results teach, more generally, principles relevant to the design of efficient HDDA-based reaction cascades.
Project description:Ru-catalyzed tandem amine oxidative dehydrogenation/formal aza-Diels?Alder reaction for enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of indoloquinolizidine-2-ones from tetrahydro-?-carbolines and ?,?-unsaturated ketones is described. The reaction proceeds via tandem ruthenium-catalyzed amine dehydrogenation using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant and a chiral thiourea-catalyzed formal aza-[4 + 2] cycloaddition, providing a step-economical strategy for the synthesis of these valuable heterocyclic products.