Changes in the sympathetic innervation of the gut in rotenone treated mice as possible early biomarker for Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT: Involvement of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is relatively common in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. PNS alterations appear early in the course of the disease and are responsible for some of the non-motor symptoms observed in PD patients. In previous studies, we have shown that environmental toxins can trigger the disease by acting on the enteric nervous system.Here, we analyzed the effect of mitochondrial Complex I inhibition on sympathetic neuritis in vivo and sympathetic neurons in vitro. Combining in vivo imaging and protein expression profiling.we found that rotenone, a widely used mitochondrial Complex I inhibitor decreases the density of sympathetic neurites innervating the gut in vivo, while in vitro, it induces the redistribution of intracellular alpha-synuclein and neurite degeneration. Interestingly, sympathetic neurons are much more resistant to rotenone exposure than mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.Altogether, these results suggest that enteric sympathetic denervation could be an initial pre-motor alteration in PD progression that could be used as an early biomarker of the disease.
Project description:In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the associated pathology follows a characteristic pattern involving inter alia the enteric nervous system (ENS), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), the intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord and the substantia nigra, providing the basis for the neuropathological staging of the disease. Here we report that intragastrically administered rotenone, a commonly used pesticide that inhibits Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is able to reproduce PD pathological staging as found in patients. Our results show that low doses of chronically and intragastrically administered rotenone induce alpha-synuclein accumulation in all the above-mentioned nervous system structures of wild-type mice. Moreover, we also observed inflammation and alpha-synuclein phosphorylation in the ENS and DMV. HPLC analysis showed no rotenone levels in the systemic blood or the central nervous system (detection limit [rotenone]<20 nM) and mitochondrial Complex I measurements showed no systemic Complex I inhibition after 1.5 months of treatment. These alterations are sequential, appearing only in synaptically connected nervous structures, treatment time-dependent and accompanied by inflammatory signs and motor dysfunctions. These results strongly suggest that the local effect of pesticides on the ENS might be sufficient to induce PD-like progression and to reproduce the neuroanatomical and neurochemical features of PD staging. It provides new insight into how environmental factors could trigger PD and suggests a transsynaptic mechanism by which PD might spread throughout the central nervous system.
Project description:Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms of GI dysmotility in PD include early satiety and weight loss from delayed gastric emptying and constipation from impaired colonic transit. Understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of these symptoms in PD patients has been hampered by the lack of investigation into GI symptoms and pathology in PD animal models. We report that the parkinsonian neurotoxin and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone causes delayed gastric emptying and enteric neuronal dysfunction when administered chronically to rats in the absence of major motor dysfunction or CNS pathology. When examined 22-28 days after initiation of rotenone infusion by osmotic minipump (3 mg/kg/day), 45% of rotenone-treated rats had a profound delay in gastric emptying. Electrophysiological recording of neurally-mediated muscle contraction in isolated colon from rotenone-treated animals confirmed an enteric inhibitory defect associated with rotenone treatment. Rotenone also induced a transient decrease in stool frequency that was associated with weight loss and decreased food and water intake. Pathologically, no alterations in enteric neuron numbers or morphology were apparent in rotenone-treated animals. These results suggest that enteric inhibitory neurons may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of mitochondrial inhibition by parkinsonian neurotoxins and provide evidence that parkinsonian gastrointestinal abnormalities can be modeled in rodents.
Project description:Pathological studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suggest that PD pathology progresses from the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the olfactory bulb into the central nervous system. We have previously shown that environmental toxins acting locally on the ENS mimic this PD-like pathology progression pattern in mice. Here, we show for the first time that the resection of the autonomic nerves stops this progression. Moreover, our results show that an environmental toxin (i.e. rotenone) promotes the release of alpha-synuclein by enteric neurons and that released enteric alpha-synuclein is up-taken by presynaptic sympathetic neurites and retrogradely transported to the soma, where it accumulates. These results strongly suggest that pesticides can initiate the progression of PD pathology and that this progression is based on the transneuronal and retrograde axonal transport of alpha-synuclein. If confirmed in patients, this study would have crucial implications in the strategies used to prevent and treat PD.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, and the hallmarks of this disease include iron deposition and ?-synuclein (?-syn) aggregation. Hepcidin could reduce iron in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Here, we hypothesized that hepcidin could further decrease ?-syn accumulation via reducing iron. Therefore, rotenone or ?-syn was introduced into human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to imitate the pathological progress of PD in vitro. This study investigated the clearance effects of hepcidin on ?-syn induced by a relatively low concentration of rotenone exposure or ?-syn overexpression to elucidate the potential clearance pathway involved in this process. We demonstrated that SH-SY5Y cell viability was impaired after rotenone treatment in a dose-dependent manner. ?-syn expression and iron content increased under a low concentration rotenone (25 nM for 3 days) treatment in SH-SY5Y cells. Pre-treatment with hepcidin peptide suppressed the abovementioned effects of rotenone. However, hepcidin did not affect treatment with rotenone under high iron conditions. Hepcidin also played a role in reducing ?-syn accumulation in rotenone and ?-syn overexpression conditions. We identified that the probable clearance effect of hepcidin on ?-syn was mediated by the autophagy pathway using pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-MA and CQ) and detection of autophagy protein markers (LC3II/I and p62). In conclusion, hepcidin eliminated ?-syn expression via the autophagy pathway in rotenone-treated and ?-syn overexpression SH-SY5Y cells. This study highlights that hepcidin may offer a potential therapeutic perspective in ?-syn accumulation diseases.
Project description:The systemic rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD) accurately replicates many aspects of the pathology of human PD and has provided insights into the pathogenesis of PD. The major limitation of the rotenone model has been its variability, both in terms of the percentage of animals that develop a clear-cut nigrostriatal lesion and the extent of that lesion. The goal here was to develop an improved and highly reproducible rotenone model of PD. In these studies, male Lewis rats in three age groups (3, 7 or 12-14 months) were administered rotenone (2.75 or 3.0 mg/kg/day) in a specialized vehicle by daily intraperitoneal injection. All rotenone-treated animals developed bradykinesia, postural instability, and/or rigidity, which were reversed by apomorphine, consistent with a lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Animals were sacrificed when the PD phenotype became debilitating. Rotenone treatment caused a 45% loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra neurons and a commensurate loss of striatal dopamine. Additionally, in rotenone-treated animals, alpha-synuclein and poly-ubiquitin positive aggregates were observed in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra. In summary, this version of the rotenone model is highly reproducible and may provide an excellent tool to test new neuroprotective strategies.
Project description:We have systematically examined the developmental potential of neural crest stem cells from the enteric nervous system (gut NCSCs) in vivo to evaluate their potential use in cellular therapy for Hirschsprung disease and to assess differences in the properties of postmigratory NCSCs from different regions of the developing peripheral nervous system (PNS). When transplanted into developing chicks, flow-cytometrically purified gut NCSCs and sciatic nerve NCSCs exhibited intrinsic differences in migratory potential and neurogenic capacity throughout the developing PNS. Most strikingly, gut NCSCs migrated into the developing gut and formed enteric neurons, while sciatic nerve NCSCs failed to migrate into the gut or to make enteric neurons, even when transplanted into the gut wall. Enteric potential is therefore not a general property of NCSCs. Gut NCSCs also formed cholinergic neurons in parasympathetic ganglia, but rarely formed noradrenergic sympathetic neurons or sensory neurons. Supporting the potential for autologous transplants in Hirschsprung disease, we observed that Endothelin receptor B (Ednrb)-deficient gut NCSCs engrafted and formed neurons as efficiently in the Ednrb-deficient hindgut as did wild-type NCSCs. These results demonstrate intrinsic differences in the migratory properties and developmental potentials of regionally distinct NCSCs, indicating that it is critical to match the physiological properties of neural stem cells to the goals of proposed cell therapies.
Project description:The mechanisms that regulate peripheral nervous system (PNS) gliogenesis are incompletely understood. For example, gut neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) do not respond to known gliogenic factors, suggesting that yet-unidentified factors regulate gut gliogenesis. To identify new mechanisms, we performed gene expression profiling to identify factors secreted by gut NCSCs during the gliogenic phase of development. These cells highly expressed leucine-rich glioma inactivated 4 (Lgi4) despite the fact that Lgi4 has never been implicated in stem cell function or enteric nervous system development. Lgi4 is known to regulate peripheral nerve myelination (having been identified as the mutated gene in spontaneously arising claw paw mutant mice), but Lgi4 is not known to play any role in PNS development outside of peripheral nerves. To systematically analyze Lgi4 function, we generated gene-targeted mice. Lgi4-deficient mice exhibited a more severe phenotype than claw paw mice and had gliogenic defects in sensory, sympathetic, and enteric ganglia. We found that Lgi4 is required for the proliferation and differentiation of glial-restricted progenitors throughout the PNS. Analysis of compound-mutant mice revealed that the mechanism by which Lgi4 promotes enteric gliogenesis involves binding the ADAM22 receptor. Our results identify a new mechanism regulating enteric gliogenesis as well as novel functions for Lgi4 regulating the proliferation and maturation of glial lineage cells throughout the PNS.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) for several decades, and disturbed mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis) was recently found to be a common phenomenon in PD. Baicalein, a major bioactive flavone of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, exerted neuroprotective effects in several experimental PD models. However, the effects of baicalein in rotenone-induced PD rats and the possible mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of baicalein and explored its mechanism of action in rotenone-induced PD models. The results indicated that behavioural impairments and the depletion of dopaminergic neurons induced by rotenone were attenuated by baicalein. Furthermore, in rotenone-induced parkinsonian rats, baicalein treatment effectively restored mitochondrial function and improved mitobiogenesis, as determined by measuring the mitochondrial density and key regulators involved in mitobiogenesis. Additionally, we confirmed that baicalein enhanced mitobiogenesis through the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) pathways in rotenone-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that the cytoprotective effects of baicalein could be attenuated by the mitobiogenesis inhibitor chloramphenicol as well as CREB siRNA transfection. Overall, our results suggested that baicalein partially enhanced mitobiogenesis to restore mitochondrial function, thus exerting therapeutic effects in rotenone-induced PD models.
Project description:Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, affecting 1 % of the population over 65 years of age. Dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra and accumulation of Lewy bodies are the defining neuropathological hallmarks of the disease. Neuronal death and dysfunction have been reported in other central nervous system regions, including the retina. Symptoms of PD typically manifest only when more than 70 % of dopaminergic cells are lost, and the definitive diagnosis of PD can only be made histologically at post-mortem, with few biomarkers available.In this study, a rotenone-induced rodent model of PD was employed to investigate retinal manifestations in PD and their usefulness in assessing the efficacy of a novel therapeutic intervention with a liposomal formulation of the PPAR-γ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) agonist rosiglitazone.Retinal assessment was performed using longitudinal in vivo imaging with DARC (detection of apoptosing retinal cells) and OCT (optical coherence tomography) technologies and revealed increased RGCs (Retinal Ganglion Cells) apoptosis and a transient swelling of the retinal layers at day 20 of the rotenone insult. Follow-up of this model demonstrated characteristic histological neurodegenerative changes in the substantia nigra and striatum by day 60, suggesting that retinal changes precede the "traditional" pathological manifestations of PD. The therapeutic effect of systemic administration of different formulations of rosiglitazone was then evaluated, both in the retina and the brain. Of all treatment regimen tested, sustained release administration of liposome-encapsulated rosiglitazone proved to be the most potent therapeutic strategy, as evidenced by its significant neuroprotective effect on retinal neurons at day 20, and on nigrostriatal neurons at day 60, provided convincing evidence for its potential as a treatment for PD.Our results demonstrate significant retinal changes occurring in this model of PD. We show that rosiglitazone can efficiently protect retinal neurons from the rotenone insult, and that systemic administration of liposome-encapsulated rosiglitazone has an enhanced neuroprotective effect on the retina and CNS (Central Nervous System). To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo evidence of RGCs loss and early retinal thickness alterations in a PD model. Together, these findings suggest that retinal changes may be a good surrogate biomarker for PD, which may be used to assess new treatments both experimentally and clinically.
Project description:Many studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction, complex I inhibition in particular, is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone, a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, has been shown to produce neurodegeneration in rats as well as in many cellular models that closely resemble PD. However, the mechanisms through which complex I dysfunction might produce neurotoxicity are as yet unknown. A comprehensive analysis of the mitochondrial protein expression profile affected by rotenone can provide important insight into the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD.Here, we present our findings using a recently developed proteomic technology called SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) combined with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare the mitochondrial protein profiles of MES cells (a dopaminergic cell line) exposed to rotenone versus control. We identified 1722 proteins, 950 of which are already designated as mitochondrial proteins based on database search. Among these 950 mitochondrial proteins, 110 displayed significant changes in relative abundance after rotenone treatment. Five of these selected proteins were further validated for their cellular location and/or treatment effect of rotenone. Among them, two were confirmed by confocal microscopy for mitochondrial localization and three were confirmed by Western blotting (WB) for their regulation by rotenone.Our findings represent the first report of these mitochondrial proteins affected by rotenone; further characterization of these proteins may shed more light on PD pathogenesis.