Phase II study of lenalidomide and rituximab as salvage therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
ABSTRACT: Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug active as salvage therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We combined lenalidomide with rituximab to improve response rates in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL.Fifty-nine adult patients (age 42 to 82 years) with relapsed or refractory CLL were enrolled onto a phase II study of lenalidomide and rituximab. Patients had received prior fludarabine-based therapy or chemoimmunotherapy. Rituximab (375 mg/m(2) intravenously) was administered weekly during cycle one and on day 1 of cycles three to 12. Lenalidomide was started on day 9 of cycle one at 10 mg orally and administered daily continuously. Each cycle was 28 days. Rituximab was administered for 12 cycles; lenalidomide could continue indefinitely if patients benefitted clinically.The overall response rate was 66%, including 12% complete responses and 12% nodular partial remissions. Time to treatment failure was 17.4 months. Median overall survival has not been reached; estimated survival at 36 months is 71%. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicity was neutropenia (73% of patients). Fourteen patients (24%) experienced a grade 3 to 4 infection or febrile episode. There was one episode of grade 3 tumor lysis; one patient experienced renal failure during the first cycle of therapy, and one venous thromboembolic event occurred during the study.The combination of lenalidomide and rituximab is active in patients with recurrent CLL and warrants further investigation.
Project description:PURPOSE:Patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma typically respond well to first-line immunochemotherapy. At relapse, single-agent rituximab is commonly administered. Data suggest the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide could increase the activity of rituximab. METHODS:A phase III, multicenter, randomized trial of lenalidomide plus rituximab versus placebo plus rituximab was conducted in patients with relapsed and/or refractory follicular or marginal zone lymphoma. Patients received lenalidomide or placebo for 12 cycles plus rituximab once per week for 4 weeks in cycle 1 and day 1 of cycles 2 through 5. The primary end point was progression-free survival per independent radiology review. RESULTS:A total of 358 patients were randomly assigned to lenalidomide plus rituximab (n = 178) or placebo plus rituximab (n = 180). Infections (63% v 49%), neutropenia (58% v 23%), and cutaneous reactions (32% v 12%) were more common with lenalidomide plus rituximab. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (50% v 13%) and leukopenia (7% v 2%) were higher with lenalidomide plus rituximab; no other grade 3 or 4 adverse event differed by 5% or more between groups. Progression-free survival was significantly improved for lenalidomide plus rituximab versus placebo plus rituximab, with a hazard ratio of 0.46 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.62; P < .001) and median duration of 39.4 months (95% CI, 22.9 months to not reached) versus 14.1 months (95% CI, 11.4 to 16.7 months), respectively. CONCLUSION:Lenalidomide improved efficacy of rituximab in patients with recurrent indolent lymphoma, with an acceptable safety profile.
Project description:This phase 2 study was conducted to prospectively evaluate how clinical and biological factors correlate with outcome in patients with treatment-naive (TN) and relapsed (R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with lenalidomide and rituximab. Oral lenalidomide 10 mg was administered daily starting on day 9 of cycle 1. IV rituximab 375 mg/m2 was administered weekly during cycle 1 and every 4 weeks for cycles 3 to 12. Sequencing of a custom panel of 295 genes was performed in pretreatment bone marrow samples. The study included 61 patients with TN CLL and 59 with R CLL; the overall response rate (ORR) was 73% and 64%, respectively. A baseline ?2-microglobulin level <4 mg/L was associated with higher ORR in both groups (both, P = .03), and absence of mutations in the NOTCH signaling pathway showed a trend for association with higher ORR in R CLL (P = .10). Median PFS was 50 months in TN patients and 28 months in R patients. On multivariate analysis, age ?65 years (P = .02) was associated with shorter PFS in TN patients, whereas according to univariate analysis, >2 previous therapies (P = .02) was the only factor associated with shorter PFS in R patients. A trend for association between mutations in the NOTCH pathway and shorter PFS was observed in TN CLL (P = .15). Further exploration of the NOTCH pathway may help optimize the efficacy of this combination in patients with CLL. This study protocol was approved by the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center institutional review board and registered at clinicaltrials.gov (#NCT01446133).
Project description:Attempts to improve upon the activity of ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) include the addition of targeted therapies. The combination of lenalidomide and rituximab demonstrated an overall response rate (ORR) of 66% with a complete response (CR) of 12% in the relapsed/refractory setting. Based on these data, we conducted a phase 1 study of rituximab (R), lenalidomide (L), and ibrutinib (I) in relapsed/refractory CLL. Patients received R 375 mg/m2 cycles 1 to 6 day 1, L on cycles 1 to 12 days 1 to 21, and I until disease progression. Dose escalation used a standard 3+3 design from a dose level (DL) of L 5 mg (DL1) and increasing to 15 mg (DL3) for a total of 3 dose levels. Twelve patients were enrolled; there were 2 dose-limiting toxicities of grade 4 neutropenia at DL3; thus, DL2 was the recommended phase 2 dose. A high incidence of sustained grade 4 neutropenia occurred at all dose levels, prompting study withdrawal in 5 patients, despite growth factor support. The ORR was 67%; ORR at the RP2D was 100% (1 CR). The 12-month progression-free survival at the RP2D was 83%. Preliminary efficacy data with the triplet did not appear superior to prior reports of the rituximab-lenalidomide doublet or single-agent ibrutinib. Given these findings and the sustained neutropenia, this regimen was not pursued. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02200848.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A new generation of biological and targeted agents might potentially replace traditional cytotoxic agents in lymphoma. Lenalidomide plus rituximab was felt to be a safe and promising backbone based on available data. Idelalisib is an oral phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3K?) inhibitor that has promising activity as a monotherapy in refractory indolent lymphomas. The primary objective of these two trials was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of lenalidomide in combination with rituximab and idelalisib in relapsed follicular and mantle cell lymphoma. METHODS:A051201 (mantle cell lymphoma) and A051202 (follicular lymphoma) were phase 1 trials. Patients with histologically documented relapsed mantle cell lymphoma who had not received previous lenalidomide or idelalisib (A051201) were started with oral lenalidomide 15 mg on days 1-21 in a 28 day cycle, oral idelalisib 150 mg twice a day with continuous 28-day cycles, and intravenous rituximab 375 mg/m2 weekly during cycle 1. Patients with histologically documented relapsed follicular lymphoma and time to progression 6 months or longer from last rituximab-containing regimen (A051202) were started with oral lenalidomide 10 mg on days 1-21 every 28 days and oral idelalisib 150 mg twice a day with continuous 28-day cycles, and intravenous rituximab 375 mg/m2 on cycle 1, day 8, day 15, day 22, and cycle 2, day 1. The primary endpoints of the studies were safety and tolerability of combining idelalisib with lenalidomide and rituximab in patients with relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (A051201) and relapsed follicular lymphoma (A051202). All analyses were by intention to treat. The trials were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01838434 (A051201) and number NCT01644799 (A051202). FINDINGS:Between July 9, 2013, and Sept 30, 2014, 11 patients (three with mantle cell lymphoma and eight with follicular lymphoma) were enrolled. Among the first eight patients, four experienced unexpected dose-limiting toxicities: grade 4 sepsis syndrome, grade 4 hypotension with grade 3 rash and fevers, grade 4 aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation with fevers, and grade 3 pulmonary infection with grade 3 maculopapular rash. Symptom onset was 9-20 days after treatment initiation, coinciding with rituximab infusions. Both studies were amended to remove rituximab, but two of three additional patients had grade 3 rashes and one had grade 3 AST elevation. Both trials were permanently closed. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were ALT elevation (two [67%] of three) and rash (two [67%] of three) for patients with mantle cell lymphoma and neutropenia (five [63%] of eight) and rash (four [50%] of eight) for patients with follicular lymphoma. The primary endpoint of safety and tolerability was not met. INTERPRETATION:The combination of idelalisib, lenalidomide, and rituximab in these trials is excessively toxic, and these trials serve as cautionary notes as new combinations are proposed. Off-target effects, drug-drug interactions, and emerging toxicities should be carefully assessed when investigating biological agents in combination and should never be done outside of a clinical trial setting. FUNDING:National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health.
Project description:Obinutuzumab is a type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity better than rituximab. Given promising results with lenalidomide and rituximab, this phase 1b study assessed the safety and efficacy of lenalidomide combined with obinutuzumab (GALEN). Patients age ?18 years with relapsed or refractory (R/R) follicular lymphoma (FL) after rituximab-containing therapy received escalating doses (10 [n = 7], 15 [n = 3], 20 [n = 6], and 25 mg [n = 3]) of daily oral lenalidomide on days 1 to 21 of cycle 1 and on days 2 to 22 of cycles 2 to 6 (28-day cycles). Obinutuzumab 1000 mg IV was administered on days 8, 15, and 22 (cycle 1) and on day 1 (cycles 2-6). Dose was escalated in a 3 + 3 design based on dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during cycle 1 to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). We observed 164 adverse events (AEs), of which 139 were grade 1/2. The most common AEs were constipation (52.6%), neutropenia (47.4%), and asthenia (36.8%); 64.3% (9 of 14) of the grade 3/4 AEs were neutropenia/neutrophil decrease, but without any febrile neutropenia. Four DLTs occurred in 2 patients, all deemed unrelated to treatment. MTD was not reached. Twelve patients (63.2%) responded: 8 complete, 3 unconfirmed complete, and 1 partial response. Oral lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab is well tolerated and effective in R/R FL. The recommended dose of lenalidomide was established at 20 mg based on the risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia from cycle 2. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01582776.
Project description:Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent with therapeutic activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In preclinical models, lenalidomide acted synergistically with rituximab. The CLL Research Consortium initiated a phase II study to evaluate this combination in treatment-naive patients.Lenalidomide was initiated at 2.5 mg/day and was escalated based on treatment tolerability to a maximum of 10 mg/day, for 21 days/cycle, for a maximum of seven cycles. Rituximab was administered at the end of cycle 1 and was continued for seven cycles. Patients received allopurinol and aspirin for prophylaxis.Sixty-nine patients enrolled onto one of two age-specific strata; patients' median age was 56 and 70 years for arms A and B, respectively. Patients in the older-patient stratum more frequently had elevated serum beta-2 microglobulin levels, high-risk Rai stage, and were less likely to complete the maximum planned therapy. Adverse events were similar in the two arms. Nonhematologic toxicity was predominantly at grade 1/2, and neutropenia was the most common hematologic adverse event. The response rate for arm A was 95%, with 20% complete responses (CRs) and 20% nodular partial responses. Of arm B patients, 78% achieved a response, of which 11% were CRs. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 19 months for the younger cohort and 20 months for the older cohort.Intrapatient dose-escalation was safe. The majority of patients reached the maximum lenalidomide dose and experienced a response to a defined seven-cycle course of lenalidomide and rituximab therapy. Despite differences in baseline characteristics and the response rate between the two strata, the PFS did not differ.
Project description:Lenalidomide is a novel therapeutic agent with uncertain mechanism of action that is clinically active in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and multiple myeloma (MM). Application of high (MM) and low (MDS) doses of lenalidomide has been reported to have clinical activity in CLL. Herein, we highlight life-threatening tumor flare when higher doses of lenalidomide are administered to patients with CLL and provide a potential mechanism for its occurrence.Four patients with relapsed CLL were treated with lenalidomide (25 mg/d for 21 days of a 28-day cycle). Serious adverse events including tumor flare and tumor lysis are summarized. In vitro studies examining drug-induced apoptosis and activation of CLL cells were also performed.Four consecutive patients were treated with lenalidomide; all had serious adverse events. Tumor flare was observed in three patients and was characterized by dramatic and painful lymph node enlargement resulting in hospitalization of two patients, with one fatal outcome. Another patient developed sepsis and renal failure. In vitro studies demonstrated lenalidomide-induced B-cell activation (upregulation of CD40 and CD86) corresponding to degree of tumor flare, possibly explaining the tumor flare observation.Lenalidomide administered at 25 mg/d in relapsed CLL is associated with unacceptable toxicity; the rapid onset and adverse clinical effects of tumor flare represent a significant limitation of lenalidomide use in CLL at this dose. Drug-associated B-cell activation may contribute to this adverse event. Future studies with lenalidomide in CLL should focus on understanding this toxicity, investigating patients at risk, and investigating alternative safer dosing schedules.
Project description:The application of nucleoside analogue-based chemotherapy and immunotherapy with rituximab or alemtuzumab has increased both response rate and survival in patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). However, because none of these therapies is curative, sequential therapeutic regimens are required. The majority of patients with relapsed or refractory CLL carry poor prognostic factors and show shorter overall survival and resistance to standard treatment. Numerous drugs have recently been approved for CLL therapy and many novel agents are under clinical investigation. The role of the tumor microenvironment and of immune dysfunction in CLL have allowed to enlarge the therapeutic armamentarium for CLL patients. This article will provide a comprehensive summary regarding mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in CLL patients. Relevant clinical trials using lenalidomide alone or in combinations are discussed. Lenalidomide shows good activity also in relapsed/refractory or treatment-naive CLL patients. Definitive data from ongoing studies are needed to validate overall and progression-free survival. The toxicity profile might limit lenalidomide use because it can result in serious side effects, but largely controlled by gradual dose escalation. Further understanding of the exact mechanism of action in CLL will allow more efficacious use of lenalidomide alone or in combination regimens.
Project description:The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of different lenalidomide starting doses in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). CLL patients were randomized to receive lenalidomide at initial doses of 5, 10, or 15?mg/d (N?=?103). Doses were escalated by 5?mg every 28-d up to a maximum of 25?mg/d; dose reductions in up to 5?mg decrements were permitted. The most common grade??3 adverse events (AEs) were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Ten patients died during therapy (four deaths considered as related to lenalidomide); 12 patients experienced second primary malignancies. The most common cause for treatment discontinuation was AEs. Overall response rates were similar across arms. Progression-free survival and overall survival rates were longer in patients who escalated treatment (to 15 or 20?mg/d) versus those who did not. Lower starting doses allowed subsequent dose escalation of lenalidomide while maintaining an acceptable tolerability profile in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL.
Project description:Ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is an effective treatment for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We investigated the activity and safety of the combination of ibrutinib with the monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with high-risk CLL.In this single-arm phase 2 study, we enrolled adult patients with high-risk CLL at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). All enrolled participants had high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (deletion 17p, TP53 mutation, or deletion 11q) or a short progression-free survival (PFS <36 months) after previous first-line chemoimmunotherapy. Patients with symptomatic disease requiring therapy received 28-day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg together with rituximab (375 mg/m(2), intravenously, every week during cycle 1, then once per cycle until cycle 6), followed by continuous daily single-agent ibrutinib 420 mg until disease progression or until toxicities or complications precluded further treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01520519, and is no longer accruing patients.Between Feb 28, 2012, and Sept 11, 2012, we enrolled 40 patients with CLL with high-risk disease features, 20 of whom had deletion 17p (del[17p]) or TP53 mutations (16 previously treated, four untreated), 13 had relapsed CLL with deletion 11q (del[11q]), and seven a PFS less than 36 months after first-line chemoimmunotherapy. 18-month PFS in all patients was 78·0% (95% CI 60·6-88·5), whereas in those with a del(17p) or TP53 mutation it was 72·4% (45·6-87·6) Toxicity was mainly mild to moderate in severity (grade 1-2). Diarrhoea occurred in ten (25%) patients (grade 1 in nine patients and grade 2 in one), bleeding events in 14 (33%) patients (eight grade 1 and five grade 2), nausea or vomiting in 15 patients (38%) (ten grade 1 and five grade 2), and fatigue in seven (18%) patients (four grade 1 and three grade 2). Five patients (13%) had grade 3 infections (two lung infections, one upper respiratory tract infection, one sepsis, and one mucositis), and no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient had grade 4 neutropenia.The encouraging safety and activity of ibrutinib and rituximab in this population of patients with high-risk CLL merits further investigation of this combination.Pharmacyclics Inc, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, National Cancer Institute, MD Anderson Cancer Center.