Autophagy Induced by Intracellular Infection of Propionibacterium acnes.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Sarcoidosis is caused by Th1-type immune responses to unknown agents, and is linked to the infectious agent Propionibacterium acnes. Many strains of P. acnes isolated from sarcoid lesions cause intracellular infection and autophagy may contribute to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. We examined whether P. acnes induces autophagy. METHODS:Three cell lines from macrophages (Raw264.7), mesenchymal cells (MEF), and epithelial cells (HeLa) were infected by viable or heat-killed P. acnes (clinical isolate from sarcoid lymph node) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 or 1000 for 1 h. Extracellular bacteria were killed by washing and culturing infected cells with antibiotics. Samples were examined by colony assay, electron-microscopy, and fluorescence-microscopy with anti-LC3 and anti-LAMP1 antibodies. Autophagy-deficient (Atg5-/-) MEF cells were also used. RESULTS:Small and large (?5 ?m in diameter) LC3-positive vacuoles containing few or many P. acnes cells (LC3-positive P. acnes) were frequently found in the three cell lines when infected by viable P. acnes at MOI 1000. LC3-positive large vacuoles were mostly LAMP1-positive. A few small LC3-positive/LAMP1-negative vacuoles were consistently observed in some infected cells for 24 h postinfection. The number of LC3-positive P. acnes was decreased at MOI 100 and completely abolished when heat-killed P. acnes was used. LC3-positive P. acnes was not found in autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- cells where the rate of infection was 25.3 and 17.6 times greater than that in wild-type Atg5+/+ cells at 48 h postinfection at MOI 100 and 1000, respectively. Electron-microscopic examination revealed bacterial cells surrounded mostly by a single-membrane including the large vacuoles and sometimes a double or multi-layered membrane, with occasional undigested bacterial cells in ruptured late endosomes or in the cytoplasm. CONCLUSION:Autophagy was induced by intracellular P. acnes infection and contributed to intracellular bacterial killing as an additional host defense mechanism to endocytosis or phagocytosis.
Project description:The aim of present study is to elucidate autophagic mechanism of tanshinone I (Tan I) in H28 and H2452 mesothelioma cells. Herein, Tan I exerted cytotoxicity with autophagic features of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5)/ microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3II (LC3 II) activation, p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) accumulation and increased number of LC3II punctae, acridine orange-stained cells and autophagic vacuoles. However, 3-methyladenine (3MA) and NH4Cl increased cytotoxicity in Tan I treated H28 cells. Furthermore, autophagy flux was enhanced in Tan I-treated H28 cells transfected by RFP-GFP-LC3 constructs, with colocalization of GFP-LC3 punctae with LAMP1 or Lysotracker. Interestingly, C-terminal UBA domain is required for Tan 1 induced aggregation of p62 in H28 cells. Notably, Tan I upregulated CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1) and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), but silencing of IRE1 or p62 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the LC3II accumulation in Tan I-treated H28 cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate that Tan I exerts antitumor activity through a compromise between apoptosis and p62/SQSTM1-dependent autophagy via activation of JNK and IRE 1 in malignant mesothelioma cells.
Project description:Cytosolic bacterial pathogens must evade intracellular innate immune recognition and clearance systems such as autophagy to ensure their survival and proliferation. The intracellular cycle of the bacterium Francisella tularensis is characterized by rapid phagosomal escape followed by extensive proliferation in the macrophage cytoplasm. Cytosolic replication, but not phagosomal escape, requires the locus FTT0369c, which encodes the dipA gene (deficient in intracellular replication A). Here, we show that a replication-deficient, ?dipA mutant of the prototypical SchuS4 strain is eventually captured from the cytosol of murine and human macrophages into double-membrane vacuoles displaying the late endosomal marker, LAMP1, and the autophagy-associated protein, LC3, coinciding with a reduction in viable intracellular bacteria. Capture of SchuS4?dipA was not dipA-specific as other replication-deficient bacteria, such as chloramphenicol-treated SchuS4 and a purine auxotroph mutant SchuS4?purMCD, were similarly targeted to autophagic vacuoles. Vacuoles containing replication-deficient bacteria were labeled with ubiquitin and the autophagy receptors SQSTM1/p62 and NBR1, and their formation was decreased in macrophages from either ATG5-, LC3B- or SQSTM1-deficient mice, indicating recognition by the ubiquitin-SQSTM1-LC3 pathway. While a fraction of both the wild-type and the replication-impaired strains were ubiquitinated and recruited SQSTM1, only the replication-defective strains progressed to autophagic capture, suggesting that wild-type Francisella interferes with the autophagic cascade. Survival of replication-deficient strains was not restored in autophagy-deficient macrophages, as these bacteria died in the cytosol prior to autophagic capture. Collectively, our results demonstrate that replication-impaired strains of Francisella are cleared by autophagy, while replication-competent bacteria seem to interfere with autophagic recognition, therefore ensuring survival and proliferation.
Project description:Tumor cell survival relies upon adaptation to the acidic conditions of the tumor microenvironment. To investigate potential acidosis survival mechanisms, we examined the effect of low pH (6.7) on human breast carcinoma cells. Acute low pH exposure reduced proliferation rate, induced a G1 cell cycle arrest, and increased cytoplasmic vacuolization. Gene expression analysis revealed elevated levels of ATG5 and BNIP3 in acid-conditioned cells, suggesting cells exposed to low pH may utilize autophagy as a survival mechanism. In support of this hypothesis, we found that acute low pH stimulated autophagy as defined by an increase in LC3-positive punctate vesicles, double-membrane vacuoles, and decreased phosphorylation of AKT and ribosomal protein S6. Notably, cells exposed to low pH for approximately 3 months restored their proliferative capacity while maintaining the cytoplasmic vacuolated phenotype. Although autophagy is typically transient, elevated autophagy markers were maintained chronically in low pH conditioned cells as visualized by increased protein expression of LC3-II and double-membrane vacuoles. Furthermore, these cells exhibited elevated sensitivity to PI3K-class III inhibition by 3-methyladenine. In mouse tumors, LC3 expression was reduced by systemic treatment with sodium bicarbonate, which raises intratumoral pH. Taken together, these results argue that acidic conditions in the tumor microenvironment promote autophagy, and that chronic autophagy occurs as a survival adaptation in this setting.
Project description:The data presented here are related to the research article entitled "Knockout of autophagy gene, ATG5 in mice vaginal cells abrogates cytokine response and pathogen clearance during vaginal infection of Candida albicans" (Shroff et al., 2018) . The cited research article describes the role of autophagy in host immune response against C. albicans infection of mice vagina. In this data report wild-type C57BL/6 mice were infected intravaginally with C. albicans. Vaginal cells were analyzed for the expression of autophagy marker genes LC3 & ATG5 and lysosome marker LAMP1 at the transcript and protein level. Vaginal lavages were also obtained from these infected mice. The levels of pro-inflammatory and T-helper cell related cytokines were determined in these lavages.
Project description:Autophagy is used by eukaryotes in bulk cellular material recycling and in immunity to intracellular pathogens. We evaluated the role of macrophage autophagy in the response to Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans, two important opportunistic fungal pathogens. The autophagosome marker LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha) was present in most macrophage vacuoles containing C. albicans. In contrast, LC3 was found in only a few vacuoles containing C. neoformans previously opsonized with antibody but never after complement-mediated phagocytosis. Disruption of host autophagy in vitro by RNA interference against ATG5 (autophagy-related 5) decreased the phagocytosis of C. albicans and the fungistatic activity of J774.16 macrophage-like cells against both fungi, independent of the opsonin used. ATG5-knockout bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) also had decreased fungistatic activity against C. neoformans when activated. In contrast, nonactivated ATG5-knockout BMMs actually restricted C. neoformans growth more efficiently, suggesting that macrophage autophagy plays different roles against C. neoformans, depending on the macrophage type and activation. Interference with autophagy in J774.16 cells also decreased nonlytic exocytosis of C. neoformans, increased interleukin-6 secretion, and decreased gamma interferon-induced protein 10 secretion. Mice with a conditionally knocked out ATG5 gene in myeloid cells showed increased susceptibility to intravenous C. albicans infection. In contrast, these mice manifested no increased susceptibility to C. neoformans, as measured by survival, but had fewer alternatively activated macrophages and less inflammation in the lungs after intratracheal infection than control mice. These results demonstrate the complex roles of macrophage autophagy in restricting intracellular parasitism by fungi and reveal connections with nonlytic exocytosis, humoral immunity, and cytokine signaling.
Project description:Autophagy, a highly regulated degradative process that promotes cellular homeostasis, is increasingly recognised as a fundamental component of the cellular response against viral infection. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy during Junín virus (JUNV) multiplication using human A549 cells. We found that JUNV infection induces an increment of the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, an accumulation of punctate pattern in RFP-LC3-transfected cells and the colocalisation of viral nucleoprotein and LC3 protein, suggesting autophagosome formation. JUNV infection also induced the degradation of the autophagy receptor p62, suggesting that complete autophagic flux was triggered. In addition, we showed that inhibition of autophagy with bafilomycin A1 or 3-methyladenine significantly reduces viral multiplication. Moreover, viral yield was increased when autophagy was induced using rapamycin. Furthermore, JUNV infection induced the colocalisation of p62, ATG16, RAB5, RAB7A and LAMP1 with the autophagosomal LC3 protein. That suggests that phagosomes undergo the maturation process during viral infection. Finally, we demonstrated that siRNA experiments targeting essential autophagy genes (ATG5, ATG7 and Beclin 1) reduce viral protein synthesis and viral yield. Overall, our results indicate that JUNV activates host autophagy machinery enhancing its multiplication.
Project description:The small p97/VCP-interacting protein (SVIP) functions as an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Here we show that overexpression of SVIP in HeLa cells leads to localization of p97/VCP at the plasma membrane, intracellular foci and juxtanuclear vacuoles. The p97/VCP-positive vacuolar structures colocalized or associated with LC3 and lamp1, suggesting that SVIP may regulate autophagy. In support of this possibility, knockdown of SVIP diminished, whereas overexpression of SVIP enhanced LC3 lipidation. Surprisingly, knockdown of SVIP reduced the levels of p62 protein at least partially through downregulation of its mRNA, which was accompanied by a decrease in starvation-induced formation of p62 bodies. Overexpression of SVIP, on the other hand, increased the levels of p62 protein and enhanced starvation-activated autophagy as well as promoted sequestration of polyubiquitinated proteins and p62 in autophagosomes. These results suggest that SVIP plays a regulatory role in p97 subcellular localization and is a novel regulator of autophagy.
Project description:The involvement of macroautophagy/autophagy proteins in B-cell receptor (BCR) trafficking, although suspected, is not well understood. We show that ATG5 (autophagy related 5) contributes to BCR polarization after stimulation and internalization into LAMP1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1)+ and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)+ compartments. BCR polarization is crucial in the context of immobilized antigen processing. Moreover, antigen presentation to cognate T cells is decreased in the absence of ATG5 when the model antigen OVAL/ovalbumin is provided in an immobilized form in contrast to the normal presentation of soluble OVAL. We further show that ATG5 is required for centrosome polarization and actin nucleation in the immune synapse area. This event is accompanied by an increased interaction between ATG16L1 (autophagy related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]) and the microtubule-organizing center-associated protein PCM1 (pericentriolar material 1). In the human B cell line BJAB, PCM1 is required for BCR polarization after stimulation. We thus propose that the ATG12 (autophagy related 12)-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex under BCR stimulation allows its interaction with PCM1 and consequently facilitates centrosome relocalization to the immune synapse, optimizing the presentation of particulate antigens. Abbreviations: ACTB: actin beta; ACTR2/3: ARP2/3 actin-related protein 2/3; APC: antigen-presenting cells; ATG: autophagy-related; BCR: B cell receptor; BECN1/Beclin 1: beclin 1, autophagy related; CDC42: cell division cycle 42; Cr2: complement receptor 2; CSFE: carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride; EEA1: early endosome antigen 1; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; FITC: fluorescein isothyocyanate; GC: germinal center; GJA1/CX3: gap junction protein, alpha 1; Ig: immunoglobulin; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LAP: LC3-associated phagocytosis; LM: littermate; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK/ERK: mitogen activated protein kinase; MHC-II: major histocompatibility complex class II; MIIC: MHC class II compartment; OVAL: ovalbumin; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PCM1: pericentriolar material 1; PtdIns3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PTPRC/CD45RB/B220; Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C; SYK: spleen tyrosine kinase; TBS: Tris-buffered saline; TCR: T cell receptor; ULK1: unc-51 like kinase 1.
Project description:The intracellular autophagic degradative pathway can have a tumour suppressive or tumour-promoting role depending on the stage of tumour development. Upon starvation or targeting of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), autophagy is activated owing to the inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 signalling pathway and promotes survival, suggesting that autophagy is a relevant therapeutic target in these settings. However, the role of autophagy in cancer cells where the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 pathway is constitutively active remains partially understood. Here we report a role for mTORC1-independent basal autophagy in regulation of RTK activation and cell migration in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. PI3K and RAS-mutant CRC cells display basal autophagy levels despite constitutive mTORC1 signalling, but fail to increase autophagic flux upon RTK inhibition. Inhibition of basal autophagy via knockdown of ATG7 or ATG5 leads to decreased phosphorylation of several RTKs, in particular c-MET. Internalised c-MET colocalised with LAMP1-negative, LC3-positive vesicles. Finally, autophagy regulates c-MET phosphorylation via an mTORC2-dependent mechanism. Overall, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of autophagy and mTORC2 in regulation of oncogenic RTK activation, with implications for understanding of cancer cell signalling.
Project description:Autophagy normally involves the formation of double-membrane autophagosomes that mediate bulk cytoplasmic and organelle degradation. Here we report the modification of single-membrane vacuoles in cells by autophagy proteins. LC3 (Light chain 3) a component of autophagosomes, is recruited to single-membrane entotic vacuoles, macropinosomes and phagosomes harbouring apoptotic cells, in a manner dependent on the lipidation machinery including ATG5 and ATG7, and the class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase VPS34. These downstream components of the autophagy machinery, but not the upstream mammalian Tor (mTor)-regulated ULK-ATG13-FIP200 complex, facilitate lysosome fusion to single membranes and the degradation of internalized cargo. For entosis, a live-cell-engulfment program, the autophagy-protein-dependent fusion of lysosomes to vacuolar membranes leads to the death of internalized cells. As pathogen-containing phagosomes can be targeted in a similar manner, the death of epithelial cells by this mechanism mimics pathogen destruction. These data demonstrate that proteins of the autophagy pathway can target single-membrane vacuoles in cells in the absence of pathogenic organisms.