Characterizing the malignancy and drug resistance of cancer cells from their membrane resealing response.
ABSTRACT: In this report, we showed that two tumor cell characteristics, namely the malignancy and drug-resistance status can be evaluated by their membrane resealing response. Specifically, membrane pores in a number of pairs of cancer and normal cell lines originated from nasopharynx, lung and intestine were introduced by nano-mechanical puncturing. Interestingly, such nanometer-sized holes in tumor cells can reseal ~2-3 times faster than those in the corresponding normal cells. Furthermore, the membrane resealing time in cancer cell lines exhibiting resistance to several leading chemotherapeutic drugs was also found to be substantially shorter than that in their drug-sensitive counterparts, demonstrating the potential of using this quantity as a novel marker for future cancer diagnosis and drug resistance detection. Finally, a simple model was proposed to explain the observed resealing dynamics of cells which suggested that the distinct response exhibited by normal, tumor and drug resistant cells is likely due to the different tension levels in their lipid membranes, a conclusion that is also supported by direct cortical tension measurement.
Project description:Disruption of cellular plasma membranes is a common event in many animal tissues, and the membranes are usually rapidly resealed. Moreover, repeated membrane disruptions within a single cell reseal faster than the initial wound in a protein kinase A (PKA)- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner. In addition to wounded cells, recent studies have demonstrated that wounding of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells potentiates membrane resealing in neighboring cells in the short-term by purinergic signaling, and in the long-term by nitric oxide/protein kinase G signaling. In the present study, real-time imaging showed that cell membrane disruption stimulated cAMP synthesis and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores by purinergic signaling in neighboring MDCK cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA and PKC suppressed the ATP-mediated short-term potentiation of membrane resealing in neighboring cells. These results suggest that cell membrane disruption stimulates PKA and PKC via purinergic signaling to potentiate cell membrane resealing in neighboring MDCK cells.
Project description:Over the past decade, microneedles have been shown to dramatically increase skin permeability to a broad range of compounds by creating reversible microchannels in the skin. However, in order to achieve sustained transdermal drug delivery, the extent and duration of skin's increased permeability needs to be determined. In this study, we used electrical impedance spectroscopy to perform the first experiments in human subjects to analyze the resealing of skin's barrier properties after insertion of microneedles. Microneedles having a range of geometries were studied in conjunction with the effect of occlusion to test the hypothesis that increasing microneedle length, number, and cross-sectional area together with occlusion leads to an increase in skin resealing time that can exceed one day. Results indicated that in the absence of occlusion, all microneedle treated sites recovered barrier properties within 2 h, while occluded sites resealed more slowly, with resealing windows ranging from 3 to 40 h depending on microneedle geometry. Upon subsequent removal of occlusion, the skin barrier resealed rapidly. Longer microneedles, increased number of needles, and larger cross-sectional area demonstrated slower resealing kinetics indicating that microneedle geometry played a significant role in the barrier resealing process. Overall, this study showed that pre-treatment of skin with microneedles before applying an occlusive transdermal patch can increase skin permeability for more than one day, but nonetheless allow skin to reseal rapidly after patch removal.
Project description:Resealing after wounding, the process of repair following plasma membrane damage, requires exocytosis. Vacuolins are molecules that induce rapid formation of large, swollen structures derived from endosomes and lysosomes by homotypic fusion combined with uncontrolled fusion of the inner and limiting membranes of these organelles. Vacuolin-1, the most potent compound, blocks the Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of lysosomes induced by ionomycin or plasma membrane wounding, without affecting the process of resealing. In contrast, other cell structures and membrane trafficking functions including exocytosis of enlargeosomes are unaffected. Because cells heal normally in the presence of vacuolin-1, we suggest that lysosomes are dispensable for resealing.
Project description:Cell-based assays have become increasingly important in the preclinical studies for biopharmaceutical products such as specialty peptides, which are of interest owing to their high substrate specificity. However, many of the latter are membrane impermeable and must be physically introduced into cells to evaluate their intracellular activities. We previously developed a "cell-resealing technique" that exploited the temperature-dependent pore-forming activity of the streptococcal toxin, streptolysin O (SLO), that enabled us to introduce various molecules into cells for evaluation of their intracellular activities. In this study, we report a new cell resealing method, the listeriolysin O (LLO)-mediated resealing method, to deliver mid-sized, membrane-impermeable biopharmaceuticals into cells. We found that LLO-type resealing required no exogenous cytosol to repair the injured cell membrane and allowed the specific entry of mid-sized molecules into cells. We use this method to introduce either a membrane-impermeable, small compound (8-OH-cAMP) or specialty peptide (Akt-in), and demonstrated PKA activation or Akt inhibition, respectively. Collectively, the LLO-type resealing method is a user-friendly and reproducible intracellular delivery system for mid-sized membrane-impermeable molecules into cells and for evaluating their intracellular activities.
Project description:Cell-based assays are growing in importance for screening drugs and investigating their mechanisms of action. Most of the assays use so-called "normal" cell strain because it is difficult to produce cell lines in which the disease conditions are reproduced. In this study, we used a cell-resealing technique, which reversibly permeabilizes the plasma membrane, to develop diabetic (Db) model hepatocytes into which cytosol from diabetic mouse liver had been introduced. Db model hepatocytes showed several disease-specific phenotypes, namely disturbance of insulin-induced repression of gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose secretion. Quantitative image analysis and principal component analysis revealed that the ratio of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) to Akt was the best index to describe the difference between wild-type and Db model hepatocytes. By performing image-based drug screening, we found pioglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, increased the pAkt/Akt ratio, which in turn ameliorated the insulin-induced transcriptional repression of the gluconeogenic gene phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1. The disease-specific model cells coupled with image-based quantitative analysis should be useful for drug development, enabling the reconstitution of disease conditions at the cellular level and the discovery of disease-specific markers.
Project description:Streptococcus (S.) suis is a major cause of economic losses in the pig industry worldwide and is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. One important virulence-associated factor is suilysin (SLY), a toxin that belongs to the family of cholesterol-dependent pore-forming cytolysins (CDC). However, the precise role of SLY in host-pathogen interactions is still unclear. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of different respiratory epithelial cells to SLY, including immortalized cell lines (HEp-2 and NPTr cells), which are frequently used in in vitro studies on S. suis virulence mechanisms, as well as primary porcine respiratory cells, which represent the first line of barrier during S. suis infections. SLY-induced cell damage was determined by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase after infection with a virulent S. suis serotype 2 strain, its isogenic SLY-deficient mutant strain, or treatment with the recombinant protein. HEp-2 cells were most susceptible, whereas primary epithelial cells were hardly affected by the toxin. This prompted us to study possible explanations for these differences. We first investigated the binding capacity of SLY using flow cytometry analysis. Since binding and pore-formation of CDC is dependent on the membrane composition, we also determined the cellular cholesterol content of the different cell types using TLC and HPLC. Finally, we examined the ability of those cells to reseal SLY-induced pores using flow cytometry analysis. Our results indicated that the amount of membrane-bound SLY, the cholesterol content of the cells, as well as their resealing capacity all affect the susceptibility of the different cells regarding the effects of SLY. These findings underline the differences of in vitro pathogenicity models and may further help to dissect the biological role of SLY during S. suis infections.
Project description:Dysferlinopathy is a progressive muscle disorder that includes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MM). It is caused by mutations in the dysferlin (DYSF) gene, whose function is to reseal the muscular membrane. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 has been shown to increase misfolded dysferlin in fibroblasts, allowing them to recover their membrane resealing function. Here, we developed a screening system based on myocytes from MM patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. According to the screening, nocodazole was found to effectively increase the level of dysferlin in cells, which, in turn, enhanced membrane resealing following injury by laser irradiation. Moreover, the increase was due to microtubule disorganization and involved autophagy rather than the proteasome degradation pathway. These findings suggest that increasing the amount of misfolded dysferlin using small molecules could represent an effective future clinical treatment for dysferlinopathy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:1017-1029.
Project description:The integrity of the neuronal membrane is crucial for its function and cellular survival; thus, ineffective repair of damaged membranes may be one of the key elements underlying the neuronal degeneration and overall functional loss that occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI). it has been shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can reseal axonal membranes following various injuries in multiple in vitro and in vivo injury models. in addition, PEG may also directly prevent the effects of mitochondria-derived oxidative stress on intracellular components. Thus, PEG repairs mechanically injured cells by at least two distinct pathways: resealing of the disrupted plasma membrane and direct protection of mitochondria. Besides repairing primary membrane damage, PEG treatment also results in significant attenuation of oxidative stress, likely due to its capacity to reseal the membrane, thereby breaking the cycle of cellular damage and free-radical production. Based on this, in addition to the practicality of its application, we expect that PEG may be established as an effective treatment for SCI where membrane disruption and mitochondrial damage are implicated.
Project description:Host cell invasion is an indispensable step for a successful infection by intracellular pathogens. Recent studies identified pathogen-induced host cell plasma membrane perforation as a novel mechanism used by diverse pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Listeria monocytogenes, and adenovirus) to promote their internalization into target cells. It was concluded that T. cruzi and adenovirus damage the host cell plasma membrane to hijack the endocytic-dependent membrane resealing machinery, thereby invading the host cell. We studied L. monocytogenes and its secreted pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO) to identify key signaling events activated upon plasma membrane perforation that lead to bacterial internalization. Using various approaches, including fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we found that the influx of extracellular Ca2+ subsequent to LLO-mediated plasma membrane perforation is required for the activation of a conventional protein kinase C (cPKC). cPKC is positioned upstream of Rac1 and the Arp2/3 complex, which activation leads to F-actin--dependent bacterial internalization. Inhibition of this pathway did not prevent membrane resealing, revealing that perforation-dependent L. monocytogenes endocytosis is distinct from the resealing machinery. These studies identified the LLO-dependent endocytic pathway of L. monocytogenes and support a novel model for pathogen uptake promoted by plasma membrane injury that is independent of membrane resealing.
Project description:Simple and efficient transfection methods for genetic manipulation of Plasmodium falciparum are desirable to identify, characterize and validate the genes with therapeutic potential and better understand parasite biology. Among the available transfection techniques for P. falciparum, electroporation-based methods, particularly electroporation of ring-infected RBCs is routinely used. Nonetheless, transfection of P. falciparum remains a resource-intensive procedure. Here, we report a simple and economic transfection method for P. falciparum, which is termed as the lyse-reseal erythrocytes for transfection (LyRET). It involved lysis of erythrocytes with a hypotonic RBC lysis buffer containing the desired plasmid DNA, followed by resealing by adding a high salt buffer. These DNA-encapsulated lyse-reseal erythrocytes were mixed with P. falciparum trophozoite/schizont stages and subjected to selection for the plasmid-encoded drug resistance. In parallel, transfections were also done by the methods utilizing electroporation of DNA into uninfected RBCs and parasite-infected RBCs. The LyRET method successfully transfected 3D7 and D10 strains with different plasmids in 63 of the 65 attempts, with success rate similar to transfection by electroporation of DNA into infected RBCs. The cost effectiveness and comparable efficiency of LyRET method makes it an alternative to the existing transfection methods for P. falciparum, particularly in resource-limited settings.