Phage selection restores antibiotic sensitivity in MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
ABSTRACT: Increasing prevalence and severity of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has necessitated novel antibacterial strategies. Ideally, new approaches would target bacterial pathogens while exerting selection for reduced pathogenesis when these bacteria inevitably evolve resistance to therapeutic intervention. As an example of such a management strategy, we isolated a lytic bacteriophage, OMKO1, (family Myoviridae) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that utilizes the outer membrane porin M (OprM) of the multidrug efflux systems MexAB and MexXY as a receptor-binding site. Results show that phage selection produces an evolutionary trade-off in MDR P. aeruginosa, whereby the evolution of bacterial resistance to phage attack changes the efflux pump mechanism, causing increased sensitivity to drugs from several antibiotic classes. Although modern phage therapy is still in its infancy, we conclude that phages, such as OMKO1, represent a new approach to phage therapy where bacteriophages exert selection for MDR bacteria to become increasingly sensitive to traditional antibiotics. This approach, using phages as targeted antibacterials, could extend the lifetime of our current antibiotics and potentially reduce the incidence of antibiotic resistant infections.
Project description:Nowadays the most important problem in the treatment of bacterial infections is the appearance of MDR (multidrug-resistant), XDR (extensively drug-resistant) and PDR (pan drug-resistant) bacteria and the scarce prospects of producing new antibiotics. There is renewed interest in revisiting the use of bacteriophage to treat bacterial infections. The practice of phage therapy, the application of phages to treat bacterial infections, has been around for approximately a century. Phage therapy relies on using lytic bacteriophages and purified phage lytic proteins for treatment and lysis of bacteria at the site of infection. Current research indicates that phage therapy has the potential to be used as an alternative to antibiotic treatments. It is noteworthy that, whether phages are used on their own or combined with antibiotics, phages are still a promising agent to replace antibiotics. So, this review focuses on an understanding of challenges of MDR, XDR, and PDR bacteria and phages mechanism for treating bacterial infections and the most recent studies on potential phages, cocktails of phages, and enzymes of lytic phages in fighting these resistant bacteria.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen frequently identified as the cause of diverse infections or chronic disease. This microbe has natural resistance to several kinds of antibiotics, because of the species' outer membrane, efflux pumps and growth as a biofilm. This bacterium can acquire increased resistance with specific point mutations. Bacteriophage (phage), however, can lyse these bacteria. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the host range of phages isolates and their ability to lyse antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa. Present phages could lyse many strains of P. aeruginosa (28/39), including strains with high resistance to fluoroquinolones (4/6). In conclusion, application of phages for antibiotic-resistant bacteria is greatly effective. To avoid pervasive antibiotic-resistant bacteria, further development of phage usage for disease treatment is required.
Project description:Bacterial keratitis of the horse is mainly caused by staphylococci, streptococci, and pseudomonads. Of these bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sometimes causes rapid corneal corruption and, in some cases, blindness. Antimicrobial resistance can make treatment very difficult. Therefore, new strategies to control bacterial infection are required. A bacteriophage (phage) is a virus that specifically infects and kills bacteria. Since phage often can lyse antibiotic-resistant bacteria because the killing mechanism is different, we examined the use of phage to treat horse bacterial keratitis. We isolated Myoviridae or Podoviridae phages, which together have a broad host range. They adsorb efficiently to host bacteria; more than 80% of the ΦR18 phage were adsorbed to host cells after 30 s. In our keratitis mouse model, the administration of phage within 3 h also could kill bacteria and suppress keratitis. A phage multiplicity of infection of 100 times the host bacterial number could kill host bacteria effectively. A cocktail of two phages suppressed bacteria in the keratitis model mouse. These data demonstrated that the phages in this study could completely prevent the keratitis caused by P. aeruginosa in a keratitis mouse model. Furthermore, these results suggest that phage may be a more effective prophylaxis for horse keratitis than the current preventive use of antibiotics. Such treatment may reduce the use of antibiotics and therefore antibiotic resistance. Further studies are required to assess phage therapy as a candidate for treatment of horse keratitis.Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging all over the world. Bacteriophages have great potential for resolution of this problem. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria specifically. As a novel therapeutic strategy against racehorse keratitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we propose the application of phages for treatment. Phages isolated in this work had in vitro effectiveness for a broad range of P. aeruginosa strains. Indeed, a great reduction of bacterial proliferation was shown in phage therapy for mouse models of P. aeruginosa keratitis. Therefore, to reduce antibiotic usage, phage therapy should be investigated and developed further.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Efflux pumps mediate antimicrobial resistance in several WHO critical priority bacterial pathogens. However, most available data come from laboratory strains. The quantitative relevance of efflux in more relevant clinical isolates remains largely unknown. METHODS:We developed a versatile method for genetic engineering in multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, and used this method to delete tolC and specific antibiotic-resistance genes in 18 representative MDR clinical E. coli isolates. We determined efflux activity and minimal inhibitory concentrations for a diverse set of clinically relevant antibiotics in these mutants. We also deleted oprM in MDR P. aeruginosa strains and determined the impact on antibiotic susceptibility. FINDINGS:tolC deletion abolished detectable efflux activity in 15 out of 18 tested E. coli strains, and modulated antibiotic susceptibility in many strains. However, all mutant strains retained MDR status, primarily because of other, antibiotic-specific resistance genes. Deletion of oprM altered antibiotic susceptibility in a fraction of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. INTERPRETATION:Efflux modulates antibiotic resistance in clinical MDR isolates of E. coli and P. aeruginosa. However, when other antimicrobial-resistance mechanisms are present, inhibition of MDR efflux pumps alone is often not sufficient to restore full susceptibility even for antibiotics with a dramatic impact of efflux in laboratory strains. We propose that development of novel antibiotics should include target validation in clinical MDR isolates. FUND: Innovative Medicines Initiative of European Union and EFPIA, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds, Swiss National Research Program 72, EU Marie Sk?odowska-Curie program. The funders played no role in design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, writing of the report, and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Project description:A mutant, named 11B, hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and erythromycin was isolated after Tn501 insertion mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Cloning and sequencing experiments showed that 11B was deficient in an, at that time, unknown active efflux system that contains homologs of MexAB. This locus also contained a putative regulatory gene, mexZ, transcribed divergently from the efflux operon. Introduction of a recombinant plasmid that carries the genes of the efflux system restored the resistance of 11B to parental levels, whereas overexpression of these genes strongly increased the MICs of substrate antibiotics for the PAO1 host. Antibiotic accumulation studies confirmed that this new system is an energy-dependent active efflux system that pumps out aminoglycosides. Furthermore, this system appeared to function with an outer membrane protein, OprM. While the present paper was being written and reviewed, genes with a sequence identical to our pump genes, mexXY of P. aeruginosa, have been reported to increase resistance to erythromycin, fluoroquinolones, and organic cations in Escherichia coli hosts, although efflux of aminoglycosides was not examined (Mine et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:415-417, 1999). Our study thus shows that the MexXY system plays an important role in the intrinsic resistance of P. aeruginosa to aminoglycosides. Although overexpression of MexXY increased the level of resistance to fluoroquinolones, disruption of the mexXY operon in P. aeruginosa had no detectable effect on susceptibility to these agents.
Project description:Nebulization is currently used for delivery of antibiotics for respiratory infections. Bacteriophages (or phages) are effective predators of pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa commonly found in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is known that phages and antibiotics can potentially show synergistic antimicrobial effect on bacterial killing. In the present study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial effect of phage PEV20 with five different antibiotics against three P. aeruginosa strains isolated from sputum of CF patients. The antibiotics included ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, colistin, aztreonam and amikacin, which are approved by U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for inhaled administration. Phage and antibiotic synergy was determined by assessing bacterial killing performing time-kill studies. Among the different phage-antibiotic combinations, PEV20 and ciprofloxacin exhibited the most synergistic effect. Two phage-ciprofloxacin combinations, containing 1/4 and 1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin against P. aeruginosa strains FADD1-PA001 (A) and JIP865, respectively were aerosolized using both air-jet and vibrating mesh nebulizers and the synergistic antibacterial activity was maintained after nebulization. Air-jet nebulizer generated droplets with smaller volume median diameters (3.6-3.7?µm) and slightly larger span (2.3-2.4) than vibrating mesh nebulizers (5.1-5.3?µm; 2.1-2.2), achieving a higher fine particle fraction (FPF) of 70%. In conclusion, nebulized phage PEV20 and ciprofloxacin combination shows promising antimicrobial and aerosol characteristics for potential treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by drug-resistant P. aeruginosa.
Project description:The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a global concern and the use of bacteriophages alone or in combined therapies is attracting increasing attention as an alternative. Evolutionary theory predicts that the probability of bacterial resistance to both phages and antibiotics will be lower than to either separately, due for example to fitness costs or to trade-offs between phage resistance mechanisms and bacterial growth. In this study, we assess the population impacts of either individual or combined treatments of a bacteriophage and streptomycin on the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that combining phage and antibiotics substantially increases bacterial control compared to either separately, and that there is a specific time delay in antibiotic introduction independent of antibiotic dose, that minimizes both bacterial density and resistance to either antibiotics or phage. These results have implications for optimal combined therapeutic approaches.
Project description:With escalating resistance to antibiotics, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapies against bacterial pathogens and pests. One of the most promising is the employment of bacteriophages (phages), which may be highly specific and evolve to counter antiphage resistance. Despite an increased understanding of how phages interact with bacteria, we know very little about how their interactions may be modified in antibiotic environments and, reciprocally, how phage may affect the evolution of antibiotic resistance. We experimentally evaluated the impacts of single and combined applications of antibiotics (different doses and different types) and phages on in vitro evolving populations of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We also assessed the effects of past treatments on bacterial virulence in vivo, employing larvae of Galleria mellonella to survey the treatment consequences for the pathogen. We find a strong synergistic effect of combining antibiotics and phages on bacterial population density and in limiting their recovery rate. Our long-term study establishes that antibiotic dose is important, but that effects are relatively insensitive to antibiotic type. From an applied perspective, our results indicate that phages can contribute to managing antibiotic resistance levels, with limited consequences for the evolution of bacterial virulence.
Project description:Although early aggressive and prolonged treatment with specific antibiotics can extend survival in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) colonized by opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), antibiotics fail to eradicate the infecting multidrug-resistant (MDR) PA strains in CF. Century-long research has suggested treating patients with bacteriophages (phages, prokaryotic viruses) naturally hosted by bacteria. Although the only phage types used in therapy, lytic phages, lyse PA aggregated in biofilm matrix by depolymerase degrading enzymes, how they can effectively, safely, and persistently do so in patients with CF is unclear. Even though advanced techniques for formulating phage cocktails, training phages and collecting phage libraries have improved efficacy in vitro, whether personalized or ready-to-use therapeutic approaches or phages and antibiotics combined are effective and safe in vivo, and can reduce PA biofilms, remains debatable. Hence, to advance clinical research on phage therapy in clinical trials, also involving mucoid and non-mucoid multidrug-resistant PA in CF, and overcome problems in Western international regulations, we need reliable and repeatable information from experiments in vitro and in vivo on phage characterization, cocktail selection, personalized approaches, and phages combined with antibiotics. These findings, challenges, and promises prompted us to undertake this argumentative review to seek up-to-date information from papers describing lytic phage activity tested in vitro on PA laboratory strains, and PA strains from chronic infections including CF. We also reviewed in vivo studies on phage activity on pulmonary and non-pulmonary animal host models infected by laboratory or CF PA strains. Our argumentative review provides essential information showing that future phage clinical research in CF should use well-characterized and selected phages isolated against CF PA, tested in vitro under dynamic conditions in cocktails or combined with antibiotics, and in vivo on non-pulmonary and pulmonary host models infected with mucoid and non-mucoid CF MDR PA. Our findings should encourage pharmaceutical industries to conduct clinical trials in vitro and in vivo testing patented genomic engineered phages from phage libraries combined with antibiotics to treat or even prevent multidrug-resistant PA in CF, thus helping international regulatory agencies to plan future clinical research on phage therapy in CF.
Project description:In contrast to planktonic cells, bacteria imbedded biofilms are notoriously refractory to treatment by antibiotics or bacteriophage (phage) used alone. Given that the mechanisms of killing differ profoundly between drugs and phages, an obvious question is whether killing is improved by combining antibiotic and phage therapy. However, this question has only recently begun to be explored. Here, in vitro biofilm populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 were treated singly and with combinations of two phages and bactericidal antibiotics of five classes. By themselves, phages and drugs commonly had only modest effects in killing the bacteria. However some phage-drug combinations reduced bacterial densities to well below that of the best single treatment; in some cases, bacterial densities were reduced even below the level expected if both agents killed independently of each other (synergy). Furthermore, there was a profound order effect in some cases: treatment with phages before drugs achieved maximum killing. Combined treatment was particularly effective in killing in Pseudomonas biofilms grown on layers of cultured epithelial cells. Phages were also capable of limiting the extent to which minority populations of bacteria resistant to the treating antibiotic ascend. The potential of combined antibiotic and phage treatment of biofilm infections is discussed as a realistic way to evaluate and establish the use of bacteriophage for the treatment of humans.