SALM5 trans-synaptically interacts with LAR-RPTPs in a splicing-dependent manner to regulate synapse development.
ABSTRACT: Synaptogenic adhesion molecules play critical roles in synapse formation. SALM5/Lrfn5, a SALM/Lrfn family adhesion molecule implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia, induces presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons, but its presynaptic ligand remains unknown. We found that SALM5 interacts with the Ig domains of LAR family receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs; LAR, PTP?, and PTP?). These interactions are strongly inhibited by the splice insert B in the Ig domain region of LAR-RPTPs, and mediate SALM5-dependent presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons. In addition, SALM5 regulates AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission through mechanisms involving the interaction of postsynaptic SALM5 with presynaptic LAR-RPTPs. These results suggest that postsynaptic SALM5 promotes synapse development by trans-synaptically interacting with presynaptic LAR-RPTPs and is important for the regulation of excitatory synaptic strength.
Project description:Synapse formation is triggered by trans-synaptic interactions of cell adhesion molecules, termed synaptic organizers. Three members of type-II receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (classified as type-IIa RPTPs; PTP?, PTP? and LAR) are known as presynaptic organizers. Synaptic adhesion-like molecules (SALMs) have recently emerged as a family of postsynaptic organizers. Although all five SALM isoforms can bind to the type-IIa RPTPs, only SALM3 and SALM5 reportedly have synaptogenic activities depending on their binding. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo-SALM5, and PTP?-SALM2 and PTP?-SALM5 complexes. The leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains of SALMs interact with the second immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domain of PTP?, whereas the Ig domains of SALMs interact with both the second and third Ig domains of PTP?. Unexpectedly, the structures exhibit the LRR-mediated 2:2 complex. Our synaptogenic co-culture assay using site-directed SALM5 mutants demonstrates that presynaptic differentiation induced by PTP?-SALM5 requires the dimeric property of SALM5.
Project description:Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and function. However, whether and how presynaptic adhesion molecules regulate postsynaptic NMDAR function remains largely unclear. Presynaptic LAR family receptor tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) regulate synapse development through mechanisms that include trans-synaptic adhesion; however, whether they regulate postsynaptic receptor functions remains unknown. Here we report that presynaptic PTP?, a LAR-RPTP, enhances postsynaptic NMDA receptor (NMDAR) currents and NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. This regulation does not involve trans-synaptic adhesions of PTP?, suggesting that the cytoplasmic domains of PTP?, known to have tyrosine phosphatase activity and mediate protein-protein interactions, are important. In line with this, phosphotyrosine levels of presynaptic proteins, including neurexin-1, are strongly increased in PTP?-mutant mice. Behaviorally, PTP?-dependent NMDAR regulation is important for social and reward-related novelty recognition. These results suggest that presynaptic PTP? regulates postsynaptic NMDAR function through trans-synaptic and direct adhesion-independent mechanisms and novelty recognition in social and reward contexts.
Project description:Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of synapse development and plasticity. SALM3 is a PSD-95-interacting synaptic adhesion molecule known to induce presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons, but little is known about its presynaptic receptors and in vivo functions. Here, we identify an interaction between SALM3 and LAR family receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) that requires the mini-exon B splice insert in LAR-RPTPs. In addition, SALM3-dependent presynaptic differentiation requires all three types of LAR-RPTPs. SALM3 mutant (Salm3(-/-)) mice display markedly reduced excitatory synapse number but normal synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region. Salm3(-/-) mice exhibit hypoactivity in both novel and familiar environments but perform normally in learning and memory tests administered. These results suggest that SALM3 regulates excitatory synapse development and locomotion behavior.
Project description:SALM5, a synaptic adhesion molecule implicated in autism, induces presynaptic differentiation through binding to the LAR family receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) that have been highlighted as presynaptic hubs for synapse formation. The mechanisms underlying SALM5/LAR-RPTP interaction remain unsolved. Here we report crystal structures of human SALM5 LRR-Ig alone and in complex with human PTP? Ig1-3 (MeA-). Distinct from other LAR-RPTP ligands, SALM5 mainly exists as a dimer with LRR domains from two protomers packed in an antiparallel fashion. In the 2:2 heterotetrameric SALM5/PTP? complex, a SALM5 dimer bridges two separate PTP? molecules. Structure-guided mutations and heterologous synapse formation assays demonstrate that dimerization of SALM5 is prerequisite for its functionality in inducing synaptic differentiation. This study presents a structural template for the SALM family and reveals a mechanism for how a synaptic adhesion molecule directly induces cis-dimerization of LAR-RPTPs into higher-order signaling assembly.
Project description:Leukocyte common antigen-related receptor tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic organizers. The synaptic role of vertebrate LAR-RPTPs in vivo, however, remains unclear. In the current study, we analyzed the synaptic role of PTP? using newly generated, single conditional knockout (cKO) mice targeting PTP?. We found that the number of synapses was reduced in PTP? cKO cultured neurons in association with impaired excitatory synaptic transmission, abnormal vesicle localization, and abnormal synaptic ultrastructure. Strikingly, loss of presynaptic PTP? reduced neurotransmitter release prominently at excitatory synapses, concomitant with drastic reductions in excitatory innervations onto postsynaptic target areas in vivo. Furthermore, loss of presynaptic PTP? in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons had no impact on postsynaptic glutamate receptor responses in subicular pyramidal neurons. Postsynaptic PTP? deletion had no effect on excitatory synaptic strength. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PTP? is a bona fide presynaptic adhesion molecule that controls neurotransmitter release and excitatory inputs.
Project description:Leukocyte common antigen-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are hub proteins that organize excitatory and inhibitory synapse development through binding to various extracellular ligands. Here, we report that knockdown (KD) of the LAR-RPTP family member PTP? reduced excitatory synapse number and transmission in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, whereas KD of PTP? produced comparable decreases at inhibitory synapses, in both cases without altering expression levels of interacting proteins. An extensive series of rescue experiments revealed that extracellular interactions of PTP? with Slitrks are important for excitatory synapse development. These experiments further showed that the intracellular D2 domain of PTP? is required for induction of heterologous synapse formation by Slitrk1 or TrkC, suggesting that interaction of LAR-RPTPs with distinct intracellular presynaptic proteins, drives presynaptic machinery assembly. Consistent with this, double-KD of liprin-?2 and -?3 or KD of PTP? substrates (N-cadherin and p250RhoGAP) in neurons inhibited Slitrk6-induced, PTP?-mediated heterologous synapse formation activity. We propose a synaptogenesis model in presynaptic neurons involving LAR-RPTP-organized retrograde signaling cascades, in which both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms are critical in orchestrating distinct synapse types.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we sought to test the unproven hypothesis that PTP? and PTP? are required for excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation/transmission, respectively, in cultured hippocampal neurons, using knockdown-based loss-of-function analyses. We further performed extensive structure-function analyses, focusing on PTP?-mediated actions, to address the mechanisms of presynaptic assembly at excitatory synaptic sites. Using interdisciplinary approaches, we systematically applied a varied set of PTP? deletion variants, point mutants, and splice variants to demonstrate that both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms are involved in organizing presynaptic assembly. Strikingly, extracellular interactions of PTP? with heparan sulfates and Slitrks, intracellular interactions of PTP? with liprin-? and its associated proteins through the D2 domain, as well as distinct substrates are all critical.
Project description:LAR-type receptor phosphotyrosine-phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are presynaptic adhesion molecules that interact trans-synaptically with multitudinous postsynaptic adhesion molecules, including SliTrks, SALMs, and TrkC. Via these interactions, LAR-RPTPs are thought to function as synaptogenic wiring molecules that promote neural circuit formation by mediating the establishment of synapses. To test the synaptogenic functions of LAR-RPTPs, we conditionally deleted the genes encoding all three LAR-RPTPs, singly or in combination, in mice before synapse formation. Strikingly, deletion of LAR-RPTPs had no effect on synaptic connectivity in cultured neurons or in vivo, but impaired NMDA-receptor-mediated responses. Deletion of LAR-RPTPs decreased NMDA-receptor-mediated responses by a trans-synaptic mechanism. In cultured neurons, deletion of all LAR-RPTPs led to a reduction in synaptic NMDA-receptor EPSCs, without changing the subunit composition or the protein levels of NMDA-receptors. In vivo, deletion of all LAR-RPTPs in the hippocampus at birth also did not alter synaptic connectivity as measured via AMPA-receptor-mediated synaptic responses at Schaffer-collateral synapses monitored in juvenile mice, but again decreased NMDA-receptor mediated synaptic transmission. Thus, LAR-RPTPs are not essential for synapse formation, but control synapse properties by regulating postsynaptic NMDA-receptors via a trans-synaptic mechanism that likely involves binding to one or multiple postsynaptic ligands.
Project description:Leukocyte common antigen-related protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are cellular receptors of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans that regulate neurite outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. LAR-RPTPs have also received particular attention as the major presynaptic hubs for synapse organization through selective binding to numerous postsynaptic adhesion partners. Recent structural studies on LAR-RPTP-mediated trans-synaptic adhesion complexes have provided significant insight into the molecular basis of their specific interactions, the key codes for their selective binding, as well as the higher-order clustering of LAR-RPTPs necessary for synaptogenic activity. In this review, we summarize the structures of LAR-RPTPs in complex with various postsynaptic adhesion partners and discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying LAR-RPTP-mediated synaptogenesis.
Project description:Leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases--comprising LAR, PTP?, and PTP?--are synaptic adhesion molecules that organize synapse development. Here, we identify glypican 4 (GPC-4) as a ligand for PTP?. GPC-4 showed strong (nanomolar) affinity and heparan sulfate (HS)-dependent interaction with the Ig domains of PTP?. PTP? bound only to proteolytically cleaved GPC-4 and formed additional complex with leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein 4 (LRRTM4) in rat brains. Moreover, single knockdown (KD) of PTP?, but not LAR, in cultured neurons significantly reduced the synaptogenic activity of LRRTM4, a postsynaptic ligand of GPC-4, in heterologous synapse-formation assays. Finally, PTP? KD dramatically decreased both the frequency and amplitude of excitatory synaptic transmission. This effect was reversed by wild-type PTP?, but not by a HS-binding-defective PTP? mutant. Our results collectively suggest that presynaptic PTP?, together with GPC-4, acts in a HS-dependent manner to maintain excitatory synapse development and function.
Project description:Balanced development of excitatory and inhibitory synapses is required for normal brain function, and an imbalance in this development may underlie the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Compared with the many identified trans-synaptic adhesion complexes that organize excitatory synapses, little is known about the organizers that are specific for inhibitory synapses. We found that Slit and NTRK-like family member 3 (Slitrk3) actS as a postsynaptic adhesion molecule that selectively regulates inhibitory synapse development via trans-interaction with axonal tyrosine phosphatase receptor PTP?. When expressed in fibroblasts, Slitrk3 triggered only inhibitory presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons of co-cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Recombinant Slitrk3 preferentially localized to inhibitory postsynaptic sites. Slitrk3-deficient mice exhibited decreases in inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse number and function in hippocampal CA1 neurons and exhibited increased seizure susceptibility and spontaneous epileptiform activity. Slitrk3 required trans-interaction with axonal PTP? to induce inhibitory presynaptic differentiation. These results identify Slitrk3-PTP? as an inhibitory-specific trans-synaptic organizing complex that is required for normal functional GABAergic synapse development.