Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet.
ABSTRACT: The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.
Project description:Overnutrition, such as a high-fat (HF) diet, is a feature followed by some in developed nations that leads to obesity and fatty liver disease. In rats, when fed a fat-high diet, some develop obesity (obesity prone, OP) while others display an obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype. The present study investigated the differences between OP and OR rats on their activation of hepatic cellular senescence pathways on a HF diet. Male OP and OR rats were fed a HF diet containing 45% kcal from fat for 13 wk, and livers were collected for analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. OP rats were 41% heavier than OR rats, despite consuming the same amount of food. Triacylglycerol levels were increased significantly in both plasma and liver of OP rats. Gene analysis demonstrated a significant increase of both the amount and the transcription rates of p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1) mRNA in OP rats. The increased p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1) also caused a significant decrease in the level of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In OP rats, the increase of p16(INK4a) was associated with the higher acetylation levels of histone H4 at the p16(INK4a) promoter and coding region and lower methylation level of histone H3 lysine-27 in the p16(INK4a) coding region. The increase of p21(Cip1) was associated with increased acetylation of both histone H3 and H4 and decreased trimethylation of histone H3 lysine-27 at the p21(Cip1) promoter. In the p21(Cip1) coding region, dimethylation of histone H3 lysine-4 was significantly higher (P <0.05) in livers of OP rats compared with OR rats.
Project description:White adipose tissue (WAT) expands through hypertrophy (increased adipocyte size) and/or hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number). Hypertrophy has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia independently of body composition and fat distribution. In contrast, hyperplasia protects against metabolic alterations. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet, improve metabolic disturbances associated with diet-induced obesity without reducing body weight or adiposity. The aim of this study was to determine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can modulate WAT expandability. Because GSPE also contains gallic acid, we also studied the capacity of gallic acid to remodel WAT.Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet (n=6) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 11 weeks. After 8 weeks, the CAF-fed animals were supplemented with 25?mg GSPE/kg body weight (n=6), 7?mg gallic acid/kg body weight (n=6) or the vehicle (n=6) for 3 weeks. Histological analyses were performed in the retroperitoneal (rWAT) and inguinal (iWAT) WAT to determine adipocyte size and number. Specific markers for adipogenesis and WAT functionality were analysed in rWAT using quantitative RT-PCR.GSPE or gallic acid supplementation did not reduce weight gain or reverse and adiposity. However, GSPE reduced adipocyte size significantly in rWAT and moderately in iWAT and tripled the adipocyte number in rWAT. Gallic acid slightly reduced adipocyte size in rWAT and iWAT and doubled the adipocyte number in both WATs. In accordance with this adipogenic activity, Pref-1 and PPAR? tended to be overexpressed in rWAT of rats supplemented with GSPE. Moreover, GSPE supplementation increased Plin1 and Fabp4 expression and restored adiponectin expression completely, indicating a better functionality of visceral WAT.GSPE supplementation has anti-hypertrophic and hyperplasic activities in rats with established obesity, mainly in visceral WAT inducing a healthier expansion of WAT to match the surplus energy provided by the cafeteria diet.
Project description:In males, obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigate insulin, via an action in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and downstream neuropathways, including melanocortin receptor 3/4 (MC3/4R) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH). We studied conscious and ?-chloralose-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet, which causes obesity prone (OP) rats to accrue excess fat and obesity-resistant (OR) rats to maintain fat content, similar to rats fed a standard control (CON) diet. Nonspecific blockade of the ArcN with muscimol and specific blockade of ArcN insulin receptors (InsR) decreased lumbar SNA (LSNA), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in OP, but not OR or CON, rats, indicating that insulin supports LSNA in obese males. In conscious rats, intracerebroventricular infusion of insulin increased MAP only in OP rats and also improved HR baroreflex function from subnormal to supranormal. The brain sensitization to insulin may elucidate how insulin can drive central SNA pathways when transport of insulin across the blood-brain barrier may be impaired. Blockade of PVN, but not DMH, MC3/4R with SHU9119 decreased LSNA, HR, and, MAP in OP, but not OR or CON, rats. Interestingly, nanoinjection of the MC3/4R agonist melanotan II (MTII) into the PVN increased LSNA only in OP rats, similar to PVN MTII-induced increases in LSNA in CON rats after blockade of sympathoinhibitory neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors. ArcN InsR expression was not increased in OP rats. Collectively, these data indicate that obesity increases SNA, in part via increased InsR signaling and downstream PVN MC3/4R.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study used CD obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats to examine how weight gain and fat accretion relate to fermentation levels and microbiota composition after feeding resistant starch (RS). METHODS:After feeding OP rats and OR rats a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks, rats were stratified into three groups: they were fed either an HF diet (group 1: HF-HF) or were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (group 2: HF-LF) or an LF diet supplemented with 20% RS by weight for 4 weeks (group 3: HF-LFRS). Energy intake, body weight, fermentation variables, and microbiota composition were determined. RESULTS:In OP rats, RS elicited robust fermentation (increased cecal contents, short-chain fatty acids, and serum glucagon-like peptide 1). Total bacteria, species of the Bacteroidales family S24-7, and the archaean Methanobrevibacter smithii increased. The robust fermentation did not elicit higher weight or fat accretion when compared with that of control rats fed the same isocaloric diets (HF-LF?±?RS). In OR rats, body weight and fat accretion were also not different between HF-LF?±?RS diets, but RS elicited minimal changes in fermentation and microbiota composition. CONCLUSIONS:Robust fermentation did not contribute to greater weight. Fermentation levels and changes in microbiota composition in response to dietary RS differed by obesity phenotype.
Project description:A high-fat diet has been recognized as an important risk factor of obesity, with variable impacts of different fatty acid compositions on the physiological process. To understand the effects of a high-margarine/lard diet, which is a major source of trans fatty acids (TFAs)/ saturated fatty acids (SFAs), elaidic acid as a biomarker of margarine intake was used to screen affected adipokines on mature human adipocytes in vitro. Weaned male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet enriched with margarine/lard to generate obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) models, which were then used to explore the inflammatory responses of depot-specific white adipose tissue. Adiposity, glucose and lipid metabolism parameters and macrophage cell markers were also compared in vivo. In the subcutaneous depot, a high-margarine diet induced elevated IL-6, MCP-1 and XCL1 expression levels in both M-OP and M-OR groups. High-lard diet-fed rats displayed higher protein expression levels of MCP-1 and XCL1 compared with the control group. In the epididymal depot, significantly elevated IL-6 production was observed in M-OP rats, and high-lard diet-fed rats displayed elevated IL-6 and decreased XCL1 expression. In the retroperitoneal depot, a high-margarine diet caused higher IL-6 and MCP-1 expression levels, a high-lard diet caused elevated IL-6 expression in L-OP/L-OR rats, and elevated XCL1 expression was observed only in L-OP rats. In general, CD206 mRNA levels were notably down-regulated by high-fat diet feeding in the above-mentioned depots. CD11c mRNA levels were slightly upregulated in the subcutaneous depot of OP rats fed a high-margarine/lard diet. In the epidydimal depot, higher expression levels of F4/80 and CD206 mRNA were observed only in high-margarine diet-fed OP rats. These results suggest that depot-specific inflammation with decreased expression of adipose tissue anti-inflammatory M2-type (ATM2) macrophages could be induced by high-margarine/lard intake.
Project description:<b>Background and purpose:</b> Russelioside B (RB) is a pregnane glycoside obtained from <i>Caralluma quadrangula</i>; a herb with antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic activities. The present experiment tested the possible role of RB in controlling weight gain in rats fed on high fat (HF) diet. <b>Methods:</b> RB was separated from the n-butanol fraction of the crude methanolic extract by chromatographic separation on a Si gel column according to the procedures described previously. The experiment of the biological assessment of RB used 32 male Wistar rats (4 groups, <i>n</i> = 8). Group 1 rats were fed with a palatable normal diet. Group 2, 3, and 4 were fed on HF diet for 16 weeks. Group 2 served as the HF diet control group while Group 3 and 4 received daily oral doses of RB (25 and 50 mg/kg) during the last four weeks. Animals' parameters like weight gain, fasting level of blood sugar, serum lipids, and serum liver enzyme activities were measured. Liver or adipose tissue weight was divided by the rat's body weight and multiplied by 100 to obtain the liver or adipose tissue index, respectively. Adipose tissues were processed for histopathological examination, measurement of mRNA expression of visfatin, leptin, adiponectin, uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1). Furthermore, serum levels of insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were assessed using ELISA kits. <b>Results:</b> Rats fed with the HF diet exhibited significant body weight gain, abnormal liver function, disturbed lipid profile, and greater serum level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in addition to greater insulin resistance, adipose tissue and liver indices. Further, rats fed with the HF diet displayed upregulations in the expression of visfatin and leptin with downregulations in the expression of adiponectin, UCP-1, and CPT-1 compared to normal rats. Interestingly, RB (25 or 50 mg/kg) favorably modulated the measured parameters. <b>Conclusion:</b> Data from this study documented the beneficial role of RB in diminishing weight gain, improving the inflammatory perturbations and energy expenditure in HF diet fed rats. Therefore, RB might be a promising candidate for obesity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Small increases in zinc (Zn) consumption above recommended amounts have been shown to reduce copper (Cu) status in experimental animals and humans. Recently, we have reported that copper chaperone for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein level is increased in tissues of overtly Cu-deficient rats and proposed CCS as a novel biomarker of Cu status.<h4>Methods</h4>Weanling male Wistar rats were fed one of four diets normal in Cu and containing normal (30 mg Zn/kg diet) or moderately high (60, 120 or 240 mg Zn/kg diet) amounts of Zn for 5 weeks. To begin to examine the clinical relevance of CCS, we compared the sensitivity of CCS to mild Cu deficiency, induced by moderately high intakes of Zn, with conventional indices of Cu status.<h4>Results</h4>Liver and erythrocyte CCS expression was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in rats fed the Zn-60 and/or Zn-120 diet compared to rats fed normal levels of Zn (Zn-30). Erythrocyte CCS expression was the most sensitive measure of reduced Cu status and was able to detect a decrease in Cu nutriture in rats fed only twice the recommended amount of Zn. Liver, erythrocyte and white blood cell CCS expression showed a significant (P < 0.05) inverse correlation with plasma and liver Cu concentrations and caeruloplasmin activity. Unexpectedly, rats fed the highest level of Zn (Zn-240) showed overall better Cu status than rats fed a lower level of elevated Zn (Zn-120). Improved Cu status in these rats correlated with increased duodenal mRNA expression of several Zn-trafficking proteins (i.e. MT-1, ZnT-1, ZnT-2 and ZnT-4).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Collectively, these data show that CCS is a sensitive measure of Zn-induced mild Cu deficiency and demonstrate a dose-dependent biphasic response for reduced Cu status by moderately high intakes of Zn.
Project description:Background: Post-menopausal obesity is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Consumption of diets high in fat is known to be highly correlated with obesity. In this, we sought to evaluate the interaction(s) between high fat diet, weight gain and mammary carcinogenesis using an obese-resistant and obese-prone rat model with direct correlates to human disease. Methods: Female obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) weanling rats were placed on either a low fat (10% kcal) or a high fat (39% kcal) n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) safflower diet for 30 days. At post natal day (PND) 50, global gene expression profiling was performed on microdissected mammary epithlelium from one cohort of rats and another cohort of rats were given a single oral gavage of either 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA at 14 mg/kg) or vehicle. Rats were then maintained on the diets and body weights, food consumption and development of mammary lesions were monitored weekly. Results: The DMBA-treated OR rats on the 39% safflower diet had significantly greater incidence of ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) lesions and significantly greater DCIS multiplicity than DMBA-treated OR rats on the 10% safflower diet. These differences were not seen in the OP strain. Gene expression analysis of mammary ductal epithelium from OR rats on the high fat diet showed significant upregulation of proliferation-related genes compared to those consuming the low fat safflower diet. Again, these differences were not seen in the OP strain. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that consumption of high fat safflower diet enhances mammary carcinogenesis in an OR rat strain through increased proliferation of mammary epithelium at the time of exposure, but not in the OP rat strain. Thus, the diet-induced increase in sensitivity was strain-specific and independent of weight gain or obesity level. Female obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) weanling rats were placed on either a low fat (10% kcal) or a high fat (39% kcal) n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) safflower diet for 30 days. At post natal day (PND) 50, global gene expression profiling was performed on microdissected mammary epithlelium from one cohort of rats and another cohort of rats were given a single oral gavage of either 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA at 14 mg/kg) or vehicle. Rats were then maintained on the diets and body weights, food consumption and development of mammary lesions were monitored weekly.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and underlying molecular mechanisms of Bauhiniastatin-1 (BSTN1) to alleviate adiposity in diet-induced obese rodent model and in 3T3-L1 cells. <b>Methods:</b> BSTN1 was purified and confirmed through HPLC. <i>In-vitro</i> experiments such as MTT assay, Oil Red-O (ORO) stain, cellular lipid content, glycerol release and RT-PCR analysis were performed in 3T3-L1 cells in the presence and absence of BSTN1. In animal experiments, rats were divided into Group-I: normal pellet diet-fed, Group-II: HFD-fed, Groups-III, IV and V: HFD-fed BSTN1 (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg.b.wt./day/rat)-treated and Group-VI: HFD-fed Orlistat-treated. The rats were fed either normal diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks and water <i>ad-libitum</i>. BSTN1 was orally administered from 13th week onwards to the selected HFD-fed groups. Body composition parameters, biochemical assays, histopathology examination and western blot analysis were performed to identify the predicted targets related to obesity. Molecular docking studies threw light on the binding interactions of BSTN1 against PPAR-γ, FAS and AMPK. <b>Results:</b> BSTN1 at 20 μM significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.001) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. A conspicuous down-regulation in the mRNA expression levels of PPAR-γ, FAS and SREBP1 was observed but AMPK expression remained unchanged in BSTN1 treated 3T3-L1 cells. A substantial decrease in body weight gain, fat percent, total body fat, serum and liver lipid profile (except high-density lipoprotein), glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in BSTN1 treated rats was noticed in a dose dependent manner. In BSTN1 (5 mg/kg.b.wt.)-treated groups significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.01) elevated plasma adiponectin level but reduced leptin level as well as fall in serum AST and ALT were noticed. Further, the disturbed structural integrity and architecture of adipose and hepatic tissues due to high fat diet feeding were considerably recovered with BSTN1 treatment. Down-regulation in the protein expression level of PPAR-γ and activation of AMPK through phosphorylation was observed in BSTN1 treated rats than the untreated. Molecular docking studies revealed strong binding interactions of BSTN1 against PPAR-γ and AMPK and thus supported the experimental results. <b>Conclusion:</b> Taken together, the results suggest that BSTN1 could be a promising pharmacological molecule in the treatment of obesity and dyslipidemia.
Project description:The pulp of the purple mangosteen, <i>Garcinia mangostana</i>, is a popular tropical fruit but the rind containing xanthones such as ?-mangostin together with procyanidins and anthocyanidins is usually discarded as waste. However, this rind has been used in South-East Asia for diarrhoea, dysentery, skin infections and wounds. As xanthones have reported anti-inflammatory and antioxidant responses, this study has determined the bioactive compounds and evaluated the effects of <i>G. mangostana</i> rind on physiological, metabolic, liver and cardiovascular parameters in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats fed a diet with increased simple sugars and saturated fats developed obesity, hypertension, increased left ventricular stiffness, dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Administration of <i>G. mangostana</i> rind as 5% of the food to rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome gave a dose of 168 mg/kg/day ?-mangostin, 355 mg/kg/day procyanidins, 3.9 mg/kg/day anthocyanins and 11.8 mg/kg/day hydroxycitric acid for 8 weeks which reduced body weight and attenuated physiological and metabolic changes in rats including decreased abdominal fat deposition, decreased abdominal circumference and whole-body fat mass, improved liver structure and function and improved cardiovascular parameters such as systolic blood pressure, left ventricular stiffness and endothelial function. These responses were associated with decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells, decreased deposition of collagen in both heart and liver and decreased mean adipocyte size in retroperitoneal adipose tissues. We conclude that, in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome, chronic intake of <i>G. mangostana</i> rind decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells which decreased physiological, metabolic, liver and cardiovascular symptoms.