ABSTRACT: Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae strain ATCC 700603, formerly known as K. pneumoniae K6, is known for producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes that can hydrolyze oxyimino-?-lactams, resulting in resistance to these drugs. We herein report the complete genome of strain ATCC 700603 and show that the ESBL genes are plasmid-encoded.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae K6 (ATCC 700603), a clinical isolate, is resistant to ceftazidime and other oxyimino-beta-lactams. A consistent reduction in the MICs of oxyimino-beta-lactams by at least 3 twofold dilutions in the presence of clavulanic acid confirmed the utility of K. pneumoniae K6 as a quality control strain for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) detection. Isoelectric-focusing analysis of crude lysates of K6 demonstrated a single beta-lactamase with a pI of 7.8 and a substrate profile showing preferential hydrolysis of cefotaxime compared to ceftazidime. PCR analysis of total bacterial DNA from K6 identified the presence of a bla(SHV) gene. K6 contained two large plasmids with molecular sizes of approximately 160 and 80 kb. Hybridization of plasmid DNA with a bla(SHV)-specific probe indicated that a bla(SHV) gene was encoded on the 80-kb plasmid, which was shown to transfer resistance to ceftazidime in conjugal mating experiments with Escherichia coli HB101. DNA sequencing of this bla(SHV)-related gene revealed that it differs from bla(SHV-1) at nine nucleotides, five of which resulted in amino acid substitutions: Ile to Phe at position 8, Arg to Ser at position 43, Gly to Ala at position 238, and Glu to Lys at position 240. In addition to the production of this novel ESBL, designated SHV-18, analysis of the outer membrane proteins of K6 revealed the loss of the OmpK35 and OmpK37 porins.
Project description:Klebsiella quasipneumoniae is an emerging pathogen in human medicine. We report draft genome sequences of NDM-1- and KPC-2-producing K. quasipneumoniae strains from inpatients in Brazil. K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae and K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae harbored broad resistomes. These data could contribute to a better understanding of acquired resistance in K. quasipneumoniae.
Project description:The aim of this study was to unravel the genetic determinants responsible for multidrug (including carbapenems) resistance and virulence in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae by whole-genome sequencing and comparative analyses. Eighty-three clinical isolates initially identified as carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were collected from nosocomial infections in southeast Brazil. After RAPD screening, the KPC-142 isolate, showing the most divergent DNA pattern, was selected for complete genome sequencing in an Illumina HiSeq 2500 instrument. Reads were assembled into scaffolds, gaps between scaffolds were resolved by in silico gap filling and extensive bioinformatics analyses were performed, using multiple comparative analysis tools and databases. Genome sequencing allowed to correct the classification of the KPC-142 isolate as K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae. To the best of our knowledge this is the first complete genome reported to date of a clinical isolate of this subspecies harboring both class A beta-lactamases KPC-2 and OKP-B-6 from South America. KPC-142 has one 5.2 Mbp chromosome (57.8% G+C) and two plasmids: 190 Kbp pKQPS142a (50.7% G+C) and 11 Kbp pKQPS142b (57.3% G+C). The 3 Kbp region in pKQPS142b containing the blaKPC-2 was found highly similar to that of pKp13d of K. pneumoniae Kp13 isolated in Southern Brazil in 2009, suggesting the horizontal transfer of this resistance gene between different species of Klebsiella. KPC-142 additionally harbors an integrative conjugative element ICEPm1 that could be involved in the mobilization of pKQPS142b and determinants of resistance to other classes of antimicrobials, including aminoglycoside and silver. We present the completely assembled genome sequence of a clinical isolate of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae, a KPC-2 and OKP-B-6 beta-lactamases producer and discuss the most relevant genomic features of this important resistant pathogen in comparison to several strains belonging to K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae (phylogroup II-B), K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae (phylogroup II-A), K. pneumoniae (phylogroup I), and K. variicola (phylogroup III). Our study contributes to the description of the characteristics of a novel K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae strain circulating in South America that currently represent a serious potential risk for nosocomial settings.
Project description:A clinical isolate of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae 06-219 with hypermucoviscosity phenotypes obtained from a urine culture of an adult patient was used for whole-genome sequencing. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of this strain, consisting of 53 contigs with an ~5.6-Mb genome size and an average G+C content of 57.36%. The annotation revealed 6,622 coding DNA sequences and 77 tRNA genes.
Project description:Outbreaks of infection occur more often than they are reported in most developing countries, largely due to poor diagnostic services. A Klebsiella species bacteremia outbreak in a newborn unit with high mortality was recently encountered at a location being surveilled for childhood bacteremia. These surveillance efforts offered the opportunity to determine the cause of this neonatal outbreak. In this report, we present the whole-genome sequences of New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM-5)-containing Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae bloodstream isolates from a neonatal bacteremia outbreak at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria and as part of the largest collection of K. pneumoniae bloodstream isolates from children in Africa. Comparative analysis of the genetic environment surrounding the NDM-5 genes revealed nearly perfect sequence identity to bla NDM-5-bearing IncX3-type plasmids from other members of the Enterobacteriaceae IMPORTANCE Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is of global health importance, yet there is a paucity of genome-based studies in Africa. Here we report fatal blood-borne NDM-5-producing K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae infections from Nigeria, Africa. New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM)-producing Klebsiella spp. are responsible for high mortality and morbidity, with the NDM-5 variant showing elevated carbapenem resistance. The prevalence of NDM-5 in Klebsiella has been limited primarily to K. pneumoniae, with only one isolate being collected from Africa. During an outbreak of sepsis in a teaching hospital in Nigeria, five NDM-5-producing K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae sequence type 476 isolates were identified. Given the increased resistance profile of these strains, this study highlights the emerging threat of bla NDM-5 dissemination in hospital environments. The observation of these NDM-5-producing isolates in Africa stresses the urgency to improve monitoring and clinical practices to reduce or prevent the further spread of resistance.
Project description:We report the whole-genome sequences of two carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae obtained from two different patients. Both strains contained three different extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes and showed strikingly high pairwise average nucleotide identity of 99.99% despite being isolated 3 years apart from the same hospital.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major threat to public health, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The emergence of highly drug-resistant strains is particularly concerning. There has been a recognition and division of Klebsiella pneumoniae into three distinct phylogenetic groups: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella variicola, and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae have often been described as opportunistic pathogens that have less virulence in humans than K. pneumoniae does. We recently sequenced the genomes of 1,777 extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from human infections and discovered that 28 strains were phylogenetically related to K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae. Whole-genome sequencing of 95 additional non-ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from patients found 12 K. quasipneumoniae strains. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis initially identified all patient isolates as K. pneumoniae, suggesting a potential pitfall in conventional clinical microbiology laboratory identification methods. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed extensive sharing of core gene content and plasmid replicons among the Klebsiella species. For the first time, strains of both K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae were found to carry the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) gene, while another K. variicola strain was found to carry the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) gene. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae infections were not less virulent than K. pneumoniae infections, as assessed by in-hospital mortality and infection type. We also discovered evidence of homologous recombination in one K. variicola strain, as well as one strain from a novel Klebsiella species, which challenge the current understanding of interrelationships between clades of Klebsiella. IMPORTANCEKlebsiella pneumoniae is a serious human pathogen associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics and high mortality. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae are closely related organisms that are generally considered to be less-virulent opportunistic pathogens. We used a large, comprehensive, population-based strain collection and whole-genome sequencing to investigate infections caused by these organisms in our hospital system. We discovered that K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae isolates are often misidentified as K. pneumoniae by routine clinical microbiology diagnostics and frequently cause severe life-threatening infections similar to K. pneumoniae. The presence of KPC in K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae strains as well as NDM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase in one K. variicola strain is particularly concerning because these genes confer resistance to many different beta-lactam antibiotics. The sharing of plasmids, as well as evidence of homologous recombination, between these three species of Klebsiella is cause for additional concern.
Project description:During March 2017, a neonatal patient with severe diarrhoea subsequently developed septicaemia and died, with Klebsiella isolated as the causative microorganism. In keeping with infection control protocols, the coincident illness of an attending staff member and three other neonates with Klebsiella infection triggered an outbreak response, leading to microbiological assessment of isolates collected from the staff member and all 21 co-housed neonates. Multilocus sequence typing and genomic sequencing identified that the isolates from the 21 neonates were of a new Klebsiella sequence type, ST2727, and taxonomically belonged to K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae (formerly referred to as KpIIB). Genomic characterization showed that the isolated ST2727 strains had diverged from other K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae strains at least 90 years ago, whereas the neonatal samples were highly similar with a genomic divergence of 3.6?months. There was no relationship to the Klebsiella isolate from the staff member. This demonstrates that no transmission occurred from staff to patient or between patients. Rather, the data suggest that ST2727 colonized each neonate from a common hospital source. Sequence-based analysis of the genomes revealed several genes for antimicrobial resistance and some virulence features, but suggest that ST2727 is neither extremely-drug resistant nor hypervirulent. Our results highlight the clinical significance and genomic properties of ST2727 and urge genome-based measures be implemented for diagnostics and surveillance within hospital environments. Additionally, the present study demonstrates the need to scale the power of genomic analysis in retrospective studies where relatively few samples are available.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae (phylogroup Kp1), one of the most problematic pathogens associated with antibiotic resistance worldwide, is phylogenetically closely related to K. quasipneumoniae [subsp. quasipneumoniae (Kp2) and subsp. similipneumoniae (Kp4)], K. variicola (Kp3) and two unnamed phylogroups (Kp5 and Kp6). Together, Kp1 to Kp6 make-up the K. pneumoniae complex. Currently, the phylogroups can be reliably identified only based on gene (or genome) sequencing. Misidentification using standard laboratory methods is common and consequently, the clinical significance of K. pneumoniae complex members is imprecisely defined. Here, we evaluated and validated the potential of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) to discriminate K. pneumoniae complex members. We detected mass spectrometry biomarkers associated with the phylogroups, with a sensitivity and specificity ranging between 80-100% and 97-100%, respectively. Strains within phylogroups Kp1, Kp2, Kp4, and Kp5 each shared two specific peaks not observed in other phylogroups. Kp3 strains shared a peak that was only observed otherwise in Kp5. Finally, Kp6 had a diagnostic peak shared only with Kp1. Kp3 and Kp6 could therefore be identified by exclusion criteria (lacking Kp5 and Kp1-specific peaks, respectively). Further, ranked Pearson correlation clustering of spectra grouped strains according to their phylogroup. The model was tested and successfully validated using different culture media. These results demonstrate the potential of MALDI-TOF MS for precise identification of K. pneumoniae complex members. Incorporation of spectra of all K. pneumoniae complex members into reference MALDI-TOF spectra databases, in which they are currently lacking, is desirable. MALDI-TOF MS may thereby enable a better understanding of the epidemiology, ecology, and pathogenesis of members of the K. pneumoniae complex.
Project description:Background:Nosocomial infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a global public health threat that ought to be promptly identified, reported, and addressed accurately. Many carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae-associated genes have been identified in Saudi Arabia but not the endemic Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), which are encoded by bla KPC-type genes. KPCs are known for their exceptional spreading potential. Methods:We collected n?=?286 multi-drug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella spp. isolates as part of screening for resistant patterns from a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia between 2014 and 2018. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using both VITEK II and the broth microdilution of all collected isolates. Detection of resistance-conferring genes was carried out using Illumina whole-genome shotgun sequencing and PacBio SMRT sequencing protocols. Results:A Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae strain was identified as a novel ST-3510 carrying a bla KPC-2 carbapenemase encoding gene. The isolate, designated as NGKPC-421, was obtained from shotgun Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) surveillance of 286 MDR Klebsiella spp. clinical isolates. The NGKPC-421 isolate was collected from a septic patient in late 2017 and was initially misidentified as K. pneumoniae. The sequencing and assembly of the NGKPC-421 genome resulted in the identification of a putative ~?39.4?kb IncX6 plasmid harboring a bla KPC-2 gene, flanked by transposable elements (ISKpn6-bla KPC-2-ISKpn27). Conclusion:This is the first identification of a KPC-2-producing CRE in the Gulf region. The impact on this finding is of major concern to the public health in Saudi Arabia, considering that it is the religious epicenter with a continuous mass influx of pilgrims from across the world. Our study strongly highlights the importance of implementing rapid sequencing-based technologies in clinical microbiology for precise taxonomic classification and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns.