Integrated Metabolo-Transcriptomics Reveals Fusarium Head Blight Candidate Resistance Genes in Wheat QTL-Fhb2.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum not only causes severe losses in yield, but also reduces quality of wheat grain by accumulating mycotoxins. Breeding for host plant resistance is considered as the best strategy to manage FHB. Resistance in wheat to FHB is quantitative in nature, involving cumulative effects of many genes governing resistance. The poor understanding of genetics and lack of precise phenotyping has hindered the development of FHB resistant cultivars. Though more than 100 QTLs imparting FHB resistance have been reported, none discovered the specific genes localized within the QTL region, nor the underlying mechanisms of resistance. FINDINGS:In our study recombinant inbred lines (RILs) carrying resistant (R-RIL) and susceptible (S-RIL) alleles of QTL-Fhb2 were subjected to metabolome and transcriptome profiling to discover the candidate genes. Metabolome profiling detected a higher abundance of metabolites belonging to phenylpropanoid, lignin, glycerophospholipid, flavonoid, fatty acid, and terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in R-RIL than in S-RIL. Transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of several receptor kinases, transcription factors, signaling, mycotoxin detoxification and resistance related genes. The dissection of QTL-Fhb2 using flanking marker sequences, integrating metabolomic and transcriptomic datasets, identified 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL), callose synthase (CS), basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH041) transcription factor, glutathione S-transferase (GST), ABC transporter-4 (ABC4) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) as putative resistance genes localized within the QTL-Fhb2 region. CONCLUSION:Some of the identified genes within the QTL region are associated with structural resistance through cell wall reinforcement, reducing the spread of pathogen through rachis within a spike and few other genes that detoxify DON, the virulence factor, thus eventually reducing disease severity. In conclusion, we report that the wheat resistance QTL-Fhb2 is associated with high rachis resistance through additive resistance effects of genes, based on cell wall enforcement and detoxification of DON. Following further functional characterization and validation, these resistance genes can be used to replace the genes in susceptible commercial cultivars, if nonfunctional, based on genome editing to improve FHB resistance.
Project description:Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a severe disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Qfhb1 is the most important quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance. We previously identified wheat gene WFhb1-1 (aka WFhb1-c1) as a candidate for FHB resistance gene. Here we report that WFhb1-1 has been cloned. The gene (GenBank # KU304333.1) consists of a single exon, encoding a putative membrane protein of 127 amino acids. WFhb1-1 protein produced in Pichia pastoris inhibits growth of both F. graminearum and P. pastoris in culture. Western Blotting with anti- WFhb1-1 antibody revealed a significant decrease (p?<?0.01) in WFhb1-1 accumulation, 12?hours post Fusarium inoculation in non-Qfhb1-carrier wheat but not in Qfhb1-carrier wheat. Overexpressing WFhb1-1 in non-Qfhb1-carrier wheat led to a significant decrease (p?<?0.01) in Fusarium-damaged rachis rate, Fusarium-diseased kernel rate and DON content in harvested kernels, while silencing WFhb1-1 in Qfhb1-carrier wheat resulted in a significant increase (p?<?0.01) in FHB severity. Therefore, WFhb1-1 is an important FHB resistance gene with a potential antifungal function and probably a key functional component of Qfhb1 in wheat. A model regarding how WFhb1-1 functions in FHB resistance/susceptibility is hypothesized and discussed.
Project description:Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very important disease of wheat globally. Damage caused by F. graminearum includes reduced grain yield, reduced grain functional quality, and results in the presence of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-damaged kernels. The development of FHB resistant wheat cultivars is an important component of integrated management. The objective of this study was to identify QTL for FHB resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137. Kenyon is a Canadian spring wheat, while 86ISMN 2137 is an unrelated spring wheat. The RIL population was evaluated for FHB resistance in six FHB nurseries. Nine additive effect QTL for FHB resistance were identified, six from Kenyon and three from 86ISMN 2137. Rht8 and Ppd-D1a co-located with two FHB resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2DS. A major QTL for FHB resistance from Kenyon (QFhb.crc-7D) was identified on chromosome 7D. The QTL QFhb.crc-2D.4 from Kenyon mapped to the same region as a FHB resistance QTL from Wuhan-1 on chromosome arm 2DL. This result was unexpected since Kenyon does not share common ancestry with Wuhan-1. Other FHB resistance QTL on chromosomes 4A, 4D, and 5B also mapped to known locations of FHB resistance. Four digenic epistatic interactions were detected for FHB resistance, which involved eight QTL. None of these QTL were significant based upon additive effect QTL analysis. This study provides insight into the genetic basis of native FHB resistance in Canadian spring wheat.
Project description:Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating fungal disease of small-grain cereals that results in severe yield and quality losses. FHB resistance is controlled by resistance components including incidence, field severity, visual rating index, Fusarium damaged kernels (FDKs), and the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Resistance conferred by each of these components is partial and must be combined to achieve resistance sufficient to protect wheat from yield losses. In this study, two biparental mapping populations were analyzed in Canadian FHB nurseries and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped for the traits listed above. Nine genomic loci, on 2AS, 2BS, 3BS, 4AS, 4AL, 4BS, 5AS, 5AL, and 5BL, were enriched for the majority of the QTL controlling FHB resistance. The previously validated FHB resistance QTL on 3BS and 5AS affected resistance to severity, FDK, and DON in these populations. The remaining seven genomic loci colocalize with flowering time and/or plant height QTL. The QTL on 4B was a major contributor to all field resistance traits and plant height in the field. QTL on 4AL showed contrasting effects for FHB resistance between Eastern and Western Canada, indicating a local adapted resistance to FHB. In addition, we also found that the 2AS QTL contributed a major effect for DON, and the 2BS for FDK, while the 5AL conferred mainly effect for both FDK/DON. Results presented here provide insight into the genetic architecture underlying these resistant components and insight into how FHB resistance in wheat is controlled by a complex network of interactions between genes controlling flowering time, plant height, local adaption, and FHB resistance components.
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:Two QTL with major effects on DON content reduction were identified on chromosomes 3BL and 3DL, with the former showing minor and the latter showing no effects on FHB resistance. Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in food and feed is a major concern regarding Fusarium head blight (FHB) infection in wheat. However, relatively less attention has been paid on DON compared to FHB. In this study, a FHB-susceptible cultivar 'NASMA' was hybridized with a FHB-resistant CIMMYT breeding line 'IAS20*5/H567.71' to generate 197 recombinant inbred lines. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits including DON accumulation in spray-inoculated field experiments at CIMMYT-Mexico across four years. Genotyping was performed by using the Illumina Infinium 15 K Beadchip and SSR markers. QTL mapping results indicated that the field FHB resistance was mainly controlled by QTL at Rht-D1 and Vrn-A1, along with a few minor QTL. For DON content, two major QTL were identified: the first located on chromosome 3BL (R2 of 16-24%), showing minor effects on FHB, and the second was on chromosome 3DL (R2 of 10-15%), exhibiting no effect on FHB resistance. It is likely that both DON QTL are new based on comparison with previous studies. This study indicates that resistance to DON accumulation and FHB disease could involve different genes, and the utilization of the two DON QTL in breeding could be helpful in further reducing DON contamination in food and feed.
Project description:In the soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) regions of the US, Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused by Fusarium spp.) resistance derived from locally adapted germplasm has been used predominantly. Two soft red winter wheat cultivars, Massey and Ernie, have moderate resistance to FHB. Mapping populations derived from Becker/Massey (B/M) and Ernie/MO 94-317 (E/MO) were evaluated for FHB resistance and other traits in multiple environments. Eight QTL in B/M and five QTL in E/MO were associated with FHB variables including incidence, severity (SEV), index (IND), Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), deoxynivalenol (DON), and morphological traits flowering time and plant height. Four QTL were common to both populations. Three of them were located at or near known genes: Ppd-D1 on chromosome 2DS, Rht-B1 on 4BS, and Rht-D1 on 4DS. Alleles for dwarf plant height (Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b) and photoperiod insensitivity (Ppd-D1a) had pleiotropic effects in reducing height and increasing FHB susceptibility. The other QTL detected for FHB variables were on 3BL in both populations, 1AS, 1DS, 2BL, and 4DL in B/M, and 5AL (B1) and 6AL in E/MO. The additive effects of FHB variables ranged from 0.4 mg kg(-1) of DON to 6.2 % for greenhouse (GH) SEV in B/M and ranged from 0.3 mg kg(-1) of DON to 8.3 % for GH SEV in E/MO. The 4DS QTL had epistasis with Ppd-D1, Qdon.umc-6AL, and Qht.umc-4BS, and additive × additive × environment interactions with the 4BS QTL for SEV, IND, and FDK in E/MO. Marker-assisted selection might be used to enhance FHB resistance through selection of favorable alleles of significant QTL, taking into account genotypes at Rht-B1b, Rht-D1a and Ppd-D1a.
Project description:Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and a deoxynivalenol (DON) producer. In this study, OSP24 is identified as an important virulence factor in systematic characterization of the 50 orphan secreted protein (OSP) genes of F. graminearum. Although dispensable for growth and initial penetration, OSP24 is important for infectious growth in wheat rachis tissues. OSP24 is specifically expressed during pathogenesis and its transient expression suppresses BAX- or INF1-induced cell death. Osp24 is translocated into plant cells and two of its 8 cysteine-residues are required for its function. Wheat SNF1-related kinase TaSnRK1? is identified as an Osp24-interacting protein and shows to be important for FHB resistance in TaSnRK1?-overexpressing or silencing transgenic plants. Osp24 accelerates the degradation of TaSnRK1? by facilitating its association with the ubiquitin-26S proteasome. Interestingly, TaSnRK1? also interacts with TaFROG, an orphan wheat protein induced by DON. TaFROG competes against Osp24 for binding with the same region of TaSnRK? and protects it from degradation. Overexpression of TaFROG stabilizes TaSnRK1? and increases FHB resistance. Taken together, Osp24 functions as a cytoplasmic effector by competing against TaFROG for binding with TaSnRK1?, demonstrating the counteracting roles of orphan proteins of both host and fungal pathogens during their interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease on wheat which can lead to trichothecene mycotoxin (e.g. deoxynivalenol, DON) contamination of grain, harmful to mammalian health. DON is produced at low levels under standard culture conditions when compared to plant infection but specific polyamines (e.g. putrescine and agmatine) and amino acids (e.g. arginine and ornithine) are potent inducers of DON by F. graminearum in axenic culture. Currently, host factors that promote mycotoxin synthesis during FHB are unknown, but plant derived polyamines could contribute to DON induction in infected heads. However, the temporal and spatial accumulation of polyamines and amino acids in relation to that of DON has not been studied. RESULTS: Following inoculation of susceptible wheat heads by F. graminearum, DON accumulation was detected at two days after inoculation. The accumulation of putrescine was detected as early as one day following inoculation while arginine and cadaverine were also produced at three and four days post-inoculation. Transcripts of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two key biosynthetic enzymes for putrescine biosynthesis, were also strongly induced in heads at two days after inoculation. These results indicated that elicitation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway is an early response to FHB. Transcripts for genes encoding enzymes acting upstream in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway as well as those of ODC and ADC, and putrescine levels were also induced in the rachis, a flower organ supporting DON production and an important route for pathogen colonisation during FHB. A survey of 24 wheat genotypes with varying responses to FHB showed putrescine induction is a general response to inoculation and no correlation was observed between the accumulation of putrescine and infection or DON accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: The activation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and putrescine in infected heads prior to detectable DON accumulation is consistent with a model where the pathogen exploits the generic host stress response of polyamine synthesis as a cue for production of trichothecene mycotoxins during FHB disease. However, it is likely that this mechanism is complicated by other factors contributing to resistance and susceptibility in diverse wheat genetic backgrounds.
Project description:Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in wheat is considered to be polygenic in nature. Cell wall fortification is one of the best resistance mechanisms in wheat against Fusarium graminearum which causes FHB. Metabolomics approach in our study led to the identification of a wide array of resistance-related (RR) metabolites, among which hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs), such as coumaroylagmatine and coumaroylputrescine, were the highest fold change RR metabolites in the rachis of a resistant near-isogenic line (NIL-R) upon F. graminearum infection. Placement of these metabolites in the secondary metabolic pathway led to the identification of a gene encoding agmatine coumaroyl transferase, herein referred to as TaACT, as a candidate gene. Based on wheat survey sequence, TaACT was located within a FHB quantitative trait loci on chromosome 2DL (FHB QTL-2DL) between the flanking markers WMC245 and GWM608. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that TaACT shared closest phylogenetic relationship with an ACT ortholog in barley. Sequence analysis of TaACT in resistant and susceptible NILs, with contrasting levels of resistance to FHB, led to the identification of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two inversions that may be important for gene function. Further, a role for TaACT in FHB resistance was functionally validated by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in wheat NIL-R and based on complementation studies in Arabidopsis with act mutant background. The disease severity, fungal biomass and RR metabolite analysis confirmed TaACT as an important gene in wheat FHB QTL-2DL, conferring resistance to F. graminearum.
Project description:The QTL Fhb1 was successfully introgressed and validated in three durum wheat populations. The novel germplasm and the QTL detected will support improvement of Fusarium resistance in durum wheat. Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is particularly susceptible to Fusarium head blight (FHB) and breeding for resistance is hampered by limited genetic variation within this species. To date, resistant sources are mainly available in a few wild relative tetraploid wheat accessions. In this study, the effect of the well-known hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quantitative trait locus (QTL) Fhb1 was assessed for the first time in durum wheat. Three F7-RIL mapping populations of about 100 lines were developed from crosses between the durum wheat experimental line DBC-480, which carries an Fhb1 introgression from Sumai-3, and the European T. durum cultivars Karur, Durobonus and SZD1029K. The RILs were evaluated in field experiments for FHB resistance in three seasons using spray inoculation and genotyped with SSR as well as genotyping-by-sequencing markers. QTL associated with FHB resistance were identified on chromosome arms 2BL, 3BS, 4AL, 4BS, 5AL and 6AS at which the resistant parent DBC-480 contributed the positive alleles. The QTL on 3BS was detected in all three populations centered at the Fhb1 interval. The Rht-B1 locus governing plant height was found to have a strong effect in modulating FHB severity in all populations. The negative effect of the semi-dwarf allele Rht-B1b on FHB resistance was compensated by combining with Fhb1 and additional resistance QTL. The successful deployment of Fhb1 in T. durum was further substantiated by assessing type 2 resistance in one population. The efficient introgression of Fhb1 represents a significant step forward for enhancing FHB resistance in durum wheat.
Project description:Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating wheat disease, results in loss of yield and production of mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) in infected grains. DON is harmful to human and animal health and facilitates the spread of FHB symptoms. Its conversion into DON-3-glucoside (D3G) by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) is correlated with FHB resistance, and only few gene members in wheat have been investigated. Here, Fusarium graminearum and DON-induced TaUGT6 expression in the resistant cultivar Sumai 3 was cloned and characterized. TaUGT6::GFP was subcellularly located throughout cells. Purified TaUGT6 protein could convert DON into D3G to some extent in vitro. Transformation of TaUGT6 into Arabidopsis increased root tolerance when grown on agar plates containing DON. Furthermore, TaUGT6 overexpression in wheat showed improved resistance to Fusarium spread after F. graminearum inoculation. Overall, this study provides useful insight into a novel UGT gene for FHB resistance in wheat.