Correlation of pretreatment 18F-FDG uptake with clinicopathological factors and prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine the correlation of pretreatment fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with clinicopathological factors and its prognostic value in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).A cohort of 162 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone pretreatment PET/computed tomography was retrospectively reviewed. The relationship of pretreatment maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) with clinical factors, molecular markers, and efficacy was evaluated. The value of SUVmax in predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival was analyzed.In all, 72.9% of the patients received R-CHOP treatment; the rest received CHOP chemotherapy. The median follow-up duration was 30 months (range, 4-124 months). The median SUVmax was 12.2 (range, 1.7-42.7). SUVmax between groups differed significantly with respect to each of International Prognostic Index (IPI) factors, except for age and performance status. High SUVmax was associated with high Ki-67 and Glut-3 protein expression, but not with Glut-1. Complete remission rate differed significantly between the low (SUVmax?9.0) and the high SUVmax (SUVmax>9.0) groups (91.7 vs. 61.1%, P=0.000). Patients with low SUVmax showed favorable survival (3-year PFS: 92.2 vs. 63.6%, P=0.000; 3-year overall survival: 95.5 vs. 78.3%, P=0.003). On multivariate analyses, SUVmax predicted PFS independent of revised-IPI (SUVmax: P=0.011, hazard ratio 4.784; revised-IPI: P=0.004, hazard ratio 2.551).Pretreatment SUVmax was associated with clinicopathological factors, efficacy, and survival outcome. A novel prognostic model on the basis of IPI score/pretreatment SUVmax might be useful for risk stratification of patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL Video abstract: http://links.lww.com/NMC/A55.
Project description:In the era of rituximab, the International Prognostic Index (IPI) has been inefficient in initial risk stratification for patients with R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To estimate the predictive values of PET/CT quantitative parameters and three prognostic models consisting of baseline and interim parameters for three-year progression-free survival (PFS), we conducted an analysis of 85 patients in China with DLBCL underwent baseline and interim PET/CT scans and treated at the Department of Hematology of Peking University Third Hospital from November 2012 to November 2017. The PET/CT parameters, viz. the baseline and interim values of standardized uptake value (SUVmax ), total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and their rates of change, were analyzed by a receiver operating characteristics curve, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and log-rank test. Besides, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) was also included in the multivariate Cox hazards model. Owing to the strong correlation between TMTV and TLG at baseline and interim (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.823, P-value = 0.000, and 0.988, P-value = 0.000, respectively), only TLG was included in the multivariate Cox hazards model, where TLG0 > 1036.61 g and %ΔSUVmax < 86.02% showed predictive value independently (HR = 10.42, 95% CI 2.35-46.30, P = 0.002, and HR = 4.86, 95% CI 1.27-18.54, P = 0.021, respectively). Replacing TLG in the equation, TMTV0 and TMTV1 both showed significantly predictive abilities like TLG (HR = 8.22, 95% CI 1.86-32.24, P = 0.005, and HR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.16-7.54, P = 0.023, respectively). After dichotomy, NCCN-IPI also gave a significant performance (P = 0.035 and P = 0.010, respectively, in TLG and TMTV models). The baseline variables, that is, TMTV0 , TLG0 and dichotomized NCCN-IPI, and the interim variables TMTV1 and %ΔSUVmax , presented independent prognostic value for PFS. In prognostic model 2 (TLG0 + %ΔSUVmax ), the group with TLG0 > 1036.61 g and %ΔSUVmax < 86.02% recognized 19 (82.6%) of the relapse or progression events, which showed the best screening ability among three models consisting of baseline and interim PET/CT parameters.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoma, with different clinical manifestation and prognosis. The International Prognostic Index (IPI), an index designed during the prerituximab era for aggressive lymphoma, showed variable values in the prediction of patient clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic value and causes of pretreatment liver injury in 363 de novo DLBCL patients in our institution. Pretreatment liver impairment, commonly detected in lymphoma patients, showed significant association with poor outcomes and increased serum inflammatory cytokines in DLBCL patients but had no relation to hepatitis B virus replication nor lymphomatous hepatic infiltration. Multivariate analysis revealed that liver dysfunction, advanced Ann Arbor stage, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were independent adverse prognostic factors of both PFS and OS. Accordingly, a new liver-IPI prognostic model was designed by adding liver injury as an important factor in determining IPI score. Based on Kaplan-Meier curves for PFS and OS, the liver-IPI showed better stratification in DLBCL patients than either the IPI or the revised IPI in survival prediction.
Project description:PURPOSE:Rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone administered every 3 weeks (R-CHOP-21) is the standard care for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is unknown whether the dose-dense R-CHOP (R-CHOP-14) could improve the outcome of the disease in Asian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Newly diagnosed DLBCL patients were centrally, randomly assigned (1:1) to receive R-CHOP- 14 or R-CHOP-21. R-CHOP-14 was administered every 2 weeks, and R-CHOP-21 was administered every 3 weeks. Primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), response rate and toxicities. RESULTS:Seven hundred and two patients were randomly assigned to receive R-CHOP-14 (n=349) or R-CHOP-21 (n=353). With a median follow-up of 45.6 months, the two groups did not differ significantly in 3-year DFS (79.6% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 83.2% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.311), 3-year OS (77.5% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 77.6% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.903), or 3-year PFS (63.2% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 66.1% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.447). Patients with an International Prognostic Index (IPI) score ? 2 had a poorer prognosis compared to those with an IPI score < 2. Grade 3/4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were manageable and similar between R-CHOP-14 and R-CHOP-21. CONCLUSION:R-CHOP-14 did not improve the outcome of DLBCL compared to R-CHOP-21 in Asian population. With manageable and similar toxicities, both of the two regimens were suitable for Asian DLBCL patients. For high-risk patients with IPI ? 2, new combination regimens based on R-CHOP deserve further investigation to improve efficacy.
Project description:Recently, the mutational background of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been revealed, identifying specific genetic events that drive lymphomagenesis. However, the prognostic value of these mutations remains to be determined. Prognostic biomarkers in DLBCL are urgently needed, since the current clinical parameter-based factors (e.g., International Prognostic Index (IPI)) are insufficient, particularly in identifying patients with poor prognosis who might benefit from alternative treatments.We investigated the prognostic value of somatic mutations in DLBCL in a clinical trial (NCT00544219) patient cohort homogenously treated with six cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP), followed by two cycles of R (R-CHOP-14). The primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS) at 2 years. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of tumor genomic DNA was performed on all exons or hotspots of 68 genes frequently mutated in B cell lymphomas. Mutational data was correlated with the endpoints to identify prognostic associations.Targeted HTS detected somatic mutations in 71/76 (93%) of investigated cases. The most frequently mutated genes were KMT2D, SOCS1, GNA13, and B2M. Survival analysis revealed that CREBBP- and EP300-mutated cases had significantly worse OS, PFS, and EFS. In addition, ATM mutations predicted worse outcomes for all three clinical endpoints in germinal center B cell-like DLBCL. In contrast, SOCS1 mutations were associated with better PFS. On multivariable analysis taken into account IPI and failure to achieve complete remission, CREBBP and EP300 mutations remained significant to predict worse OS, PFS, and EFS.Targeted mutation analysis of a uniformly treated prospective clinical trial DLBCL cohort identifies tumor-based genetic prognostic markers that could be useful in the clinical management of such patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00544219.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic value of bone marrow involvement (BMI) assessed by baseline PET-CT (PET(0)-BMI) in treatment-naïve patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). All patients from a single centre diagnosed as DLBCL between 2005 and 2014 had data extracted from staging PET-CT (PET(0)-CT), bone marrow biopsy (BMB), and treatment records. The PET(3)-CT (PET-CT scan after cycle 3 of immunochemotherapy) was performed on all the patients with PET(0)-BMI positivity (PET(0)-BMI(+)). Of 169 patients, 20 (11.8%) had BMI on BMB, whereas 35 (20.7%) were PET(0)-BMI positive. Among PET(0)-BMI(+) patients, patients with maximum of standard uptake value (SUVmax) of bone marrow (SUVmax(BM)) more than 8.6 were significantly associated with high IPI score (3-5) (P=0.002), worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.025 and P=0.002, respectively). In the 68 stage IV cases, 3-year OS was higher in the patients with negative PET(0)-BMI (PET(0)-BMI(-)) than that with PET(0)-BMI(+) (84.2%±6.5% vs. 44.1%±8.6%; P=0.003), while 3-year PFS only shown a trend of statistic significance (P=0.077) between the two groups. Among the 69 patients of inter-risk of IPI (2-3), patients with PET(0)-BMI(+) had significantly inferior PFS and OS than that with PET(0)-BMI(-) (P=0.009 and P<0.001, respectively). The cut-off value of the decreased percentage of SUVmax(BM) between PET(0)-CT and PET(3)-CT (?SUVmax(BM)) was 70.0%, which can predict PFS (P=0.003) and OS (P=0.023). These data confirmed that along with the increased sensitivity and accuracy of identifying bone marrow by PET-CT, novel prognostic values of marrow involvement were found in patients with DLBCL.
Project description:Early identification of ultra-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients is needed to aid stratification to innovative treatment. Previous studies suggested high baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) negatively impacts survival of DLBCL patients. We analyzed the prognostic impact of TMTV and prognostic indices in DLBCL patients, aged 60 to 80 years, from the phase 3 REMARC study that randomized responding patients to R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) into maintenance lenalidomide or placebo. TMTV was computed on baseline positron emission tomography/computed tomography using the 41% maximum standardized uptake value method; the optimal TMTV cutoff for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was determined and confirmed by a training validation method. There were 301 out of 650 evaluable patients, including 192 patients classified as germinal center B-cell-like (GCB)/non-GCB and MYC/BCL2 expressor. Median baseline TMTV was 238 cm3; optimal TMTV cutoff was 220 cm3. Patients with high vs low TMTV showed worse/higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ?2, stage III or IV disease, >1 extranodal site, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, International Prognostic Index (IPI) 3-5, and age-adjusted IPI 2-3. High vs low TMTV significantly impacted PFS and OS, independent of maintenance treatment. Although the GCB/non-GCB profile and MYC expression did not correlate with TMTV/survival, BCL2 >70% impacted PFS and could be stratified by TMTV. Multivariate analysis identified baseline TMTV and ECOG PS as independently associated with PFS and OS. Even in responding patients, after R-CHOP, high baseline TMTV was a strong prognosticator of inferior PFS and OS. Moreover, TMTV combined with ECOG PS may identify an ultra-risk DLBCL population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01122472.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Liver function is routinely assessed in clinical practice as liver function tests provide sensitive indicators of hepatocellular injury. However, the prognostic value of enzymes that indicate hepatic injury has never been systematically investigated in lymphoma, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS:This study examined the prognostic value of baseline aspartic transaminase (AST) in DLBCL patients. The association between AST and clinical features was analyzed in 179 DLBCL patients treated from 2006 to 2016. All enrolled patients were treated with R-CHOP or R-CHOP-like chemotherapy. Log-rank test, univariable analysis, and subgroup analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of AST on survival. RESULTS:AST 33.3?U/L was considered to be the optimal threshold value for predicting prognosis. A higher AST level was associated with advanced stage (P?=?0.001), poorer performance status (P?=?0.014), elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (P?<? 0.0001), presence of B symptoms (P?=?0.001), high-risk International Prognostic Index (IPI, IPI 3-5) (P?=?0.002), non-germinal center B-cell subtypes (P?=?0.038), hepatitis B virus surface antigen positivity (P?=?0.045) and more extra nodal involvement (ENI, ENI???2) (P?=?0.027). Patients with a higher AST level had a shorter overall survival (OS) (2-year OS rate, 53.6% vs. 83.6%, P?<? 0.001). Subgroup analysis indicated that higher AST levels have poorer prognostic values in patients without B symptoms and LDH positive groups. CONCLUSION:A pretreatment AST level is associated with OS in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP or similar chemotherapy regimens. A high pretreatment AST level might be a reliable prognostic factor for predicting a dismal outcome in DLBCL patients. Serum AST levels may be investigated for use as an easily determinable, inexpensive biomarker for risk assessment in patients with DLBCL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sarcopenia is known to be related to an increased risk of chemotherapy toxicity and to a poor prognosis in patients with malignancy. We assessed the prognostic role of sarcopenia in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS:In total, 187 consecutive patients with DLBCL treated with induction rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy were reviewed. Sarcopenia was defined as the lowest sex-specific quartile of the skeletal muscle index, calculated by dividing the pectoralis muscle area by the height. Clinical outcomes were compared between the sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic groups. A nomogram was constructed from the Cox regression model for overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Treatment-related mortality (21.7 vs. 5.0%, P?=?0.002) and early discontinuation of treatment (32.6 vs. 14.9%, P?=?0.008) were more common in the sarcopenic group than in the non-sarcopenic group. The 5?year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 35.3% in the sarcopenic group and 65.8% in the non-sarcopenic group (P?<?0.001). The 5?year OS rates were 37.3% in the sarcopenic group and 68.1% in the non-sarcopenic group (P?<?0.001). Sarcopenia and the five variables of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) were independent prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis for PFS and OS and were used to construct the nomogram. The calibration plot showed good agreement between the nomogram predictions and actual observations. The c index of the nomogram (0.80) was higher than those of other prognostic indices (IPI, 0.77, P?=?0.009; revised-IPI, 0.74, P?<?0.001; National Comprehensive Cancer Network-IPI, 0.77, P?=?0.062). CONCLUSIONS:Sarcopenia is associated with intolerance to standard R-CHOP chemotherapy as well as a poor prognosis. Moreover, sarcopenia itself can be included in prognostic models in DLBCL.
Project description:The role of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as a frontline treatment in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are in their first remission has not been fully elucidated in the rituximab era. We analyzed 272 DLBCL patients who received 4-6 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) or R-CHOP followed by ASCT, from January 2005 to June 2013 in our institution. Multivariate analysis showed the none germinal center B cell (non-GCB) subtype (P=0.014, P=0.012) and International Prognostic Index (IPI) (3-5) (P=0.004, P=0.016) were independent unfavorable predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), respectively. To investigate the treatment effect of upfront ASCT, we selected 94 high-intermediate and high-risk DLBCL patients who achieved complete remission after R-CHOP, with 41 in the ASCT and 53 in the non-ASCT groups. Survival analysis revealed patients who received upfront ASCT compared with those who did not had better OS (3-year OS: 74.5% vs. 50.4%, P=0.029) or PFS (3-year PFS: 59.6% vs. 32.1%, P=0.004), suggesting up-front ASCT following R-CHOP could improve the outcome of high-intermediate and high-risk DLBCL patients.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Microenvironment has a prognostic influence in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); among its components, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play a leading role. TAM can be classified into M1 (anti-tumor) and M2 (pro-tumor). Another prognostic factor could be represented by lymphocyte-to-monocyte and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (LMR and NLR). OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study is to evaluate the prognostic impact of M1 and M2 TAM subtypes, LMR and NLR in DLBCL. METHODS:We analyzed 37 consecutive patients between 2009 and 2013. Out of 37 patients, 28/37 (75.6%) received R-CHOP/CHOP-like regimens, 9/37 (24.4%) less intensive therapies. Immunohistochemistry was performed with antibodies against CD68 and CD163. We divided our cohort into 2 categories according to the Steidl score. TAM who coexpressed CD68 and CD163 were considered as M2. For LMR and NLR we used previously published cut-offs of 2.71 and 2.81. RESULTS:CR rate was 70.3%; we did not record a significant correlation between CD68+ TAM, CD163+ TAM, CD68+/CD163+ TAM, LMR, NLR and CR. We observed a reduced PFS in patients with IPI ? 2 and high M2 TAM expression and a trend between higher expression of CD68+ TAM and improved PFS. CONCLUSION:M2 TAM could have a prognostic role for IPI ? 2 DLBCL patients receiving R-CHOP, which thus warrants further investigation.