Subjective Sleep Quality Deteriorates Before Development of Painful Temporomandibular Disorder.
ABSTRACT: There is good evidence that poor sleep quality increases risk of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD). However, little is known about the course of sleep quality in the months preceding TMD onset, and whether the relationship is mediated by heightened sensitivity to pain. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was administered at enrollment into the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) prospective cohort study. Thereafter the Sleep Quality Numeric Rating Scale was administered every 3 months to 2,453 participants. Sensitivity to experimental pressure pain and pinprick pain stimuli was measured at baseline and repeated during follow-up of incident TMD cases (n = 220) and matched TMD-free controls (n = 193). Subjective sleep quality deteriorated progressively, but only in those who subsequently developed TMD. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that risk of TMD was greater among participants whose sleep quality worsened during follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence limits = 1.29, 2.32). This association was independent of baseline measures of sleep quality, psychological stress, somatic awareness, comorbid conditions, nonpain facial symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Poor baseline sleep quality was not significantly associated with baseline pain sensitivity or with subsequent change in pain sensitivity. Furthermore the relationship between sleep quality and TMD incidence was not mediated via baseline pain sensitivity or change in pain sensitivity.Subjective sleep quality deteriorates progressively before the onset of painful TMD, but sensitivity to experimental pain does not mediate this relationship. Furthermore, the relationship is independent of potential confounders such as psychological stress, somatic awareness, comorbid conditions, nonpain facial symptoms, and various demographic factors.
Project description:Multiple physiological and psychological regulatory domains may contribute to the pathophysiology of pain in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and other bodily pain conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between multisystem dysregulation and the presence of TMD pain, as well as the presence of different numbers of comorbid pain conditions in TMD. Secondary data analysis was conducted in 131 non-TMD (without comorbid pain) controls, 14 TMD subjects without comorbid pain, 78 TMD subjects with 1 comorbid pain, and 67 TMD subjects with multiple comorbid pain conditions who participated in a TMD genetic study. Twenty markers from sensory, autonomic, inflammatory, and psychological domains were evaluated. The results revealed that 1) overall dysregulation in multiple system domains (OR [odds ratio] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-1.8), particularly in the sensory (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.9) and the psychological (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 2.1-2.7) domains, were associated with increased likelihood of being a painful TMD case; and 2) dysregulations in individual system domains were selectively associated with the increased odds of being a TMD case with different levels of comorbid persistent pain conditions. These outcomes indicate that heterogeneous multisystem dysregulations may exist in painful TMD subgroups, and multidimensional physiological and psychological assessments can provide important information regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of pain in TMD patients.The concurrent assessment of multiple physiological and psychological systems is critical to our understanding of the pathophysiological processes that contribute to painful TMD and associated comorbid conditions, which will ultimately guide and inform appropriate treatment strategies that address the multisystem dysregulation associated with complex and common persistent pain conditions.
Project description:Clinical characteristics might be associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) because they are antecedent risk factors that increase the likelihood of a healthy person developing the condition or because they represent signs or symptoms of either subclinical or overt TMD. In this baseline case-control study of the multisite Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) project, 1,633 controls and 185 cases with chronic, painful TMD completed questionnaires and received clinical examinations. Odds ratios measuring association between each clinical factor and TMD were computed, with adjustment for study-site as well as age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Compared to controls, TMD cases reported more trauma, greater parafunction, more headaches and other pain disorders, more functional limitation in using the jaw, more nonpain symptoms in the facial area, more temporomandibular joint noises and jaw locking, more neural or sensory medical conditions, and worse overall medical status. They also exhibited on examination reduced jaw mobility, more joint noises, and a greater number of painful masticatory, cervical, and body muscles upon palpation. The results indicated that TMD cases differ substantially from controls across almost all variables assessed. Future analyses of follow-up data will determine whether these clinical characteristics predict increased risk for developing first-onset pain-related TMD PERSPECTIVE: Clinical findings from OPPERA's baseline case-control study indicate significant differences between chronic TMD cases and controls with respect to trauma history, parafunction, other pain disorders, health status, and clinical examination data. Future analyses will examine their contribution to TMD onset.
Project description:Incidence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) was predicted with multivariable models that used putative risk factors collected from initially TMD-free individuals in the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) study. The 202 baseline risk factors included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, measures of general health status, experimental pain sensitivity, autonomic function, and psychological distress. Study participants (n = 2,737) were then followed prospectively for a median of 2.8 years to ascertain cases of first-onset TMD. Lasso regression and random forest models were used to predict incidence of first-onset TMD using all of the aforementioned measures. Variable importance scores identified the most important risk factors, and their relationship with TMD incidence was illustrated graphically using partial dependence plots. Two of the most important risk factors for elevated TMD incidence were greater numbers of comorbid pain conditions and greater extent of nonspecific orofacial symptoms. Other important baseline risk factors were preexisting bodily pain, heightened somatic awareness, and greater extent of pain in response to examiners' palpation of the head, neck, and body. Several demographic variables persisted as risk factors even after adjusting for other OPPERA variables, suggesting that environmental variables not measured in OPPERA may also contribute to first-onset TMD.Multivariable methods were used to identify the most important predictors of first-onset TMD in the OPPERA study. Important variables included comorbid pain conditions, preexisting pain, and somatic awareness. Demographic characteristics, which probably reflect environmental variables not measured in OPPERA, also appear to play an important role in the etiology of TMD.
Project description:In 2006, the OPPERA project (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment) set out to identify risk factors for development of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD). A decade later, this review summarizes its key findings. At 4 US study sites, OPPERA recruited and examined 3,258 community-based TMD-free adults assessing genetic and phenotypic measures of biological, psychosocial, clinical, and health status characteristics. During follow-up, 4% of participants per annum developed clinically verified TMD, although that was a "symptom iceberg" when compared with the 19% annual rate of facial pain symptoms. The most influential predictors of clinical TMD were simple checklists of comorbid health conditions and nonpainful orofacial symptoms. Self-reports of jaw parafunction were markedly stronger predictors than corresponding examiner assessments. The strongest psychosocial predictor was frequency of somatic symptoms, although not somatic reactivity. Pressure pain thresholds measured at cranial sites only weakly predicted incident TMD yet were strongly associated with chronic TMD, cross-sectionally, in OPPERA's separate case-control study. The puzzle was resolved in OPPERA's nested case-control study where repeated measures of pressure pain thresholds revealed fluctuation that coincided with TMD's onset, persistence, and recovery but did not predict its incidence. The nested case-control study likewise furnished novel evidence that deteriorating sleep quality predicted TMD incidence. Three hundred genes were investigated, implicating 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as risk factors for chronic TMD, while another 6 SNPs were associated with intermediate phenotypes for TMD. One study identified a serotonergic pathway in which multiple SNPs influenced risk of chronic TMD. Two other studies investigating gene-environment interactions found that effects of stress on pain were modified by variation in the gene encoding catechol O-methyltransferase. Lessons learned from OPPERA have verified some implicated risk factors for TMD and refuted others, redirecting our thinking. Now it is time to apply those lessons to studies investigating treatment and prevention of TMD.
Project description:Painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are both consequence and cause of change in multiple clinical, psychosocial, and biological factors. Although longitudinal studies have identified antecedent biopsychosocial factors that increase risk of the TMD onset and persistence, little is known about long-term change in those factors after TMD develops or remits. During a 7.6-year median follow-up period, we measured change in psychosocial characteristics, pain sensitivity, cardiovascular indicators of autonomic function, and clinical jaw function among 189 participants whose baseline chronic TMD status either persisted or remitted and 505 initially TMD-free participants, 83 of whom developed TMD. Among initially TMD-free participants who developed TMD, symptoms and pain sensitivity increased, whereas psychological function worsened. By contrast, participants with chronic TMD at baseline tended to show improved TMD symptoms, improved jaw function, reduced somatic symptoms, and increased positive affect. In general, clinical and psychosocial variables more frequently changed in parallel with TMD status compared with pain sensitivity and autonomic measures. These findings demonstrate a complex pattern of considerable changes in biopsychosocial function associated with changes in TMD status. In particular, several biopsychosocial parameters improved among participants with chronic TMD despite pain persisting for years, suggesting considerable potential for ongoing coping and adaptation in response to persistent pain.
Project description:Introduction: The diagnosis of sleep bruxism is challenging due to the difficulties involved. Sleep bruxism can lead to clinical consequences, including pain in masticatory muscles, limitation of jaw mobility, headache, and the spectrum of symptoms associated with damage to the teeth and oral mucosa. Currently, only video-polysomnography can definitely diagnose sleep bruxism. Due to the risk of painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in sleep bruxers, early diagnosis of pain in the temporomandibular region using questionnaires is recommended. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between the intensity of sleep bruxism and the occurrence of pain related to TMD. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on the patients of the Clinic of Prosthetic Dentistry operating at the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry at the Wroclaw Medical University. Based on a positive medical history, a thorough examination for the diagnosis of probable sleep bruxism was carried out in the enrolled patients. Eligible patients were then subjected to a video-polysomnographic study. Each patient was asked to complete the TMD Pain Screener questionnaire to assess the occurrence of pain in jaw and temple area. Results: The results of the study showed that increased bruxism episode index (BEI) was statistically significantly correlated with increase of all types of bruxism episodes-phasic, tonic, and mixed-in all the studied patients; a significant correlation was also found with respect to division of patients into studied and control groups. The study also showed that there was no statistically significant difference between BEI values and scores of TMD Pain Screener. In all the studied patients, a higher BEI was not found to be correlated with the occurrence of TMD-related pain assessed by TMD Pain Screener; similarly, no correlation was found with respect to division of patients into studied and control groups. Conclusions: The occurrence of TMD-related pain is not related to the intensity of sleep bruxism. TMD Pain Screener may be used as an auxiliary tool in the diagnosis or risk of occurrence of TMD-related pain, whereas in the case of sleep bruxism, it has only limited diagnostic value. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03083405.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to assess the potential role of some biological, psychological, and social factors to predict the presence of painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in a TMD-patient population. The study sample consisted of 109 consecutive adult patients (81.7% females; mean age 33.2 ± 14.7 years) who were split into two groups based on Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) diagnoses: painful TMD and non-painful TMD. The presence of pain was adopted as the depended variable to be identified by the following independent variables (i.e., predictors): age, gender, bruxism, tooth wear, chewing gum, nail biting, perceived stress level, chronic pain-related impairment (GCPS), depression (DEP), and somatization (SOM). Single-variable logistic regression analysis showed a significant relationship between TMD pain and DEP with an odds ratio of 2.9. Building up a multiple variable model did not contribute to increase the predictive value of a TMD pain model related to the presence of depression. Findings from the present study supported the existence of a relationship between pain and depression in painful TMD patients. In the future, study designs should be improved by the adoption of the best available assessment approaches for each factor.
Project description:Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) overlaps with other health conditions, but no study has examined which of these conditions increase the risk of developing first-onset TMD. The authors prospectively evaluated the relationship between health status at enrollment and subsequent incidence of TMD in 2,722 men and women. Participants aged 18 to 44 years had no history of TMD and were clinically free of TMD when enrolled in 2006 to 2008 at 4 U.S. study sites in the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) prospective cohort study. First-onset examiner-classified TMD developed in 260 people over a median 2.8 years of follow-up. Cox regression estimated the association between health conditions and TMD incidence while accounting for potential confounders. Incidence of first-onset TMD was 50% higher for people with low back pain (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.50, 95% confidence limits [CLs]: 1.08, 2.10) and 75% higher for people with genital pain symptoms (AHR = 1.75, 95% CLs = 1.04, 2.93) than people without a history of these pain disorders. Digit ratio, a marker of intrauterine exposure to sex hormones, was significantly associated with TMD incidence. Other independent predictors of first-onset TMD were sleep disturbance and cigarette smoking. These findings reveal multiple influences of health status on incidence of first-onset TMD.This article examines health conditions that commonly overlap with TMD to determine which ones predict first-onset TMD. A history of low back pain and genital pain conditions at baseline were important predictors. Novel findings were that disrupted sleep and conditions in utero may increase incidence of first-onset TMD.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Many studies report that people with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are more sensitive to experimental pain stimuli than TMD-free controls. Such differences in sensitivity are observed in remote body sites as well as in the orofacial region, suggesting a generalized upregulation of nociceptive processing in TMD cases. This large case-control study of 185 adults with TMD and 1,633 TMD-free controls measured sensitivity to painful pressure, mechanical cutaneous, and heat stimuli, using multiple testing protocols. Based on an unprecedented 36 experimental pain measures, 28 showed statistically significantly greater pain sensitivity in TMD cases than controls. The largest effects were seen for pressure pain thresholds at multiple body sites and cutaneous mechanical pain threshold. The other mechanical cutaneous pain measures and many of the heat pain measures showed significant differences, but with lesser effect sizes. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the pain measures derived from 1,633 controls identified 5 components labeled: 1) heat pain ratings; 2) heat pain aftersensations and tolerance; 3) mechanical cutaneous pain sensitivity; 4) pressure pain thresholds; and 5) heat pain temporal summation. These results demonstrate that compared to TMD-free controls, chronic TMD cases are more sensitive to many experimental noxious stimuli at extracranial body sites, and provide for the first time the ability to directly compare the case-control effect sizes of a wide range of pain sensitivity measures. PERSPECTIVE:This article describes experimental pain sensitivity differences between a large sample of people with chronic TMD and non-TMD controls, using multiple stimulus modalities and measures. Variability in the magnitude and consistency of case-control differences highlight the need to consider multiple testing measures to adequately assess pain processing alterations in chronic pain conditions.
Project description:High-impact (disabling) pain diminishes the quality of life and increases health care costs. The purpose of this study was to identify the variables that distinguish between high- and low-impact pain among individuals with painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Community-dwelling adults (N?=?846) with chronic TMD completed standardized questionnaires that assessed the following: 1) sociodemographic characteristics, 2) psychological distress, 3) clinical pain, and 4) experimental pain. We used high-impact pain, classified using the Graded Chronic Pain Scale, as the dependent variable in logistic regression modeling to evaluate the contribution of variables from each domain. Cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) quantified model discrimination. One-third of the participants had high-impact pain. Sociodemographic variables discriminated weakly between low- and high-impact pain (AUC?=?.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.57, 0.65), with the exception of race. An 18-variable model encompassing all 4 domains had good discrimination (AUC?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.75, 0.82), as did a simplified model (sociodemographic variables plus catastrophizing, jaw limitation, and number of painful body sites) (AUC?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.76, 0.82). Duration of pain, sex, and experimental pain testing results were not associated. The characteristics that discriminated most effectively between people with low- and high-impact TMD pain included clinical pain features and the ability to cope with pain. PERSPECTIVE: This article presents the results of a multivariable model designed to discriminate between people with high- and low-impact pain in a community-based sample of people with painful chronic TMD. The findings emphasize the importance of catastrophizing, jaw limitation, and painful body sites associated with pain-related impact.