Enzyme replacement with PEGylated cystathionine ?-synthase ameliorates homocystinuria in murine model.
ABSTRACT: Homocystinuria, which typically results from cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) deficiency, is the most common defect of sulfur amino acid metabolism. CBS condenses homocysteine and serine to cystathionine that is then converted to cysteine. Individuals with homocystinuria have markedly elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and methionine and reduced concentrations of cystathionine and cysteine. Clinical disease manifestations include thromboembolism and neuropsychiatric, ocular, and skeletal complications. Here, we have shown that administration of PEGylated CBS into the circulation of homocystinuria model mice alters the extra- and intracellular equilibrium of sulfur amino acids, resulting in a decrease of approximately 75% in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and normalization of cysteine concentrations. Moreover, the decrease in homocysteine and the normalization of cysteine in PEGylated CBS-treated model mice were accompanied by improvement of histopathological liver symptoms and increased survival. Together, these data suggest that CBS enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a promising approach for the treatment of homocystinuria and that ERT for metabolic diseases may not necessitate introduction of the deficient enzyme into its natural intracellular compartment.
Project description:Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is the most common inherited disorder of sulfur amino acid metabolism caused by deficiency in cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) activity and characterized by severe elevation of homocysteine in blood and tissues. Treatment with dietary methionine restriction is not optimal, and poor compliance leads to serious complications. We developed an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and studied its efficacy in a severe form of HCU in mouse (the I278T model). Treatment was initiated before or after the onset of clinical symptoms in an effort to prevent or reverse the phenotype. ERT substantially reduced and sustained plasma homocysteine concentration at around 100 μM and normalized plasma cysteine for up to 9 months of treatment. Biochemical balance was also restored in the liver, kidney, and brain. Furthermore, ERT corrected liver glucose and lipid metabolism. The treatment prevented or reversed facial alopecia, fragile and lean phenotype, and low bone mass. In addition, structurally defective ciliary zonules in the eyes of I278T mice contained low density and/or broken fibers, while administration of ERT from birth partially rescued the ocular phenotype. In conclusion, ERT maintained an improved metabolic pattern and ameliorated many of the clinical complications in the I278T mouse model of HCU.
Project description:Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is an inborn error of sulfur amino acid metabolism caused by deficient activity of cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), resulting in an accumulation of homocysteine and a concomitant decrease of cystathionine and cysteine in blood and tissues. In mice, the complete lack of CBS is neonatally lethal. In this study, newborn CBS-knockout (KO) mice were treated with recombinant polyethyleneglycolylated human truncated CBS (PEG-CBS). Full survival of the treated KO mice, along with a positive impact on metabolite levels in plasma, liver, brain, and kidneys, was observed. The PEG-CBS treatment prevented an otherwise fatal liver disease characterized by steatosis, death of hepatocytes, and ultrastructural abnormalities of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Furthermore, treatment of the KO mice for 5 mo maintained the plasma metabolite balance and completely prevented osteoporosis and changes in body composition that characterize both the KO model and human patients. These findings argue that early treatment of patients with HCU with PEG-CBS may prevent clinical symptoms of the disease possibly without the need of dietary protein restriction.-Majtan, T., H?lková, H., Park, I., Krijt, J., Kožich, V., Bublil, E. M., Kraus, J. P. Enzyme replacement prevents neonatal death, liver damage, and osteoporosis in murine homocystinuria.
Project description:Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) controls the flux of sulfur from methionine to cysteine, a precursor of glutathione, taurine, and H2S. CBS condenses serine and homocysteine to cystathionine with the help of three cofactors, heme, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, and S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Inherited deficiency of CBS activity causes homocystinuria, the most frequent disorder of sulfur metabolism. We present the structure of the human enzyme, discuss the unique arrangement of the CBS domains in the C-terminal region, and propose how they interact with the catalytic core of the complementary subunit to regulate access to the catalytic site. This arrangement clearly contrasts with other proteins containing the CBS domain including the recent Drosophila melanogaster CBS structure. The absence of large conformational changes and the crystal structure of the partially activated pathogenic D444N mutant suggest that the rotation of CBS motifs and relaxation of loops delineating the entrance to the catalytic site represent the most likely molecular mechanism of CBS activation by S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Moreover, our data suggest how tetramers, the native quaternary structure of the mammalian CBS enzymes, are formed. Because of its central role in transsulfuration, redox status, and H2S biogenesis, CBS represents a very attractive therapeutic target. The availability of the structure will help us understand the pathogenicity of the numerous missense mutations causing inherited homocystinuria and will allow the rational design of compounds modulating CBS activity.
Project description:Homocystinuria is an inborn error of metabolism due to the deficiency in cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) enzyme activity. It leads to the elevation of both homocysteine and methionine levels in the blood and urine. Consequently, this build-up could lead to several complications such as nearsightedness, dislocated eye lenses, a variety of psychiatric and behavioral disorders, as well as vascular system complications. The prevalence of homocystinuria is around 1/200,000 births worldwide. However, its prevalence in the Gulf region, notably Qatar, is exceptionally high and reached 1:1800. To date, more than 191 pathogenic CBS mutations have been documented. The majority of these mutations were identified in Caucasians of European ancestry, whereas only a few mutations from African-Americans or Asians were reported. Approximately 87% of all CBS mutations are missense and do not target the CBS catalytic site, but rather result in unstable misfolded proteins lacking the normal biological function, designating them for degradation. The early detection of homocystinuria along with low protein and methionine-restricted diet is the best treatment approach for all types of homocystinuria patients. Yet, less than 50% of affected individuals show a significant reduction in plasma homocysteine levels after treatment. Patients who fail to lower the elevated homocysteine levels, through high protein-restricted diet or by B6 and folic acid supplements, are at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, neural tube defects, and other severe clinical complications. This review aims to examine the mutations spectrum of the CBS gene, the disease management, as well as the current and potential treatment approaches with a greater emphasis on studies reported in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.
Project description:The present report concerns the first case of a spontaneous arterial coronary dissection in adult onset homocystinuria leading to a premature myocardial infarct. The patient had also presented an unexplained lower limb venous thrombosis at the age of 41. A carotid artery thrombosis was found at the aged of 61 during the investigations for facial nerve palsy. The diagnosis of homocystinuria was delayed as it was only performed 20 years after the first thrombotic event. From observation, a pectus carinatum was the only clinical characteristic that could be related to homocystinuria phenotype. Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) gene analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations. After 3 months of pyridoxine, the plasma homocysteine level was totally normalised.
Project description:Mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene are the cause of classical homocystinuria, the most common inborn error in sulfur metabolism. The c.797 G>A (p.R266K) mutation in CBS was originally described in several Norwegian pyridoxine responsive CBS deficient patients, and heterologous gene expression studies have shown that the protein has near wild-type levels of enzyme activity. Here, we characterize a transgenic mouse lacking endogenous Cbs and expressing p.R266K human CBS protein from a zinc inducible metallothionein promoter (Tg-R266K Cbs-/- ). Unlike mice expressing other mutant CBS alleles, the Tg-R266K transgene is unable to efficiently rescue neonatal lethality of Cbs-/- on a C57BL/6J background. On a C3H/HeJ background, zinc-induced Tg-R266K Cbs-/- mice express CBS mRNA, but have very low levels of CBS protein and enzyme activity, resulting in extreme elevations in serum total homocysteine (tHcy). Treatment with pyridoxine did not have any appreciable effect on tHcy, indicating this allele is not pyridoxine responsive in mice. However, treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib resulted in an 97% reduction in tHcy and a 2381% increase in liver CBS activity. These studies show that the p.R266K mutation causes increased proteasomal degradation in vivo, and that treatments that stabilize the protein can be used to reverse its effect.
Project description:Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is a unique heme- containing enzyme that catalyzes a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent condensation of serine and homocysteine to give cystathionine. Deficiency of CBS leads to homocystinuria, an inherited disease of sulfur metabolism characterized by increased levels of the toxic metabolite homocysteine. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of a truncated form of the enzyme. CBS shares the same fold with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase but it contains an additional N-terminal heme binding site. This heme binding motif together with a spatially adjacent oxidoreductase active site motif could explain the regulation of its enzyme activity by redox changes.
Project description:Substrate ambiguity and relaxed reaction specificity underlie the diversity of reactions catalyzed by the transsulfuration pathway enzymes, cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and ?-cystathionase (CSE). These enzymes either commit sulfur metabolism to cysteine synthesis from homocysteine or utilize cysteine and/or homocysteine for synthesis of H2S, a signaling molecule. We demonstrate that a kinetically controlled heme-dependent metabolite switch in CBS regulates these competing reactions where by cystathionine, the product of CBS, inhibits H2S synthesis by the second enzyme, CSE. Under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions, induction of CSE and up-regulation of the CBS inhibitor, CO, a product of heme oxygenase-1, flip the operating preference of CSE from cystathionine to cysteine, transiently stimulating H2S production. In contrast, genetic deficiency of CBS leads to chronic stimulation of H2S production. This metabolite switch from cystathionine to cysteine and/or homocysteine renders H2S synthesis by CSE responsive to the known modulators of CBS: S-adenosylmethionine, NO, and CO. Used acutely, it regulates H2S synthesis; used chronically, it might contribute to disease pathology.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Registry of Adult and Paediatric Patients Treated with Cystadane® - Homocystinuria (RoCH) is a non-interventional, observational, multi-centre, post-authorization safety study that aimed to identify safety of betaine anhydrous (Cystadane®) in the treatment of patients with inborn errors of homocysteine metabolism (homocystinuria) in order to minimise the treatment associated risks and establish better knowledge on its clinical use. The registry included patients of all ages with homocystinuria who were treated with betaine anhydrous in conjunction with other therapies. Clinical data were collected retrospectively from 2007 to 2013, then prospectively up to February 2014. All adverse events (AEs) reported during the study were recorded. The clinical and biological status of patients was monitored at least once a year.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 125 patients with homocystinuria (adults [>?18?years]: 50; paediatric [?18?years]: 75) were enrolled at 29 centres in France and Spain. Patients were treated with betaine anhydrous for a mean duration of 7.4?±?4.3?years. The median total daily dose of betaine anhydrous at the first and last study visits was 6?g/day for cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS)-deficient vitamin B6 responders and 9?g/day for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase-deficient patients, while the median daily dose increased in CBS-deficient B6 non-responders (from 6 to 9?g/day) and cobalamin metabolism-defective patients (from 3 to 6?g/day) between the first and last visits. Treatment caused a mean overall reduction of 29% in plasma homocysteine levels in the study population. A total of 277 AEs were reported during the study, of which two non-serious AEs (bad taste and headache) and one serious AE (interstitial lung disease) were considered to be drug related. Overall, betaine anhydrous was well tolerated with no major safety concerns.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Data from the RoCH registry provided real-world evidence on the clinical safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous in the management of homocystinuria in paediatric and adult patients.
Project description:Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, is the most prevalent inborn error of methionine metabolism. Its diverse clinical expression may include ectopia lentis, skeletal abnormalities, mental retardation, and premature arteriosclerosis and thrombosis. This variability is likely caused by considerable genetic heterogeneity. We investigated the molecular basis of CBS deficiency in 29 Dutch patients from 21 unrelated pedigrees and studied the possibility of a genotype-phenotype relationship with regard to biochemical and clinical expression and response to homocysteine-lowering treatment. Clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters were recorded at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up. Of 10 different mutations detected in the CBS gene, 833T-->C (I278T) was predominant, present in 23 (55%) of 42 independent alleles. At diagnosis, homozygotes for this mutation (n=12) tended to have higher homocysteine levels than those seen in patients with other genotypes (n=17), but similar clinical manifestations. During follow-up, I278T homozygotes responded more efficiently to homocysteine-lowering treatment. After 378 patient-years of treatment, only 2 vascular events were recorded; without treatment, at least 30 would have been expected (P<.01). This intervention in Dutch patients significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and other sequelae of classical homocystinuria syndrome.