PrimPol-deficient cells exhibit a pronounced G2 checkpoint response following UV damage.
ABSTRACT: PrimPol is a recently identified member of the archaeo-eukaryote primase (AEP) family of primase-polymerases. It has been shown that this mitochondrial and nuclear localized enzyme plays roles in the maintenance of both unperturbed replication fork progression and in the bypass of lesions after DNA damage. Here, we utilized an avian (DT40) knockout cell line to further study the consequences of loss of PrimPol (PrimPol(-/-)) on the downstream maintenance of cells after UV damage. We report that PrimPol(-/-) cells are more sensitive to UV-C irradiation in colony survival assays than Pol ?-deficient cells. Although this increased UV sensitivity is not evident in cell viability assays, we show that this discrepancy is due to an enhanced checkpoint arrest after UV-C damage in the absence of PrimPol. PrimPol(-/-) arrested cells become stalled in G2, where they are protected from UV-induced cell death. Despite lacking an enzyme required for the bypass and maintenance of replication fork progression in the presence of UV damage, we show that PrimPol(-/-) cells actually have an advantage in the presence of a Chk1 inhibitor due to their slow progression through S-phase.
Project description:DNA damage can stall the DNA replication machinery, leading to genomic instability. Thus, numerous mechanisms exist to complete genome duplication in the absence of a pristine DNA template, but identification of the enzymes involved remains incomplete. Here, we establish that Primase-Polymerase (PrimPol; CCDC111), an archaeal-eukaryotic primase (AEP) in eukaryotic cells, is involved in chromosomal DNA replication. PrimPol is required for replication fork progression on ultraviolet (UV) light-damaged DNA templates, possibly mediated by its ability to catalyze translesion synthesis (TLS) of these lesions. This PrimPol UV lesion bypass pathway is not epistatic with the Pol ?-dependent pathway and, as a consequence, protects xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) patient cells from UV-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, we establish that PrimPol is also required for efficient replication fork progression during an unperturbed S phase. These and other findings indicate that PrimPol is an important player in replication fork progression in eukaryotic cells.
Project description:Translesion synthesis (TLS) employs specialized DNA polymerases to bypass replication fork stalling lesions. PrimPol was recently identified as a TLS primase and polymerase involved in DNA damage tolerance. Here, we identify a novel PrimPol binding partner, PolDIP2, and describe how it regulates PrimPol's enzymatic activities. PolDIP2 stimulates the polymerase activity of PrimPol, enhancing both its capacity to bind DNA and the processivity of the catalytic domain. In addition, PolDIP2 stimulates both the efficiency and error-free bypass of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxoG) lesions by PrimPol. We show that PolDIP2 binds to PrimPol's catalytic domain and identify potential binding sites. Finally, we demonstrate that depletion of PolDIP2 in human cells causes a decrease in replication fork rates, similar to that observed in PrimPol(-/-)cells. However, depletion of PolDIP2 in PrimPol(-/-)cells does not produce a further decrease in replication fork rates. Together, these findings establish that PolDIP2 can regulate the TLS polymerase and primer extension activities of PrimPol, further enhancing our understanding of the roles of PolDIP2 and PrimPol in eukaryotic DNA damage tolerance.
Project description:The DNA-directed primase-polymerase PrimPol of the archaeo-eukaryotic primase superfamily represents an ancient solution to the many problems faced during genome duplication. This versatile enzyme is capable of initiating de novo DNA/RNA synthesis, DNA chain elongation, and has the capacity to bypass modifications that stall the replisome by trans-lesion synthesis or origin-independent re-priming, thus allowing discontinuous synthesis of the leading strand. Recent studies have shown that PrimPol is an important new player in replication fork progression in eukaryotic cells; this review summarizes our current understanding of PrimPol and highlights important questions that remain to be addressed.
Project description:Human PrimPol is a primase belonging to the AEP superfamily with the unique ability to synthesize DNA primers de novo, and a non-processive DNA polymerase able to bypass certain DNA lesions. PrimPol facilitates both mitochondrial and nuclear replication fork progression either acting as a conventional TLS polymerase, or repriming downstream of blocking lesions. In vivo assays have shown that PrimPol is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage by interaction with the human replication protein A (RPA). In agreement with previous findings, we show here that the higher affinity of RPA for ssDNA inhibits PrimPol activities in short ssDNA templates. In contrast, once the amount of ssDNA increases up to a length in which both proteins can simultaneously bind ssDNA, as expected during replicative stress conditions, PrimPol and RPA functionally interact, and their binding capacities are mutually enhanced. When using M13 ssDNA as template, RPA stimulated both the primase and polymerase activities of PrimPol, either alone or in synergy with Pol?. These new findings supports the existence of a functional PrimPol/RPA association that allows repriming at the exposed ssDNA regions formed in the leading strand upon replicase stalling.
Project description:We describe a second primase in human cells, PrimPol, which has the ability to start DNA chains with deoxynucleotides unlike regular primases, which use exclusively ribonucleotides. Moreover, PrimPol is also a DNA polymerase tailored to bypass the most common oxidative lesions in DNA, such as abasic sites and 8-oxoguanine. Subcellular fractionation and immunodetection studies indicated that PrimPol is present in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA compartments. PrimPol activity is detectable in mitochondrial lysates from human and mouse cells but is absent from mitochondria derived from PRIMPOL knockout mice. PRIMPOL gene silencing or ablation in human and mouse cells impaired mitochondrial DNA replication. On the basis of the synergy observed with replicative DNA polymerases Pol? and Pol?, PrimPol is proposed to facilitate replication fork progression by acting as a translesion DNA polymerase or as a specific DNA primase reinitiating downstream of lesions that block synthesis during both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA replication.
Project description:Eukaryotic Primase-Polymerase (PrimPol) is an enzyme that maintains efficient DNA duplication by repriming replication restart downstream of replicase stalling lesions and structures. To elucidate the cellular requirements for PrimPol in human cells, we generated PrimPol-deleted cell lines and show that it plays key roles in maintaining active replication in both the nucleus and mitochondrion, even in the absence of exogenous damage. Human cells lacking PrimPol exhibit delayed recovery after UV-C damage and increased mutation frequency, micronuclei and sister chromatin exchanges but are not sensitive to genotoxins. PrimPol is also required during mitochondrial replication, with PrimPol-deficient cells having increased mtDNA copy number but displaying a significant decrease in replication. Deletion of PrimPol in XPV cells, lacking functional polymerase Eta, causes an increase in DNA damage sensitivity and pronounced fork stalling after UV-C treatment. We show that, unlike canonical TLS polymerases, PrimPol is important for allowing active replication to proceed, even in the absence of exogenous damage, thus preventing the accumulation of excessive fork stalling and genetic mutations. Together, these findings highlight the importance of PrimPol for maintaining efficient DNA replication in unperturbed cells and its complementary roles, with Pol Eta, in damage tolerance in human cells.
Project description:PrimPol is a DNA damage tolerance enzyme possessing both translesion synthesis (TLS) and primase activities. To uncover its potential role in TLS-mediated IgV? hypermutation and define its interplay with other TLS polymerases, PrimPol(-/-) and PrimPol(-/-)/Pol?(-/-)/Pol? (-/-) gene knockouts were generated in avian cells. Loss of PrimPol had no significant impact on the rate of hypermutation or the mutation spectrum of IgV?. However, PrimPol(-/-) cells were sensitive to methylmethane sulfonate, suggesting that it may bypass abasic sites at the IgV? segment by repriming DNA synthesis downstream of these sites. PrimPol(-/-) cells were also sensitive to cisplatin and hydroxyurea, indicating that it assists in maintaining / restarting replication at a variety of lesions. To accurately measure the relative contribution of the TLS and primase activities, we examined DNA damage sensitivity in PrimPol(-/-) cells complemented with polymerase or primase-deficient PrimPol. Polymerase-defective, but not primase-deficient, PrimPol suppresses the hypersensitivity of PrimPol(-/-) cells. This indicates that its primase, rather than TLS activity, is pivotal for DNA damage tolerance. Loss of TLS polymerases, Pol? and Pol? has an additive effect on the sensitivity of PrimPol(-/-) cells. Moreover, we found that PrimPol and Pol?-Pol? redundantly prevented cell death and facilitated unperturbed cell cycle progression. PrimPol(-/-) cells also exhibited increased sensitivity to a wide variety of chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs). PrimPol could perform close-coupled repriming downstream of CTNAs and oxidative damage in vitro. Together, these results indicate that PrimPol's repriming activity plays a central role in reinitiating replication downstream from CTNAs and other specific DNA lesions.
Project description:PrimPol is the most recently discovered human DNA polymerase/primase and plays an emerging role in nuclear and mitochondrial genomic maintenance. As a member of archaeo-eukaryotic primase superfamily enzymes, PrimPol possesses DNA polymerase and primase activities that are important for replication fork progression in vitro and in cellulo. The enzymatic activities of PrimPol are critically dependent on the nucleotidyl-transfer reaction to incorporate deoxyribonucleotides successively; however, our knowledge concerning the kinetic mechanism of the reaction remains incomplete. Using enzyme kinetic analyses and computer simulations, we dissected the mechanism by which PrimPol transfers a nucleotide to a primer-template DNA, which comprises DNA binding, conformational transition, nucleotide binding, phosphoester bond formation, and dissociation steps. We obtained the rate constants of the steps by steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic analyses and simulations. Our data demonstrate that the rate-limiting step of PrimPol-catalyzed DNA elongation depends on the metal cofactor involved. In the presence of Mn2+, a conformational transition step from non-productive to productive PrimPol:DNA complexes limits the enzymatic turnover, whereas in the presence of Mg2+, the chemical step becomes rate limiting. As evidenced from our kinetic and simulation data, PrimPol maintains the same kinetic mechanism under either millimolar or physiological micromolar Mn2+ concentration. Our study revealed the underlying mechanism by which PrimPol catalyzes nucleotide incorporation with two common metal cofactors and provides a kinetic basis for further understanding the regulatory mechanism of this functionally diverse primase-polymerase.
Project description:PrimPol is a primase-polymerase found in humans, and other eukaryotes, involved in bypassing lesions encountered during DNA replication. PrimPol employs both translesion synthesis and repriming mechanisms to facilitate lesion bypass by the replisome. PrimPol has been reported to be a potential susceptibility gene associated with the development of myopia. Mutation of tyrosine 89 to aspartic acid (PrimPolY89D) has been identified in a number of cases of high myopia, implicating it in the aetiology of this disorder. Here, we examined whether this mutation resulted in any changes in the molecular and cellular activities associated with human PrimPol. We show that PrimPolY89D has a striking decrease in primase and polymerase activities. The hydrophobic ring of tyrosine is important for retaining wild-type extension activity. We also demonstrate that the decreased activity of PrimPolY89D is associated with reduced affinities for DNA and nucleotides, resulting in diminished catalytic efficiency. Although the structure and stability of PrimPolY89D is altered, its fidelity remains unchanged. This mutation also reduces cell viability after DNA damage and significantly slows replication fork rates in vivo. Together, these findings establish that the major DNA replication defect associated with this PrimPol mutant is likely to contribute to the onset of high myopia.
Project description:PrimPol is a novel human enzyme that contains both DNA primase and DNA polymerase activities. We present the first structure of human PrimPol in ternary complex with a DNA template-primer and an incoming deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). The ability of PrimPol to function as a DNA primase stems from a simple but remarkable feature-almost complete lack of contacts to the DNA primer strand. This, in turn, allows two dNTPs to bind initiation and elongation sites on the enzyme for the formation of the first dinucleotide. PrimPol shows the ability to synthesize DNA opposite ultraviolet (UV) lesions; however, unexpectedly, the active-site cleft of the enzyme is constrained, which precludes the bypass of UV-induced DNA lesions by conventional translesion synthesis. Together, the structure addresses long-standing questions about how DNA primases actually initiate synthesis and how primase and polymerase activities combine in a single enzyme to carry out DNA synthesis.