OLA1 contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer by modulating the GSK3?/snail/E-cadherin signaling.
ABSTRACT: Obg-like ATPase 1 (OLA1) belongs to the Obg family of P-loop NTPases, and may serve as a "molecular switch" regulating multiple cellular processes. Aberrant expression of OLA1 has been observed in several human malignancies. However, the role of OLA1 in cancer progression remains poorly understood. In this study, we used the Kaplan-Meier plotter search tool to show that increased expression of OLA1 mRNA was significantly associated with shorter overall survival in lung cancer patients. By immunohistochemical analysis we discovered that levels of OLA1 protein in lung cancer tissues were positively correlated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis, but negatively correlated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker E-cadherin. Knockdown of OLA1 in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line rendered the cells more resistant to TGF-?-induced EMT and the accompanied repression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that OLA1 is a GSK3?-interacting protein and inhibits GSK3? activity by mediating its Ser9 phosphorylation. During EMT, OLA1 plays an important role in suppressing the GSK3?-mediated degradation of Snail protein, which in turn promotes downregulation of E-cadherin. These data suggest that OLA1 contributes to EMT by modulating the GSK3?/Snail/E-cadherin signaling, and its overexpression is associated with clinical progression and poor survival in lung cancer patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The human Obg-like ATPase 1 (OLA1) protein has been reported to play an important role in cancer cell proliferation. The molecular mechanism underlying OLA1 regulated oral metastasis is still unknown. We investigated in this study the regulatory role of OLA1 playing in oral squamous cell metastasis. RESULTS:A series of in vitro assays were performed in the cells with RNAi-mediated knockdown or overexpression to expound the regulatory function of OLA1 in oral cancer. We found that the endogenous level of OLA1 in a highly metastatic oral squamous cell line was significantly lower than that in low metastatic oral cells as well as in normal oral cells. Escalated expression of OLA1 resulted in a reduced ability of metastasis in highly metastatic cells, and enhanced its sensitivity to the paclitaxel treatment. Further analysis of the EMT markers showed that Snail, Slug, N-cadherin were up-expressed significantly. Meanwhile, E-cadherin was significantly down-regulated in the oral cancer cells with OLA1-knocked down, suggesting that OLA1 inactivated EMT process. Furthermore, we found that OLA1 suppressed oral squamous cell metastasis by suppressing the activity of a TGF?/SMAD2/EMT pathway. CONCLUSION:Our data suggests that OLA1 may be developed as a potential target for the treatment of oral cancer metastasis.
Project description:OLA1 is an Obg family P-loop NTPase that possesses both GTP- and ATP-hydrolyzing activities. Here we report that OLA1 is a GSK3? interacting protein, and through its ATPase activity, inhibits the GSK3?-mediated activation of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 (PP1). It is hypothesized that GSK3? phosphorylates inhibitor 2 (I-2) of PP1 at Thr-72 and activates the PP1 · I-2 complex, which in turn dephosphorylates and stimulates GSK3?, thus forming a positive feedback loop. We revealed that the positive feedback loop is normally suppressed by OLA1, and becomes over-activated under OLA1 deficiency, resulting in increased cellular PP1 activity and dephosphorylation of multiple Ser/Thr phosphoproteins, and more strikingly, decreased global protein threonine phosphorylation. Furthermore, using xenograft models of colon cancer (H116) and ovarian cancer (SKOV3), we established a correlation among downregulation of OLA1, over-activation of the positive feedback loop as indicated by under-phosphorylation of I-2, and more aggressive tumor growth. This study provides the first evidence for the existence of a GSK3?-I-2-PP1 positive feedback loop in human cancer cells, and identifies OLA1 as an endogenous suppressor of this signaling motif.
Project description:Obg-like ATPase 1 (OLA1) that possesses both GTP and ATP hydrolyzing activities has been shown to be involved in translational regulation of cancer cell growth and survival. Also, GSK3? signalling has been implicated in cardiac development and disease. However, the role of OLA1 in pathological cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. We sought to understand the mechanism by which OLA1 regulates GSK3?-?-Catenin signalling and its functional significance in angiotensin-II (ANG II)-induced cardiac hypertrophic response. OLA1 function and its endogenous interaction with GSK3?/?-catenin signalling in cultured human ventricular cardiomyocytes (AC16 cells) and mouse hearts (in vivo) was evaluated with/without ANG II-stimulated hypertrophic response. ANG II administration in mice increases myocardial OLA1 protein expression with a corresponding increase in GSK3? phosphorylation and decrease in ?-Catenin phosphorylation. Cultured cardiomyocytes treated with ANG II show endogenous interaction between OLA1 and GSK3?, nuclear accumulation of ?-Catenin and significant increase in cell size and expression of hypertrophic marker genes such as atrial natriuretic factor (ANF; NPPA) and ?-myosin heavy chain (MYH7). Intriguingly, OLA1 inhibition attenuates the above hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that OLA1 plays a detrimental role in hypertrophic response via GSK3?/?-catenin signalling. Translation strategies to target OLA1 might potentially limit the underlying molecular derangements leading to left ventricular dysfunction in patients with maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:Translation is a fundamental cellular process, and its dysregulation can contribute to human diseases such as cancer. During translation initiation the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) forms a ternary complex (TC) with GTP and the initiator methionyl-tRNA (tRNAi), mediating ribosomal recruitment of tRNAi. Limiting TC availability is a central mechanism for triggering the integrated stress response (ISR), which suppresses global translation in response to various cellular stresses, but induces specific proteins such as ATF4. This study shows that OLA1, a member of the ancient Obg family of GTPases, is an eIF2-regulatory protein that inhibits protein synthesis and promotes ISR by binding eIF2, hydrolyzing GTP, and interfering with TC formation. OLA1 thus represents a novel mechanism of translational control affecting de novo TC formation, different from the traditional model in which phosphorylation of eIF2? blocks the regeneration of TC. Depletion of OLA1 caused a hypoactive ISR and greater survival in stressed cells. In vivo, OLA1-knockdown rendered cancer cells deficient in ISR and the downstream proapoptotic effector, CHOP, promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Our work suggests that OLA1 is a novel translational GTPase and plays a suppressive role in translation and cell survival, as well as cancer growth and progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obg-like ATPase 1 (OLA1) has been found to have a dual role in cancers. However, the relationship between OLA1 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. RESULTS:High expression of OLA1 in HCC was detected in public datasets and clinical samples, and correlated with poor prognosis. Downregulation of OLA1 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenicity of HCC cells. Mechanistically, GSEA showed that OLA1 might promote tumor progression by regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis. In addition, OLA1 knockdown resulted in G0/G1 phase arrest and high levels of apoptosis. OLA1 could bind with P21 and upregulate CDK2 expression to promote HCC progression. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, these findings uncover a role for OLA1 in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of HCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus datasets were analyzed to identify gene expression. Immunohistochemistry staining, western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate OLA1 expression in samples. Cell count Kit-8, wound-healing, transwell and flow cytometry assays were used to analyze HCC cell progression. Subcutaneous xenotransplantation models were used to investigate the role of OLA1 in vivo. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to analyze protein interactions.
Project description:OLA1, an Obg-family GTPase, has been implicated in eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-mediated translational control, but its physiological functions remain obscure. Here we report that mouse embryos lacking OLA1 have stunted growth, delayed development leading to immature organs-especially lungs-at birth, and frequent perinatal lethality. Proliferation of primary Ola1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) is impaired due to defective cell cycle progression, associated with reduced cyclins D1 and E1, attenuated Rb phosphorylation, and increased p21(Cip1/Waf1) Accumulation of p21 in Ola1(-/-) MEFs is due to enhanced mRNA translation and can be prevented by either reconstitution of OLA1 expression or treatment with an eIF2? dephosphorylation inhibitor, suggesting that OLA1 regulates p21 through a translational mechanism involving eIF2. With immunohistochemistry, overexpression of p21 protein was detected in Ola1-null embryos with reduced cell proliferation. Moreover, we have generated p21(-/-) Ola1(-/-) mice and found that knockout of p21 can partially rescue the growth retardation defect of Ola1(-/-) embryos but fails to rescue them from developmental delay and the lethality. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that OLA1 is required for normal progression of mammalian development. OLA1 plays an important role in promoting cell proliferation at least in part through suppression of p21 and organogenesis via factors yet to be discovered.
Project description:Oxidative stress has been implicated in diverse disease states and aging. To date, induction of cellular responses to combat oxidative stress has been characterized largely at the transcriptional level, with emphasis on Nrf2-mediated activation of antioxidant response elements. In this study, we demonstrate that OLA1, a novel Obg-like ATPase, functions as a negative regulator of the cellular antioxidant response independent of transcriptional processes. Knockdown of OLA1 in human cells elicited an increased resistance to oxidizing agents including tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH) and diamide without affecting cell proliferation, baseline apoptosis, or sensitivity to other cytotoxic agents that target the mitochondria, cytoskeleton, or DNA. Conversely, overexpression of OLA1 increased cellular sensitivity to tBH and diamide. When challenged with oxidants, OLA1-knockdown cells had decreased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and exhibited less depletion of reduced glutathione. Surprisingly, knockdown of OLA1 caused only minimal genomic response; no changes were found in the mRNA levels of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, enzymes that produce antioxidants (including glutathione), or other genes known to respond to Nrf2. Moreover, when de novo protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide in OLA1-knockdown cells, they continued to demonstrate increased resistance to both tBH and diamide. These data demonstrate that OLA1 suppresses the antioxidant response through nontranscriptional mechanisms. The beneficial effects observed upon OLA1-knockdown suggest that this regulatory ATPase is a potential novel target for antioxidative therapy.
Project description:Radiotherapy is one of the major treatment regimes for thoracic malignancies, but can lead to severe lung complications including pneumonitis and fibrosis. Recent studies suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tissue injury leading to organ fibrosis. To investigate whether radiation can induce EMT in lung epithelial cells and also to understand the potential mechanism(s) associated with this change, rat alveolar type II lung epithelial RLE-6TN cells were irradiated with 8 Gy of (137)Cs ?-rays. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed a time-dependent decrease in E-cadherin with a concomitant increase in ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and vimentin after radiation, suggesting that the epithelial cells acquired a mesenchymal-like morphology. Protein levels and nuclear translocation of Snail, the key inducer of EMT, were significantly elevated in the irradiated cells. Radiation also induced a time-dependent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?), an endogenous inhibitor of Snail. A marked increase in phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not JNK or p38, was observed in irradiated RLE-6TN cells. Silencing ERK1/2 using siRNAs and the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the radiation-induced phosphorylation of GSK3? and altered the protein levels of Snail, ?-SMA, and E-cadherin in RLE-6TN cells. Preincubating RLE-6TN cells with N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, abolished the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ERK and altered protein levels of Snail, E-cadherin, and ?-SMA. These findings reveal, for the first time, that radiation-induced EMT in alveolar type II epithelial cells is mediated by the ERK/GSK3?/Snail pathway.
Project description:Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1)-associated RING domain protein 1 (BARD1) forms a heterodimer with BRCA1, a tumor suppressor associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1/BARD1 functions in multiple cellular processes including DNA repair and centrosome regulation. Centrosomes are the major microtubule-organizing centers in animal cells and are critical for the formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle. BRCA1 and BARD1 localize to the centrosome during the cell cycle, and the BRCA1/BARD1 dimer ubiquitinates centrosomal proteins to regulate centrosome function. We identified Obg-like ATPase 1 (OLA1) and receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1) as BRCA1/BARD1-interating proteins that bind to BARD1 and BRCA1 and localize the centrosomes during the cell cycle. Cancer-derived variants of BRCA1, BARD1, OLA1, and RACK1 failed to interact, and aberrant expression of these proteins caused centrosome amplification due to centriole overduplication only in mammary tissue-derived cells. In S-G2 phase, the number of centrioles was higher in mammary tissue-derived cells than in cells from other tissues, suggesting their involvement in tissue-specific carcinogenesis by BRCA1 and BARD1 germline mutations. We described the function of BARD1 in centrosome regulation in cooperation with BRCA1/OLA1/RACK1, as well as the effect of their dysfunction on carcinogenesis.
Project description:The heat-shock response is an evolutionarily conserved cellular defense mechanism against environmental stresses, characterized by the rapid synthesis of heat-shock proteins (HSPs). HSP70, a highly inducible molecular chaperone, assists in refolding or clearance of damaged proteins, thereby having a central role in maintaining intracellular homeostasis and thermotolerance. To date, induction of HSP70 expression has been described extensively at the transcriptional level. However, post-translational regulation of HSP70, such as protein stability, is only partially understood. In this study, we investigated the role of OLA1 (Obg-like ATPase 1), a previously uncharacterized cytosolic ATPase, in regulating the turnover of HSP70. Downregulation of OLA1 in mammalian cells by either RNAi or targeted gene disruption results in reduced steady-state levels of HSP70, impaired HSP70 induction by heat, and functionally, increased cellular sensitivity to heat shock. Conversely, overexpression of OLA1 correlates with elevated HSP70 protein levels and improved thermal resistance. Protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated that binding of OLA1 to the HSP70 carboxyl terminus variable domain hinders the recruitment of CHIP (C-terminus of Hsp70-binding protein), an E3 ubiquitin ligase for HSP70, and thus prevents HSP70 from the CHIP-mediated ubiquitination. These findings suggest a novel molecular mechanism by which OLA1 stabilizes HSP70, leading to upregulation of HSP70 as well as increased survival during heat shock.