Differentiation of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells Is Regulated by PDGF-BB and Collagen.
ABSTRACT: Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key regulators of vascular disease and circulating smooth muscle progenitor cells may play important roles in vascular repair or remodelling. We developed enhanced protocols to derive smooth muscle progenitors from murine bone marrow and tested whether factors that are increased in atherosclerotic plaques, namely platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and monomeric collagen, can influence the smooth muscle specific differentiation, proliferation, and survival of mouse bone marrow-derived progenitor cells. During a 21 day period of culture, bone marrow cells underwent a marked increase in expression of the SMC markers ?-SMA (1.93 ± 0.15 vs. 0.0008 ± 0.0003 (ng/ng GAPDH) at 0 d), SM22-? (1.50 ± 0.27 vs. 0.005 ± 0.001 (ng/ng GAPDH) at 0 d) and SM-MHC (0.017 ± 0.004 vs. 0.001 ± 0.001 (ng/ng GAPDH) at 0 d). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation experiments showed that in early culture, the smooth muscle progenitor subpopulation could be identified by high proliferative rates prior to the expression of smooth muscle specific markers. Culture of fresh bone marrow or smooth muscle progenitor cells with PDGF-BB suppressed the expression of ?-SMA and SM22-?, in a rapidly reversible manner requiring PDGF receptor kinase activity. Progenitors cultured on polymerized collagen gels demonstrated expression of SMC markers, rates of proliferation and apoptosis similar to that of cells on tissue culture plastic; in contrast, cells grown on monomeric collagen gels displayed lower SMC marker expression, lower growth rates (319 ± 36 vs. 635 ± 97 cells/mm2), and increased apoptosis (5.3 ± 1.6% vs. 1.0 ± 0.5% (Annexin 5 staining)). Our data shows that the differentiation and survival of smooth muscle progenitors are critically affected by PDGF-BB and as well as the substrate collagen structure.
Project description:The phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays an important role in vascular function in health and disease. We investigated the mechanism of modulation of SMC phenotype (from contractile to synthetic) induced by the synergistic action of a growth factor (platelet-derived growth factor, PDGF-BB) and a cytokine (interleukin, IL-1beta). Human aortic SMCs grown on polymerized collagen showed high expression levels of contractile markers (smooth muscle alpha-actin, myosin heavy chain, and calponin). These levels were not significantly affected by PDGF-BB and IL-1beta individually, but decreased markedly after the combined usage of PDGF-BB and IL-1beta. PDGF/IL-1beta costimulation also induced a sustained phosphorylation of Akt and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The effects of PDGF/IL-1beta costimulation on contractile marker expression and Akt and p70S6K phosphorylation were blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 and by adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative Akt, and they were mimicked by constitutively active Akt. PDGF-BB/IL-1beta induced a sustained phosphorylation of PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-beta and its association with IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1). Such activation and association of receptors were blocked by a PDGFR-beta neutralizing antibody (AF385), an IL-1R1 antagonist (IL-1ra), as well as a specific inhibitor of PDGFR-beta phosphorylation (AG1295); these agents also eliminated the PDGF-BB/IL-1beta-induced signaling and phenotypic modulation. PDGF-BB/IL-1beta inhibited the polymerized collagen-induced serum response factor DNA binding activity in the nucleus, and this effect was mediated by the PDGFR-beta/IL-1R1 association and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/p70S6K pathway. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of SMC phenotypic modulation from contractile to synthetic, e.g., in atherosclerosis.
Project description:In this study we demonstrate that CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have higher smooth muscle cell (SMC) potential than CD34(-) cells. We report that from all inductive signals tested, retinoic acid (RA) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF(BB)) are the most effective agents in guiding the differentiation of CD34(+) cells into smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs) characterized by the expression of SMC genes and proteins, secretion of SMC-related cytokines, contraction in response to depolarization agents and vasoactive peptides and expression of SMC-related genes in a 3D environment. These cells are also characterized by a low organization of the contractile proteins and the contractility response is mediated by Ca(2+), which involves the activation of Rho A/Rho kinase- and Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent pathways. We further show that SMPCs obtained from the differentiation of CD34(+) cells with RA, but not with PDGF(BB,) can be maturated in medium supplemented with endothelin-1 showing at the end individualized contractile filaments. Overall the hESC-derived SMCs presented in this work might be an unlimited source of SMCs for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Project description:Smooth muscle formation and function are critical in development and postnatal life. Hence, studies aimed at better understanding SMC differentiation are of great importance. Here, we report that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) isolated from rat, murine, porcine, and human bone marrow demonstrate the potential to differentiate into cells with an SMC-like phenotype and function. TGF-beta1 alone or combined with PDGF-BB in serum-free medium induces a temporally correct expression of transcripts and proteins consistent with smooth muscle development. Furthermore, SMCs derived from MAPCs (MAPC-SMCs) demonstrated functional L-type calcium channels. MAPC-SMCs entrapped in fibrin vascular molds became circumferentially aligned and generated force in response to KCl, the L-type channel opener FPL64176, or the SMC agonists 5-HT and ET-1, and exhibited complete relaxation in response to the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Cyclic distention (5% circumferential strain) for 3 weeks increased responses by 2- to 3-fold, consistent with what occurred in neonatal SMCs. These results provide evidence that MAPC-SMCs are phenotypically and functionally similar to neonatal SMCs and that the in vitro MAPC-SMC differentiation system may be an ideal model for the study of SMC development. Moreover, MAPC-SMCs may lend themselves to tissue engineering applications.
Project description:Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration contribute to the development of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and accelerated arteriopathy after cardiac transplantation. Previously, we reported that the macrolide antibiotic rapamycin, but not the related compound FK506, inhibits both human and rat aortic SMC proliferation in vitro by inhibiting cell cycle-dependent kinases and delaying phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Marx, S.O., T. Jayaraman, L.O. Go, and A.R. Marks. 1995. Circ. Res. 362:801). In the present study the effects of rapamycin on SMC migration were assayed in vitro using a modified Boyden chamber and in vivo using a porcine aortic SMC explant model. Pretreatment with rapamycin (2 ng/ml) for 48 h inhibited PDGF-induced migration (PDGF BB homodimer; 20 ng/ml) in cultured rat and human SMC (n = 10; P < 0.0001), whereas FK506 had no significant effect on migration. Rapamycin administered orally (1 mg/kg per d for 7 d) significantly inhibited porcine aortic SMC migration compared with control (n = 15; P < 0.0001). Thus, in addition to being a potent immunosuppressant and antiproliferative, rapamycin also inhibits SMC migration.
Project description:The tonicity-responsive transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5/tonicity enhancer binding protein [TonEBP]), has been well characterized in numerous cell types; however, NFAT5 function in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is unknown. Our main objective was to determine the role of NFAT5 regulation in SMCs.We showed that NFAT5 is regulated by hypertonicity in SMCs and is upregulated in atherosclerosis and neointimal hyperplasia. RNAi knockdown of NFAT5 inhibited basal expression of several SMC differentiation marker genes, including smooth muscle ? actin (SM?A). Bioinformatic analysis of SM?A revealed 7 putative NFAT5 binding sites in the first intron, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed NFAT5 enrichment of intronic DNA. Overexpression of NFAT5 increased SM?A promoter-intron activity, which requires an NFAT5 cis element at +1012, whereas dominant-negative NFAT5 decreased SM?A promoter-intron activity. Because it is unlikely that SMCs experience extreme changes in tonicity, we investigated other stimuli and uncovered 2 novel NFAT5-inducing factors: angiotensin II, a contractile agonist, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), a potent mitogen in vascular injury. Angiotensin II stimulated NFAT5 translocation and activity, and NFAT5 knockdown inhibited an angiotensin II-mediated upregulation of SM?A mRNA. PDGF-BB increased NFAT5 protein, and loss of NFAT5 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced SMC migration.We have identified NFAT5 as a novel regulator of SMC phenotypic modulation and have uncovered the role of NFAT5 in angiotensin II-induced SM?A expression and PDGF-BB-stimulated SMC migration.
Project description:We have previously demonstrated that histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) expression and splicing play an important role in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the molecular mechanisms of increased HDAC7 expression during SMC differentiation are currently unknown. In this study, we found that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced a 3-fold increase in the transcripts of HDAC7 in differentiating ES cells. Importantly, our data also revealed that PDGF-BB regulated HDAC7 expression not through phosphorylation of HDAC7 but through transcriptional activation. By dissecting its promoters with progressive deletion analysis, we identified the sequence between -343 and -292 bp in the 5'-flanking region of the Hdac7 gene promoter as the minimal PDGF-BB-responsive element, which contains one binding site for the transcription factor, specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Mutation of the Sp1 site within this PDGF-BB-responsive element abolished PDGF-BB-induced HDAC7 activity. PDGF-BB treatment enhanced Sp1 binding to the Hdac7 promoter in differentiated SMCs in vivo as demonstrated by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, we also demonstrated that knockdown of Sp1 abrogated PDGF-BB-induced HDAC7 up-regulation and SMC differentiation gene expression in differentiating ES cells, although enforced expression of Sp1 alone was sufficient to increase the activity of the Hdac7 promoter and expression levels of SMC differentiation genes. Importantly, we further demonstrated that HDAC7 was required for Sp1-induced SMC differentiation of gene expression. Our data suggest that Sp1 plays an important role in the regulation of Hdac7 gene expression in SMC differentiation from ES cells. These findings provide novel molecular insights into the regulation of HDAC7 and enhance our knowledge in SMC differentiation and vessel formation during embryonic development.
Project description:Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common clinical disease that is difficult to treat. We previously found that hypoxia modulates the phenotype of primary corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) in rats, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-related signaling pathways are correlated with cell phenotypic transition, but research has been focused more on vascular smooth muscle and tracheal smooth muscle and less on CCSMCs. Here, we investigated the role of PDGFR-related signaling pathways in penile CCSMCs, which were successfully isolated from rats and cultured in vitro. PDGF-BB at 5, 10, or 20 ng/ml altered CCSMC morphology from the original elongated, spindle shape to a broader shape and promoted the synthetic phenotype and expression of the related proteins vimentin and collagen-I, while inhibiting the contractile phenotype and expression of the related proteins smooth muscle (SM) ?-actin (?-SMA) and desmin. Inhibition of PDGFR activity via siRNA or the PDGFR inhibitor crenolanib inhibited vimentin and collagen-I expression, increased ?-SMA and desmin expression, and considerably inhibited serine-threonine protein kinase (AKT) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. STAT3 knockdown promoted the contractile phenotype, inhibited vimentin and collagen-I expression, and increased ?-SMA and desmin expression, whereas AKT knockdown did not affect phenotype-associated proteins. STAT3 overexpression in CCSMC cells weakened the suppressive effect of PDGFR inhibition on the morphology and phenotypic transformation induced by PDGF-BB. Through activation of the PDGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway, PDGF promoted the synthetic phenotype transition; thus, regulation of this pathway might contribute to ED therapy.
Project description:Calcineurin (Cn) and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors are critical in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) development and pathology. Here, we used a genomics approach to identify and validate NFAT gene targets activated during platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced SMC phenotypic modulation.Genome-wide expression arrays were used to identify genes both (1) differentially activated in response to PDGF-BB and (2) whose differential expression was reduced by both the Cn inhibitor cyclosporin A and the NFAT inhibitor A-285222. The 20 most pharmacologically sensitive genes were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of PDGF-BB-stimulated SMCs in the presence of Cn/NFAT inhibitors, including the VIVIT peptide. In all experiments, protein C receptor (PROCR) gene activation was reduced. We showed that PROCR expression was virtually absent in untreated, quiescent SMCs. PDGF-BB stimulation, however, induced significant PROCR promoter activation and downstream protein expression in a Cn/NFAT-dependent manner. Mutation of a species-conserved, NFAT binding motif significantly attenuated PDGF-BB-induced PROCR promoter activity, thereby distinguishing NFAT as the first PROCR transcriptional activator to date. Moreover, SMC PROCR expression was upregulated in the neointima as early as 7 days following acute vascular injury in rat carotid arteries.We hereby report PROCR as a novel, NFAT-dependent gene that may be implicated in vascular restenosis and consequent inward remodeling.
Project description:Smooth muscle cell- (SMC-) based tissue engineering provides a promising therapeutic strategy for SMC-related disorders. It has been demonstrated that human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) possess the potential to differentiate into mature bladder SMCs by induction with condition medium (CM) from bladder SMC culture, in combination with the transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). However, the molecular mechanism of SMC differentiation from DPSCs has not been fully uncovered. The canonical Wnt signaling (also known as Wnt/?-catenin) pathway plays an essential role in stem cell fate decision. The aim of this study is to explore the regulation via GSK3? and associated downstream effectors for SMC differentiation from DPSCs. We characterized one of our DPSC clones with the best proliferation and differentiation abilities. This stem cell clone has shown the capacity to generate a smooth muscle layer-like phenotype after an extended differentiation duration using the SMC induction protocol we established before. We further found that Wnt-GSK3?/?-catenin signaling is involved in the process of SMC differentiation from DPSCs, as well as a serial of growth factors, including TGF-?1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor-homodimer polypeptide of B chain (BB) (PDGF-BB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Pharmacological inhibition on the canonical Wnt-GSK3?/?-catenin pathway significantly downregulated GSK3? phosphorylation and ?-catenin activation, which in consequence reduced the augmented expression of the growth factors (including TGF-?1, HGF, PDGF-BB, and VEGF) as well as SMC markers (especially myosin) at a late stage of SMC differentiation. These results suggest that the canonical Wnt-GSK3?/?-catenin pathway contributes to DPSC differentiation into mature SMCs through the coordination of different growth factors.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) induced cyclin A expression and CDK2 activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Inhibition of nuclear factors of activated T cell (NFAT) activation by cyclosporin A (CsA) and VIVIT suppressed PDGF-BB-induced cyclin A expression and CDK2 activity, resulting in blockade of VSMC in the G(1) phase. In addition, CsA- and VIVIT-mediated inhibition of NFATs and small interfering RNA-targeted down-regulation of cyclin A levels suppressed PDGF-BB-induced VSMC DNA synthesis. PDGF-BB also induced cyclin A mRNA levels in VSMC in an NFAT-dependent manner. Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of rat cyclin A promoter revealed the presence of NFAT-binding elements, and PDGF-BB induced the binding of NFATs to these regulatory sequences in a CsA- and VIVIT-sensitive manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NFATc1 binds to the cyclin A promoter in response to PDGF-BB in a VIVIT-sensitive manner. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced cyclin A promoter-luciferase reporter gene activity in VSMC, and it was inhibited by both CsA and VIVIT. Balloon injury induced cyclin A expression and CDK2 activity in rat carotid arteries, and these responses were also blocked by VIVIT. In addition, VIVIT attenuated balloon injury-induced SMC proliferation, resulting in reduced restenosis. Down-regulation of NFATc1 by its small interfering RNA inhibited PDGF-BB-induced cyclin A expression and DNA synthesis both in rat and human VSMC. Together, these findings demonstrate that the cyclin A-CDK2 complex may be a potential effector of NFATs, specifically NFATc1, in mediating SMC multiplication leading to neointima formation. Therefore, NFATs may be used as target molecules for the development of therapeutic agents against vascular diseases such as restenosis.