ABSTRACT: Dengue viruses (DENVs) and their vectors are widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. An autochthonous case of DENV was reported in Tokyo, Japan, in 2014, for the first time in 70 years. A comprehensive database of DENV sequences containing both serotype and genotype data and epidemiological data is crucial to trace DENV outbreak isolates and promptly respond to outbreaks. We constructed a DENV database containing the serotype, genotype, year and country/region of collection by collecting all publically available DENV sequence information from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and assigning genotype information. We also implemented the web service Dengue Genographic Viewer (DGV), which shows the geographical distribution of each DENV genotype in a user-specified time span. DGV also assigns the serotype and genotype to a user-specified sequence by performing a homology search against the curated DENV database, and shows its homologous sequences with the geographical position and year of collection. DGV also shows the distribution of DENV-infected entrants to Japan by plotting epidemiological data from the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report (IASR), Japan. This overview of the DENV genotype distribution may aid in planning for the control of DENV infections. DGV is freely available online at: (https://gph.niid.go.jp/geograph/dengue/content/genomemap).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malaysia experienced an unprecedented dengue outbreak from the year 2014 to 2016 that resulted in an enormous increase in the number of cases and mortality as compared to previous years. The causes that attribute to a dengue outbreak can be multifactorial. Viral factors, such as dengue serotype and genotype, are the components of interest in this study. Although only a small number of studies investigated the association between the serotype of dengue virus and clinical manifestations, none of these studies included analyses on dengue genotypes. The present study aims to investigate dengue serotype and genotype-specific clinical characteristics among dengue fever and severe dengue cases from two Malaysian tertiary hospitals between 2014 and mid-2017. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:A total of 120 retrospective dengue serum specimens were subjected to serotyping and genotyping by Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, the dengue serotype and genotype data were statistically analyzed for 101 of 120 corresponding patients' clinical manifestations to generate a descriptive relation between the genetic components and clinical outcomes of dengue infected patients. During the study period, predominant dengue serotype and genotype were found to be DENV 1 genotype I. Additionally, non-severe clinical manifestations were commonly observed in patients infected with DENV 1 and DENV 3. Meanwhile, patients with DENV 2 infection showed significant warning signs and developed severe dengue (p = 0.007). Cases infected with DENV 2 were also commonly presented with persistent vomiting (p = 0.010), epigastric pain (p = 0.018), plasma leakage (p = 0.004) and shock (p = 0.038). Moreover, myalgia and arthralgia were highly prevalent among DENV 3 infection (p = 0.015; p = 0.014). The comparison of genotype-specific clinical manifestations showed that DENV 2 Cosmopolitan was significantly common among severe dengue patients. An association was also found between genotype I of DENV 3 and myalgia. In a similar vein, genotype III of DENV 3 was significantly common among patients with arthralgia. CONCLUSION:The current data contended that different dengue serotype and genotype had caused distinct clinical characteristics in infected patients.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) infection is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, which is fatal if untreated symptomatically. Emergence of new genotype within serotypes led to enhanced severity. The objective of the study is to identify the molecular characteristics of the DENV circulated during 2017 outbreak in Tamil Nadu, India, and to investigate the role of inflammatory cytokines in different "serotypes" and in "dengue severity". A total of 135 suspected samples were tested for DENV infection using IgM, IgG, and qPCR assay; where 76 samples were positive for DENV and analyzed for 12 inflammatory cytokines using ELISA. Serotyping shows 14 DENV-1, 22 DENV-2, 7 DENV-3, and 33 DENV-4, where DENV-4 was predominant. Among 76, 42 isolates were successfully sequenced for C-prM region and grouped. A lineage shift was observed in DENV-4 genotype. Irrespective of serotypes, IFNγ was significantly elevated in all serotypes than control as well as in primary infection than secondary, indicating its role in immune response. GM-CSF and IP-10 were significantly elevated in secondary infection and could be used as prognostic biomarkers for secondary infection. Our observation shows differential cytokine expression profile varied with each serotype, indicating serotype/genotype-specific viral proteins might play a major role in dengue severity. DENV-4 as dominant serotype was reported in Tamil Nadu for the first time during an outbreak with a mixed Th1/Th17 cytokine expression profile that correlated with disease severity. We conclude it is essential to identify circulating viral genotype and their fitness by mutational analysis to correlate with disease severity and immune status, as this correlation will be helpful in diagnostics and therapeutics applications.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein is a specific and sensitive biomarker for the diagnosis of dengue. In this study, an efficient electrochemical biosensor that uses chemically modified affinity peptides was developed for the detection of dengue virus NS1. A series of amino acid-substituted synthetic peptides was rationally designed, chemically synthesized and covalently immobilized to a gold sensor surface. The sensor performance was monitored via square wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Potential affinity peptides specific for NS1 were chosen according to the dynamic current decrease in SWV experiments. Using circular dichroism, the molar ellipticity of peptides (DGV BP1-BP5) was determined, indicating that they had a mostly similar in random coil structure, not totally identical. Using SWV, DGV BP1 was selected as a promising recognition peptide and limit of detection for NS1 was found to be 1.49 ?g/mL by the 3-sigma rule. DGV BP1 showed good specificity and stability for NS1, with low signal interference. The validation of the sensor to detect NS1 proteins was confirmed with four dengue virus culture broth (from serotype 1 to 4) as proof-of-concept. The detection performance of our sensor incorporating DGV BP1 peptides showed a statistically significant difference. These results indicate that this strategy can potentially be used to detect the dengue virus antigen, NS1, and to diagnosis dengue fever within a miniaturized portable device in point-of-care testing.
Project description:In 2009, dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3) was first detected in Guangzhou, China. In this study, we identified another isolated strain belonging to genotype II. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the GZ/10476/2012 strain has a close relationship with the DENV-3 genotype II from Southeast Asian strains.
Project description:Dengue is hyperendemic in Indonesia. In 2015, reported cases of dengue fever doubled those of 2014 in the Jambi municipality of Sumatra. We examined viral aetiology and its relationship with disease outcome in Jambi. Dengue-suspected patients' sera were collected and NS1 detection and IgM/IgG serology were performed. Dengue virus (DENV) serotyping was performed using real-time RT-PCR. Envelope genes were sequenced to determine the genotypes of DENV. Clinical, haematologic, and demographic data were recorded. Of 210 dengue-suspected patients, 107 were confirmed. The disease manifested as Dengue Fever (62%), Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (36%), and Dengue Shock Syndrome (2%). The serotypes of 94 DENV were determined. All DENV serotypes were detected with DENV-1 as the predominant serotype (66%). Genotypically, the DENV-1 viruses belong to Genotype I, DENV-2 was of Cosmopolitan genotype, DENV-3 as Genotype I, and DENV-4 belonged to Genotype II. Comparison with historical data revealed serotype predominance switched from DENV-3 to DENV-1, and the replacement of Genotype IV of DENV-1 with Genotype I. In summary, DENV-1 predominated during the 2015 dengue outbreak in Jambi. The full spectrum of dengue disease occurred and was characterized by a switch in predominant serotypes.
Project description:Outbreaks of dengue virus (DENV) in Indonesia have been mainly caused by the DENV serotype-1; -2; or -3. The DENV-4 was the least-reported serotype in Indonesia during the last five decades. We recently conducted a molecular epidemiology study of dengue in the Jember regency, East Java province, Indonesia. Dengue is endemic in the region and outbreaks occur annually. We investigated the clinical characteristics and etiology of dengue-like febrile illness in this regency to understand the disease dynamics. A total of 191 patients with clinical symptoms similar to dengue were recruited during an 11-month study in 2019-2020. Children accounted for the majority of cases and dengue burden was estimated in 41.4% of the cases based on NS1 antigen, viral RNA, and IgG/IgM antibody detection with the majority (73.4%) being primary infections. Secondary infection was significantly associated with a higher risk of severe dengue manifestation. All four DENV serotypes were detected in Jember. Strikingly, we observed the predominance of DENV-4, followed by DENV-3, DENV-1, and DENV-2. Genotype determination using Envelope gene sequence revealed the classification into Genotype I, Cosmopolitan Genotype, Genotype I, and Genotype II for DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4, respectively. The predominance of DENV-4 in Jember may be associated with a new wave of DENV infections and spread in a non-immune population lacking a herd-immunity to this particular serotype.
Project description:Dengue fever is the most prevalent arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The present report describes molecular detection and serotyping of dengue viruses in acute phase blood samples collected from New Delhi, India. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis of dengue virus serotype 1 and 3 strains were also investigated. Dengue virus infection was detected in 68.87% out of 604 samples tested by RT-PCR between 2011 & 2014. Dengue serotype 1 was detected in 25.48% samples, dengue serotype 2 in 79.56% samples and dengue serotype 3 in 11.29% samples. Dengue serotype 4 was not detected. Co-infection by more than one dengue serotype was detected in 18.26% samples. Envelope gene of 29 DENV-1 and 14 DENV-3 strains were sequenced in the study. All the DENV-1 strains grouped with the American African genotype. All DENV-3 strains were found to belong to Genotype III. Nucleotide substitution rates of dengue 1 and 3 viruses were determined in the study. Time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of dengue 1 viruses was determined to be 132 years. TMRCA of DENV-3 viruses was estimated to be 149 years. Bayesian skyline plots were constructed for Indian DENV-1 and 3 strains which showed a decrease in population size since 2005 in case of DENV- 1 strains while no change was observed in recent years in case of DENV-3 strains. The study also revealed a change in the dominating serotype in Delhi, India in recent years. The study will be helpful in formulating control strategies for the outbreaks. In addition, it will also assist in tracking the movement and evolution of this emerging virus.
Project description:Dengue fever is a self-limiting, acute febrile disease which may aggravate to haemorrhage, plasma leakage and organ impairment in small number of cases. An outbreak of dengue fever occurred in Delhi, India after rainy season in the year 2013. Dengue virus specific RT-PCR was carried out on 378 suspected blood samples that were collected during the outbreak. Dengue virus was detected in 71% samples with highest number of patients infected by DENV-2 (86%) followed by DENV-1 (19 %) and DENV-3 (8%). Co-infection with more than one DENV serotype was detected in 14% samples. Twenty nine DENV strains (10 DENV-1, 12 DENV-2 and 7 DENV-3) were sequenced for partial envelope protein gene. Phylogenetic analysis grouped DENV-1 strains in the American African genotype, DENV-2 strains in the Cosmopolitan genotype and DENV-3 in Genotype III. We report the serotype distribution, circulating genotypes and partial envelope protein gene sequence of 29 DENV strains detected during 2013 outbreak in Delhi, India.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) evolution has had a significant impact on disease pathogenesis, virulence, and epidemiology in Mexico. Novel genotypic variation in DENV serotypes and genotypes may influence the magnitude and severity of dengue epidemics, as evidenced by 2009 data from Veracruz State. The data presented herein is related to the publication entitled "Epidemiological Implications of the Genetic Diversification of Dengue Virus (DENV) Serotypes and Genotypes in Mexico" . Raw data and trees provide epidemiological data on DENV prevalence and a comprehensive phylogeny of both representative sequences collected from an NCBI repository, and 28 additional isolates from acute-phase plasma samples diagnosed with dengue fever or severe dengue (Raw sequencing data is hosted in the public repository Mendeley Data (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/bf2kdhhf6x.2). Phylogenetic trees for each DENV serotype (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4) were constructed using these sequences by a maximum likelihood methodology as well as a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) integration approach. Phylogenetic trees exhibited: (1) DENV-1, genotype V, (2) the DENV-2 Asian/American and Asian II genotypes, (3) DENV-3, genotype III, and (4) DENV-4, genotype I. This data can be beneficial for future analyses on DENV serotype and genotype structure and the introduction of novel DENV genotype sequences in the Americas, for the further elucidation of dengue etiology.
Project description:The epidemiology of dengue in the South Pacific has been characterized by transmission of a single dominant serotype for 3-5 years, with subsequent replacement by another serotype. From 2001 to 2008 only DENV-1 was reported in the Pacific. In 2008, DENV-4 emerged and quickly displaced DENV-1 in the Pacific, except in New Caledonia (NC) where DENV-1 and DENV-4 co-circulated in 2008-2009. During 2012-2013, another DENV-1 outbreak occurred in NC, the third DENV-1 outbreak in a decade. Given that dengue is a serotype-specific immunizing infection, the recurrent outbreaks of a single serotype within a 10-year period was unexpected.This study aimed to inform this phenomenon by examining the phylogenetic characteristics of the DENV-1 viruses in NC and other Pacific islands between 2001 and 2013. As a result, we have demonstrated that NC experienced introductions of viruses from both the Pacific (genotype IV) and South-east Asia (genotype I). Moreover, whereas genotype IV and I were co-circulating at the beginning of 2012, we observed that from the second half of 2012, i.e. during the major DENV-1 outbreak, all analyzed viruses were genotype I suggesting that a genotype switch occurred.Repeated outbreaks of the same dengue serotype, as observed in NC, is uncommon in the Pacific islands. Why the earlier DENV-1 outbreaks did not induce sufficient herd immunity is unclear, and likely multifactorial, but the robust vector control program may have played a role by limiting transmission and thus maintaining a large susceptible pool in the population.