Co-infection of a hypovirulent isolate of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with a new botybirnavirus and a strain of a mitovirus.
ABSTRACT: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a notorious plant fungal pathogen, causes yield loss of many crops and vegetables, and is a natural host of a diverse viruses with positive-sense RNA (+ssRNA), negative-sense RNA (-ssRNA), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), or DNA genomes. Mixed-infection with multiple related or unrelated mycoviruses is a common phenomenon in S. sclerotiorum. However, a single strain co-infected with dsRNA and + ssRNA viruses has not been reported in S. sclerotiorum.We report two unrelated viruses, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum botybirnavirus 2 (SsBRV2) with a bipartite dsRNA genome and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mitovirus 4 (SsMV4/AH16) with a + ssRNA genome, which were originally detected in a single hypovirulent strain AH16 of S. sclerotiorum. SsMV4/AH16 has a typical genome of mitovirus and is a strain of mitovirus SsMV4. The genome of SsBRV2 consists of two separated dsRNA segments. The large dsRNA segment is 6159 bp in length and only has a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative 1868-aa polyprotein with a conserved RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. The small dsRNA segment is 5872 bp in length and encodes a putative 1778-aa protein. Phylogenetic analysis using RdRp conserved domain sequences revealed that SsBRV2 is phylogenetically related to the previously reported three bipartite viruses SsBRV1, Botrytis porri RNA virus 1 (BpRV1), and soybean leaf-associated botybirnavirus 1 (SlaBRV1). Electron microscopy demonstrated that SsBRV2 forms rigid spherical virions with a diameter of approximately 40 nm in infected mycelia. The virion of SsBRV2 was successfully introduced into a virus-free strain, which provides conclusive evidence that SsBRV2 confers hypovirulence on phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum.A bisegmented dsRNA virus (SsBRV2/AH16) and a nonsegmented + ssRNA virus (SsMV4/AH16) were characterized in a hypovirulent strain AH16 of S. sclerotiorum. SsMV4/AH16 is a strain of a reported mitovirus, whereas SsBRV2 is a new botybirnavirus. SsBRV2 is the causal agent of hypovirulence on S. sclerotiorum. Our findings supplied a first evidence that a single S. sclerotiorum strain is co-infected by dsRNA and + ssRNA mycoviruses.
Project description:Mycoviruses have been detected in all major groups of filamentous fungi, and their study represents an important branch of virology. Here, we characterized a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum megabirnavirus 1 (SsMBV1), in an apparently hypovirulent strain (SX466) of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Two similarly sized dsRNA segments (L1- and L2-dsRNA), the genome of SsMBV1, are packaged in rigid spherical particles purified from strain SX466. The full-length cDNA sequence of L1-dsRNA/SsMBV1 comprises two large open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), which encode a putative coat protein and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp domain clearly indicates that SsMBV1 is related to Rosellinia necatrix megabirnavirus 1 (RnMBV1). L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1 comprises two nonoverlapping ORFs (ORFA and ORFB) encoding two hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. The 5'-terminal regions of L1- and L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1 share strictly conserved sequences and form stable stem-loop structures. Although L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1 is dispensable for replication, genome packaging, and pathogenicity of SsMBV1, it enhances transcript accumulation of L1-dsRNA/SsMBV1 and stability of virus-like particles (VLPs). Interestingly, a conserved papain-like protease domain similar to a multifunctional protein (p29) of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 was detected in the ORFA-encoded protein of L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1. Phylogenetic analysis based on the protease domain suggests that horizontal gene transfer may have occurred from a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus (hypovirus) to a dsRNA virus, SsMBV1. Our results reveal that SsMBV1 has a slight impact on the fundamental biological characteristics of its host regardless of the presence or absence of L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1.Mycoviruses are widespread in all major fungal groups, and they possess diverse genomes of mostly ssRNA and dsRNA and, recently, circular ssDNA. Here, we have characterized a novel dsRNA virus (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum megabirnavirus 1 [SsMBV1]) that was isolated from an apparently hypovirulent strain, SX466, of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Although SsMBV1 is phylogenetically related to RnMBV1, SsMBV1 is markedly distinct from other reported megabirnaviruses with two features of VLPs and conserved domains. Our results convincingly showed that SsMBV1 is viable in the absence of L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1 (a potential large satellite-like RNA or genuine genomic virus component). More interestingly, we detected a conserved papain-like protease domain that commonly exists in ssRNA viruses, including members of the families Potyviridae and Hypoviridae. Phylogenetic analysis based on the protease domain suggests that horizontal gene transfer might have occurred from an ssRNA virus to a dsRNA virus, which may provide new insights into the evolutionary history of dsRNA and ssRNA viruses.
Project description:Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an important phytopathogenic fungus, harbors rich diversity of mycoviruses. Lately, more mycoviruses can be successfully and accurately discovered by deep sequencing, especially those that could not be detected by traditional double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extraction. Previously, we reported that the hypovirulent S. sclerotiorum strain SZ-150 is coinfected by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV1) and its related satellite RNA. Here, aside from SsHV1, we detected two other mycoviruses, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum botybirnavirus 3 (SsBV3/SZ-150) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycotymovirus 1 (SsMTV1/SZ-150), coinfecting strain SZ-150, by deep sequencing and assembly of mycovirus-derived small RNAs and determined their full-length genomes. The genome of SsBV3/SZ-150 was found to be composed of two linear dsRNA segments, 6,212, and 5,880 bp in size, respectively. Each dsRNA segment of SsBV3/SZ-150 contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a hypothetical protein. The whole genome of SsBV3/SZ-150 shares more than 95% sequence identity with Botrytis porri botybirnavirus 1 (BpBV1) at the nucleotide (nt) or amino acid level. Thus, SsBV3/SZ-150 was assumed to be a strain of BpBV1. The genome of SsMTV1/SZ-150 consists of 6,391 nt excluding the poly(A) tail. SsMTV1/SZ-150 was predicted to contain a large ORF that encodes a putative replication-associated polyprotein (RP) with three conserved domains of viral RNA methyltransferase, viral RNA helicase, and RdRp. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that SsMTV1/SZ-150 is related, albeit distantly, to members of the family Tymoviridae. Analysis of the small RNAs derived from SsBV3/SZ-150 and SsMTV1/SZ-150 revealed that small-RNA lengths mainly range from 20 to 24 nt, with a peak at 22 nt, and the most abundant 5'-terminal nucleotide is uridine, suggesting that the Dicer 2 and Argonaute 1, two key components in the RNA inference pathway, may play important roles in the resistance to mycoviral infection in S. sclerotiorum. Neither SsBV3/SZ-150 nor SsMTV1/SZ-150 is a causal agent of hypovirulence in strain SZ-150.
Project description:Mycoviruses are widespread in nature and often occur with dsRNA and positive-stranded RNA genomes. Recently, strong evidence from RNA sequencing analysis suggested that negative-stranded (-)ssRNA viruses could infect fungi. Here we describe a (-)ssRNA virus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), isolated from a hypovirulent strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The complete genome of SsNSRV-1 is 10,002 nt with six ORFs that are nonoverlapping and linearly arranged. Conserved gene-junction sequences that occur widely in mononegaviruses, (A/U)(U/A/C)UAUU(U/A)AA(U/G)AAAACUUAGG(A/U)(G/U), were identified between these ORFs. The analyses 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends showed that all genes can be transcribed independently. ORF V encodes the largest protein that contains a conserved mononegaviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. Putative enveloped virion-like structures with filamentous morphology similar to members of Filoviridae were observed both in virion preparation samples and in ultrathin hyphal sections. The nucleocapsids are long, flexible, and helical; and are 22 nm in diameter and 200-2,000 nm in length. SDS/PAGE showed that the nucleocapsid possibly contains two nucleoproteins with different molecular masses, ?43 kDa (p43) and ?41 kDa (p41), and both are translated from ORF II. Purified SsNSRV-1 virions successfully transfected a virus-free strain of S. sclerotiorum and conferred hypovirulence. Phylogenetic analysis based on RdRp showed that SsNSRV-1 is clustered with viruses of Nyamiviridae and Bornaviridae. Moreover, SsNSRV-1 is widely distributed, as it has been detected in different regions of China. Our findings demonstrate that a (-)ssRNA virus can occur naturally in fungi and enhance our understanding of the ecology and evolution of (-)ssRNA viruses.
Project description:Mycoviruses associated with hypovirulence are potential biological control agents and could be useful to study the pathogenesis of fungal host pathogens. Sclerotium rolfsii, a pathogenic fungus, causes southern blight in a wide variety of crops. In this study, we isolated a series of dsRNAs from a debilitated S. rolfsii strain, BLH-1, which had pronounced phenotypic aberrations including reduced pathogenicity, mycelial growth and deficient sclerotia production. Virus-curing and horizontal transmission experiments that eliminated or transmitted, respectively, all dsRNA elements showed that the dsRNAs were involved in the hypovirulent traits of BLH-1. Ultrastructure examination also showed hyphae fracture and cytoplasm or organelle degeneration in BLH-1 hyphal cells compared to the virus-free strain. Three assembled cDNA contigs generated from the cDNA library cloned from the purified dsRNA indicated that strain BLH-1 was infected by at least three novel mycoviruses. One has similarity to the hypovirulence-associated Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2 (SsHV2) in the family Hypoviridae, and the other two are related to two different unclassified dsRNA mycovirus families. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. rolfsii hypovirulence that was correlated with its associated dsRNA.
Project description:Infection by diverse mycoviruses is a common phenomenon in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, the full genome of a single-stranded RNA mycovirus, tentatively named Hubei sclerotinia RNA virus 1 (HuSRV1), was determined in the hypovirulent strain 277 of S. sclerotiorum. The HuSRV1 genome is 4492 nucleotides (nt) long and lacks a poly (A) tail at the 3'- terminus. Sequence analyses showed that the HuSRV1 genome contains four putative open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1a was presumed to encode a protein with a conserved protease domain and a transmembrane domain. This protein is 27% identical to the P2a protein encoded by the subterranean clover mottle virus. ORF1b encodes a protein containing a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain, which may be translated into a fusion protein by a -1 ribosome frameshift. This protein is 45.9% identical to P2b encoded by the sowbane mosaic virus. ORF2 was found to encode a putative coat protein, which shares 23% identical to the coat protein encoded by the olive mild mosaic virus. ORF3 was presumed to encode a putative protein with an unknown function. Evolutionary relation analyses indicated that HuSRV1 is related to members within Sobemovirus, but forms a unique phylogenetic branch, suggesting that HuSRV1 represents a new member within Solemoviridae. HuSRV1 virions, approximately 30 nm in diameter, were purified from strain 277. The purified virions were successfully introduced into virulent strain Ep-1PNA367, resulting in a new hypovirulent strain, which confirmed that HuSRV1 confers hypovirulence on S. sclerotiorum.
Project description:A recombinant strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2 (SsHV2) was identified from a North American Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolate (328) from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by high-throughput sequencing of total RNA. The 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of the genome were determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The assembled nucleotide sequence was up to 92% identical to two recently reported SsHV2 strains but contained a deletion near its 5' terminus of more than 1.2 kb relative to the other SsHV2 strains and an insertion of 524 nucleotides (nt) that was distantly related to Valsa ceratosperma hypovirus 1. This suggests that the new isolate is a heterologous recombinant of SsHV2 with a yet-uncharacterized hypovirus. We named the new strain Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2 Lactuca (SsHV2L) and deposited the sequence in GenBank with accession number KF898354. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolate 328 was coinfected with a strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum endornavirus 1 and was debilitated compared to cultures of the same isolate that had been cured of virus infection by cycloheximide treatment and hyphal tipping. To determine whether SsHV2L alone could induce hypovirulence in S. sclerotiorum, a full-length cDNA of the 14,538-nt viral genome was cloned. Transcripts corresponding to the viral RNA were synthesized in vitro and transfected into a virus-free isolate of S. sclerotiorum, DK3. Isolate DK3 transfected with SsHV2L was hypovirulent on soybean and lettuce and exhibited delayed maturation of sclerotia relative to virus-free DK3, completing Koch's postulates for the association of hypovirulence with SsHV2L.A cosmopolitan fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infects more than 400 plant species and causes a plant disease known as white mold that produces significant yield losses in major crops annually. Mycoviruses have been used successfully to reduce losses caused by fungal plant pathogens, but definitive relationships between hypovirus infections and hypovirulence in S. sclerotiorum were lacking. By establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus Lactuca (SsHV2L) infection and the reduction in host virulence, we showed direct evidence that hypoviruses have the potential to reduce the severity of white mold disease. In addition to intraspecific recombination, this study showed that recent interspecific recombination is an important factor shaping viral genomes. The construction of an infectious clone of SsHV2L allows future exploration of the interactions between SsHV2L and S. sclerotiorum, a widespread fungal pathogen of plants.
Project description:Various mycoviruses have been isolated from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Here, we identified a viral RNA sequence contig, representing a novel virus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum deltaflexivirus 2 (SsDFV2), from an RNA_Seq database. We found that SsDFV2 was harbored in the hypovirulent strain, 228, which grew slowly on potato dextrose agar, produced a few sclerotia, and could not induce typical lesions on detached rapeseed (Brassica napus) leaves. Strain 228 was also infected by Botrytis porri RNA Virus 1 (BpRV1), a virus originally isolated from Botrytis porri. The genome of SsDFV2 comprised 6711 nucleotides, excluding the poly (A) tail, and contained a single large predicted open reading frame encoding a putative viral RNA replicase. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SsDFV2 is closely related to viruses in the family Deltaflexiviridae; however, it also differs significantly from members of this family, suggesting that it may represent a new species. Further we determined that SsDFV2 could be efficiently transmitted to host vegetative incompatible individuals by dual culture. To our best knowledge, this is the first report that a (+) ssRNA mycovirus can overcome the transmission limitations of the vegetative incompatibility system, a phenomenon that may facilitate the potential use of mycoviruses for the control of crop fungal diseases.
Project description:Members of the family Partitiviridae have bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and are not generally known to cause obvious symptoms in their natural hosts. An unusual partitivirus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum partitivirus 1 (SsPV1/WF-1), conferred hypovirulence on its natural plant-pathogenic fungal host, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain WF-1. Cellular organelles, including mitochondria, were severely damaged. Hypovirulence and associated traits of strain WF-1 and SsPV1/WF-1 were readily cotransmitted horizontally via hyphal contact to different vegetative compatibility groups of S. sclerotiorum and interspecifically to Sclerotinia nivalis and Sclerotinia minor. S. sclerotiorum strain 1980 transfected with purified SsPV1/WF-1 virions also exhibited hypovirulence and associated traits similar to those of strain WF-1. Moreover, introduction of purified SsPV1/WF-1 virions into strain KY-1 of Botrytis cinerea also resulted in reductions in virulence and mycelial growth and, unexpectedly, enhanced conidial production. However, virus infection suppressed hyphal growth of most germinating conidia of B. cinerea and was eventually lethal to infected hyphae, since very few new colonies could develop following germ tube formation. Taken together, our results support the conclusion that SsPV1/WF-1 causes hypovirulence in Sclerotinia spp. and B. cinerea. Cryo-EM (cryo-electron microscopy) reconstruction of the SsPV1 particle shows that it has a distinct structure with similarity to the closely related partitiviruses Fusarium poae virus 1 and Penicillium stoloniferum virus F. These findings provide new insights into partitivirus biological activities and clues about molecular interactions between partitiviruses and their hosts.Members of the Partitiviridae are believed to occur commonly in their phytopathogenic fungal and plant hosts. However, most partitiviruses examined so far appear to be associated with latent infections. Here we report a partitivirus, SsPV1/WF-1, that was isolated from a hypovirulent strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and describe its biological and molecular features. We have demonstrated that SsPV1 confers hypovirulence. Furthermore, SsPV1 can infect and cause hypovirulence in Botrytis cinerea. Our study also suggests that SsPV1 has a vigorous ability to proliferate and spread via hyphal contact. SsPV1 can overcome vegetative incompatibility barriers and can be transmitted horizontally among different vegetative compatibility groups of S. sclerotiorum, even interspecifically. Cryo-EM reconstruction of SsPV1 shows that it has a distinct structure with similarity to closely related partitiviruses. Our studies exploit a novel system, SsPV1 and its hosts, which can provide the means to explore the mechanisms by which partitiviruses interact with their hosts.
Project description:We previously identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), the first (-) ssRNA mycovirus, associated with hypovirulence of its fungal host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, functional analysis of Open Reading Frame ? (ORF ?) of SsNSRV-1 was performed. The integration and expression of ORF ? led to defects in hyphal tips, vegetative growth, and virulence of the mutant strains of S. sclerotiorum. Further, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) responding to the expression of ORF ? were identified by transcriptome analysis. In all, 686 DEGs consisted of 267 up-regulated genes and 419 down-regulated genes. DEGs reprogramed by ORF ? were relevant to secretory proteins, pathogenicity, transcription, transmembrane transport, protein biosynthesis, modification, and metabolism. Alternative splicing was also detected in all mutant strains, but not in hypovirulent strain AH98, which was co-infected by SsNSRV-1 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV-1). Thus, the integrity of SsNSRV-1 genome may be necessary to protect viral mRNA from splicing and inactivation by the host. Taken together, the results suggested that protein ORF ? could regulate the transcription, translation, and modification of host genes in order to facilitate viral proliferation and reduce the virulence of the host. Therefore, ORF ? may be a potential gene used for the prevention of S. sclerotiorum.
Project description:A variety of mycoviruses have been found in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, we report a novel mycovirus S. sclerotiorum botybirnavirus 1 (SsBRV1) that was originally isolated from the hypovirulent strain SCH941 of S. sclerotiorum. SsBRV1 has rigid spherical virions that are ?38 nm in diameter, and three double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (dsRNA1, 2, and 3 with lengths of 6.4, 6.0, and 1.7 kbp, respectively) were packaged in the virions. dsRNA1 encodes a cap-pol fusion protein, and dsRNA2 encodes a polyprotein with unknown functions but contributes to the formation of virus particles. The dsRNA3 is dispensable and may be a satellite-like RNA of SsBRV1. Although phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp domain demonstrated that SsBRV1 is related to Botrytis porri RNA virus 1 (BpRV1) and Ustilago maydis dsRNA virus-H1, the structure proteins of SsBRV1 do not have any significant sequence similarities with other known viral proteins with the exception of those of BpRV1. SsBRV1 carrying dsRNA3 seems to have no obvious effects on the colony morphology, but can significantly reduce the growth rate and virulence of S. sclerotiorum. These findings provide new insights into the virus taxonomy, virus evolution and the interactions between SsBRV1 and the fungal hosts.