Safety and immunogenicity of meningococcal ACWY CRM197-conjugate vaccine in children, adolescents and adults in Russia.
ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial invasive infections in people aged <15 years in the Russian Federation. The aim of this phase III, multicenter, open-label study was to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine MenACWY when administered to healthy Russian subjects aged 2 years and above. A total of 197 subjects were immunized with a single dose of the vaccine, and serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity was measured pre and 1-month post-vaccination with human complement (hSBA) serum titers. Regardless of baseline serostatus, 1 month after a single dose of MenACWY-CRM197 85% (95%CI, 79-90%) of subjects showed serologic response against serogroup A, 74% (67-80%) against serogroup C, 60% (53-67%) against serogroup W, and 83% (77-88%) against serogroup Y. The percentage of subjects with hSBA titers ? 1:8 1 month after vaccination was 89% (83-93%) against serogroup A, 84% (78-89%) against serogroup C, 97% (93-99%) against serogroup W, and 88% (82-92%) against serogroup Y. Comparable results were obtained across all subjects: children (2 to 10 years), adolescents (11 to 17 years), and adults (?18 years). The MenACWY-CRM197 vaccine showed an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated across all age groups, with no serious adverse events or deaths reported during the study. In conclusion, a single dose of meningococcal MenACWY-CRM197 vaccine is immunogenic and has an acceptable safety profile, provides a broad protection against the most frequent epidemic serogroups, and is a suitable alternative to currently available unconjugated monovalent or bivalent polysaccharide vaccines in Russia.
Project description:This phase 3B, open-label, extension study (NCT01962207) evaluated long-term persistence of antibodies induced by the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT) compared with the meningococcal serogroup C vaccine conjugated to CRM (MenC-CRM) and the quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MenACWY-PS) 6 to 10 y after primary vaccination in toddlers (aged 1-<2 y; MenACWY-TT and MenC-CRM) and children (aged 2-<11 y; MenACWY-TT and MenACWY-PS). Antibody responses against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, and Y were assessed by serum bactericidal antibody assays using rabbit (rSBA) or human (hSBA) complement. A MenACWY-TT booster dose at Year 10 was given to all eligible subjects regardless of the primary vaccine received. At Year 10, the percentages of subjects with rSBA titers ?1:8 for serogroups A, C, W, and Y were as follows: MenACWY-TT (toddlers), 65.6%, 82.8%, 31.3%, 43.8%, respectively; MenC-CRM, 88.2% for serogroup C; MenACWY-TT (children), 88.9%, 84.1%, 67.1%, 65.9%; and MenACWY-PS, 28.6%, 81.0%, 23.8%, and 23.8%. Corresponding percentages for hSBA titers ?1:4 were as follows: MenACWY-TT (toddlers), 31.1%, 91.9%, 44.4%, 41.4%; MenC-CRM, 93.8% for serogroup C; MenACWY-TT (children), 34.8%, 91.1%, 61.2%, 72.6%; and MenACWY-PS, 33.3%, 100.0%, 26.3%, and 44.4%. One month after the MenACWY-TT booster, the percentage of subjects with vaccine response ranged from 75.7% to 100.0% across serogroups in all study groups. Postbooster vaccine responses were generally comparable between groups across serogroups. No new safety signals were identified. Antibody responses persisted 10 y after MenACWY-TT vaccination. The MenACWY-TT booster dose was well tolerated and elicited robust immune responses.
Project description:This phase 2 study assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of investigational formulations of meningococcal ABCWY vaccines, consisting of recombinant proteins (rMenB) and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) components of a licensed serogroup B vaccine, combined with components of a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). A total of 495 healthy adolescents were randomized to 6 groups to receive 2 doses (Months 0, 2) of one of 4 formulations of rMenB antigens, with or without OMV, combined with MenACWY-CRM, or 2 doses of rMenB alone or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then a placebo. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against serogroups ACWY and serogroup B test strains; solicited reactions and any adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Two MenABCWY vaccinations elicited robust ACWY immune responses, with higher seroresponse rates than one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Bactericidal antibody responses against the rMenB antigens and OMV components were highest in subjects who received 2 doses of OMV-containing MenABCWY formulations, with ?68% of subjects achieving hSBA titers ?5 against each of the serogroup B test strains. After the first dose, solicited local reaction rates were higher in the MenABCWY or rMenB groups than the MenACWY-CRM group, but similar across groups after the second dose, consisting mainly of transient injection site pain. Fever (?38.0°C) was rare and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. In conclusion, investigational MenABCWY formulations containing OMV components elicited highly immunogenic responses against meningococcal serogroups ACWY, as well as serogroup B test strains, with an acceptable safety profile. [NCT01210885].
Project description:Laboratory staff who work with meningococcal isolates are at increased risk for developing invasive disease relative to the general population. This was the first study of laboratory workers who received both a conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y (Men ACWY-CRM, Menveo) and an investigational multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B containing factor H binding protein, neisserial adhesin A, Neisseria heparin binding antigen, and New Zealand strain outer membrane vesicles (4CMenB). Healthy adults (18 to 50 years of age) received three doses of 4CMenB at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months followed by a single dose of MenACWY-CRM 1 month later. Immunogenicity was assessed via serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA) at 1 month postvaccination; solicited reactogenicity and adverse events were monitored. Fifty-four participants enrolled. Bactericidal immune responses were evident after each dose of 4CMenB, as assessed by hSBA geometric mean titers and percentages of subjects with hSBA titers of ?4 against the test strains or a 4-fold rise in titer over baseline. At 1 month postvaccination, most MenACWY-CRM recipients had hSBA titers of ?8 against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. Few participants discontinued due to an adverse event or vaccine reaction. Rates of solicited reactions were lower after MenACWY-CRM than after 4CMenB administration. Sequential administration of 4CMenB and MenACWY-CRM provided robust evidence of an immune response against serogroups A, B, C, W-135, and Y in laboratory workers routinely exposed to meningococcal isolates.
Project description:Effective vaccines offering broad protection to toddlers, who are at high risk for invasive meningococcal disease, are needed. Here, the immunogenicity, safety and antibody persistence of the tetravalent meningococcal ACWY tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) were evaluated in toddlers. Healthy participants aged 12 to 23 mo (n = 304) were randomized (3:1) to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT or a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MenC-CRM 197). Serum bactericidal activity was evaluated with assays using rabbit (rSBA) and human (hSBA) complement up to three years post-vaccination. MenACWY-TT was demonstrated to be non-inferior to MenC-CRM 197 in terms of immunogenicity to serogroup C, and the pre-specified immunogenicity criteria for serogroups A, W-135 and Y were met. Exploratory analyses suggested that rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs), hSBA GMTs and proportions of toddlers with rSBA titers ≥ 1:128 and hSBA titers ≥ 1:4 and ≥ 1:8 were higher for all serogroups at one month post-vaccination with MenACWY-TT compared with MenC-CRM 197. At three years post-vaccination, at least 90.8% and 73.6% of MenACWY-TT recipients retained rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 for all serogroups and hSBA titers ≥ 1:4 for serogroups C, W-135 and Y, respectively, but the percentages of toddlers with hSBA titers ≥ 1:4 for serogroup A decreased to 21.8%. In both groups, grade 3 adverse events were infrequently reported and no serious adverse events were considered causally related to vaccination. These results suggest that one single dose of MenACWY-TT induces a robust and persistent immune response and has an acceptable safety profile in toddlers.
Project description:Universal immunization of adolescents against meningococcal disease with a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY (MenACWY) conjugate vaccine is recommended in a number of countries.In a randomized, controlled, observer-blinded, multicenter trial, 1016 participants, 10-25 years of age, were randomly allocated 1:1:1 to receive a single dose of 1 of 2 lots of an investigational tetanus toxoid-conjugated MenACWY vaccine (MenACWY-TT) or a marketed diphtheria toxoid-conjugated MenACWY vaccine (MenACWY-DT). The primary outcome was the noninferiority of the vaccine response after MenACWY-TT (lot A) compared with MenACWY-DT for all 4 serogroups. Vaccine response was defined as a postvaccination human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) titer against each of the serogroups of at least 1:8 in persons initially seronegative (<1:4) or as a 4-fold increase in titer pre- to postvaccination in persons initially seropositive (?1:4). Adverse events (AEs) after immunization were measured 4 and 31 days postvaccination.The mean age of participants was 16.3 years; 977 (96.6%) completed the study. The noninferiority of MenACWY-TT (lot A) to the control vaccine in terms of the percentage of participants with hSBA vaccine response was demonstrated for each serogroup. Vaccine response rates ranged from 51.0% to 82.5% for the 4 serogroups after MenACWY-TT (both lots) compared with 39.0%-76.3% for the 4 serogroups after MenACWY-DT. Pain was the most common injection-site reaction reported by 50.8%-55.4% across the 3 groups. Fatigue and headache were the most common systemic solicited AEs, reported by 27.3%-29.2% and 25.5%-26.4%, respectively.Tetanus toxoid-conjugated MenACWY vaccine was well tolerated and elicited an immune response that was noninferior to that of a marketed MenACWY-DT (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01165242).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Invasive meningococcal disease is a major cause of meningitis in children. An investigational meningococcal (serogroups A, C, Y, and W) tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-TT) could offer protection against invasive meningococcal disease in this population. This phase III study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of MenACYW-TT in children compared with a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated with diphtheria protein CRM197 (MenACWY-CRM). METHODS:Healthy children 2-9 years of age in the United States, including Puerto Rico, were randomized (1:1) to receive MenACYW-TT (n = 499) or MenACWY-CRM (n = 501) (NCT03077438). Meningococcal antibody titers to the 4 vaccine serogroups were measured using a serum bactericidal antibody assay with human complement (hSBA) before and at day 30 after vaccination. Noninferiority between the vaccine groups was assessed by comparing seroresponse rates (postvaccination titers ?1:16 when prevaccination titers were <1:8, or ?4-fold increase if prevaccination titers were ?1:8) to the 4 serogroups at day 30. Safety was monitored. RESULTS:The proportion of participants achieving seroresponse at day 30 in the MenACYW-TT group was noninferior to the MenACWY-CRM group (A: 55.4% vs. 47.8%; C: 95.2% vs. 47.8%; W: 78.8% vs. 64.1%; Y: 91.5% vs. 79.3%, respectively). Geometric mean titers for serogroups C, W, and Y were higher with MenACYW-TT than for MenACWY-CRM. Both vaccines were well-tolerated and had similar safety profiles. CONCLUSIONS:MenACYW-TT was well-tolerated in children and achieved noninferior immune responses to MenACWY-CRM against each of the 4 vaccine serogroups.
Project description:Persistence of bactericidal antibodies following vaccination is extremely important for protection against invasive meningococcal disease, given the epidemiology and rapid progression of meningococcal infection. We present an analysis of antibody persistence and booster response to MenACWY-CRM, in adolescents, children and infants, from 7 clinical studies. Immunogenicity was assessed using the serum bactericidal assay with both human and rabbit complement. Post-vaccination hSBA titers were high, with an age- and serogroup-specific decline in titers up to 1 y and stable levels up to 5 y The waning of hSBA titers over time was more pronounced among infants and toddlers and the greatest for serogroup A. However, rSBA titers against serogroup A were consistently higher and showed little decline over time, suggesting that protection against this serogroup may be sustained. A single booster dose of MenACWY-CRM administered at 3 to 5 y induced a robust immune response in all age groups.
Project description:This open-label, multicenter extension study (NCT02451514) assessed persistence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups ABCWY antibodies 4 years after primary vaccination. Adolescents and young adults who previously received 2 doses of MenABCWY+OMV (Group III), 1 dose of MenACWY-CRM (Group VI), or newly-recruited vaccine-naïve participants (Group VII) were administered 1 (Group III) or 2 doses (Groups VI and VII) of MenABCWY+OMV, 1 month apart. Immunogenicity was assessed by human serum bactericidal assay (hSBA). Safety and reactogenicity were also evaluated. Percentages of participants with hSBA titers ?8 (serogroups ACWY), ?5 (serogroup B) and hSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were evaluated in all 129 enrolled participants (Group III: 33; Group VI: 46; Group VII: 50). Anti-ACWY antibody concentrations waned over 4 years post-vaccination, but remained above pre-vaccination concentrations. Similarly, levels of antibodies against serogroup B test strains also waned over 4 years post-vaccination, but remained above pre-vaccination concentrations for some strains. MenABCWY+OMV booster induced a robust anamnestic anti-ACWY response in Group III and VI and a good response against serogroup B test strains (?82%) in Group III. In serogroup B-naïve participants (Groups VI and VII), anti-B responses to 2 doses of MenABCWY+OMV were less homogenous and lower than in Group III. MenABCWY+OMV was reactogenic, but well-tolerated. No safety concerns were identified. These findings indicate that although antibodies against N. meningitidis serogroups ABCWY waned over 4 years post-vaccination, exposure to a MenABCWY+OMV booster dose elicits an anamnestic response in adolescents previously exposed to the same or another multivalent meningococcal vaccine.
Project description:The burden of invasive meningococcal disease is substantial in older adults in whom the case fatality rate is high. Travelers to regions with high rates of meningococcal disease, such as Hajj pilgrims, are at increased risk of meningococcal infection, and disease transmission from travelers to their close contacts has been documented. In younger individuals, meningococcal conjugate vaccines offer advantages over polysaccharide vaccines in terms of duration of protection and boostability, and induction of herd immune effects through reductions in nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococci. To date, few data are available evaluating meningococcal conjugate vaccine use in adults >55 years of age.To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y vaccine with all serogroups conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT, Nimenrix™, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) and a licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS, Mencevax™ GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) in adults >55 years of age.This was a phase IIIb, open-label, randomized (3:1), controlled study conducted at one study center in Lebanon. A total of 400 healthy adults between 56 and 103 years of age without previous MenPS or tetanus toxoid vaccination within the previous 5 years or meningococcal conjugate vaccination at any time previously were included. They received a single-dose vaccination with MenACWY-TT or MenPS with blood sampling before and 1 month after vaccination. The main outcome measures were serum bactericidal activity (rabbit complement source: rSBA) vaccine response (VR) rate [rSBA titer of ?1:32 in initially seronegative subjects (rSBA titer <1:8); ?4-fold increase in subjects with pre-vaccination rSBA titers between 1:8 and 1:128, and ?2-fold increase in subjects with pre-vaccination rSBA titers ?1:128]. The percentages of subjects with rSBA titers ?1:8 and ?1:128 and rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were assessed. Solicited adverse events were recorded for 4 days following vaccination, and all other adverse events, including the incidence of new onset chronic diseases, were recorded for 31 days after vaccination.One month after a single dose of MenACWY-TT, the rSBA VR rate in the MenACWY-TT group was 76.6 % for serogroup A, 80.3 % for serogroup C, 77.5 % for serogroup W-135 and 81.9 % for serogroup Y. VR rates in the MenPS group were 91.7, 84.8, 87.1 and 89.1 %, respectively. One month after vaccination, ?93.2 % of subjects in the MenACWY-TT group and ?93.9 % in the MenPS group had rSBA titers ?1:128. In each group, GMTs increased by ?13-fold for each serogroup. rSBA VR and GMTs tended to be lower in subjects who were over 65 years compared to 56-65 years of age. Only 6.3 % of MenACWY-TT recipients had anti-TT ?0.1 IU/ml prior to vaccination, increasing to 28.1 % post-vaccination. The rSBA GMTs were 1.9- to 4-fold higher in anti-TT responders. Each local and general solicited symptom was reported by no more than 3.0 % of subjects in either group. No serious adverse events were considered vaccine related.In adults 56 years of age and older, MenACWY-TT was immunogenic, with a vaccine response rate ?76 % and with ?93 % of subjects achieving rSBA titers ?1:128 against all four serogroups after a single dose. MenACWY-TT induced low anti-TT concentrations in this population, which deserves further study.
Project description:Purpose:Results from a post-marketing study to generate evidence on 1-year antibody persistence and safety following vaccination of infants from South Korea with the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine MenACWY-CRM. Materials and Methods:In this phase IV, open-label, multi-center study (NCT02446691), 128 infants received MenACWY-CRM at ages 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. One-year antibody persistence following the full vaccination course was evaluated (primary objective) for the four meningococcal serogroups (Men) by serum bactericidal activity assay using human or rabbit complement (hSBA/rSBA). Immune responses at 1-month post-vaccination and safety were also assessed. Results:The percentage of children with hSBA titers ?8 ranged between 94% (MenA) and 100% (MenY/W) 1-month post-vaccination, and from 39% (MenA) to 89% (MenY) 1-year post-vaccination. At least 99% and 92% of children had rSBA titers ?8 and ?128 against each meningococcal serogroup, 1-month post-vaccination. One-year post-vaccination, the percentage of children with rSBA titers ?8 and ?128 ranged from 54% (MenC) to 99% (MenA) and from 30% (MenC) to 98% (MenA). Geometric mean titers declined from 1-month to 1-year post-vaccination, when they varied between 6.8 (MenA) and 53.6 (MenW) by hSBA and between 17.2 (MenC) and 2,269.5 (MenA) by rSBA. At least one solicited and unsolicited adverse event was reported for 79% and 66% of children. Of 36 serious adverse events reported, none were vaccination-related. Conclusion:Antibody persistence (hSBA/rSBA titers ?8) was determined in 39%-99% of children 1 year after a 4-dose MenACWY-CRM series during infancy, with an acceptable clinical safety profile.