Induction of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by Glycyrrhiza Species Used for Women's Health: Differential Effects of the Michael Acceptors Isoliquiritigenin and Licochalcone A.
ABSTRACT: For the alleviation of menopausal symptoms, women frequently turn to botanical dietary supplements, such as licorice and hops. In addition to estrogenic properties, these botanicals could also have chemopreventive effects. We have previously shown that hops and its Michael acceptor xanthohumol (XH) induced the chemoprevention enzyme,quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in vitro and in vivo. Licorice species could also induce NQO1, as they contain the Michael acceptors isoliquiritigenin (LigC) found in Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG), G. uralensis (GU), G. inflata (GI), and licochalcone A (LicA) which is only found in GI. These licorice species and hops induced NQO1 activity in murine hepatoma (Hepa1c1c7) cells; hops ? GI > GG ? GU. Similar to the known chemopreventive compounds curcumin (turmeric), sulforaphane (broccoli), and XH, LigC and LicA were active dose-dependently; sulforaphane ? XH > LigC > LicA ? curcumin ? liquiritigenin (LigF). Induction of the antioxidant response element luciferase in human hepatoma (HepG2-ARE-C8) cells suggested involvement of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. GG, GU, and LigC also induced NQO1 in nontumorigenic breast epithelial MCF-10A cells. In female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with GG and GU, LigC and LigF were detected in the liver and mammary gland. GG weakly enhanced NQO1 activity in the mammary tissue but not in the liver. Treatment with LigC alone did not induce NQO1 in vivo most likely due to its conversion to LigF, extensive metabolism, and its low bioavailability in vivo. These data show the chemopreventive potential of licorice species in vitro could be due to LigC and LicA and emphasize the importance of chemical and biological standardization of botanicals used as dietary supplements. Although the in vivo effects in the rat model after four-day treatment are minimal, it must be emphasized that menopausal women take these supplements for extended periods of time and long-term beneficial effects are quite possible.
Project description:Estrogen chemical carcinogenesis involves 4-hydroxylation of estrone/estradiol (E1/E2) by P450 1B1, generating catechol and quinone genotoxic metabolites that cause DNA mutations and initiate/promote breast cancer. Inflammation enhances this effect by upregulating P450 1B1. The present study tested the three authenticated medicinal species of licorice [Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG), G. uralensis (GU), and G. inflata (GI)] used by women as dietary supplements for their anti-inflammatory activities and their ability to modulate estrogen metabolism. The pure compounds, liquiritigenin (LigF), its chalcone isomer isoliquiritigenin (LigC), and the GI-specific licochalcone A (LicA) were also tested. The licorice extracts and compounds were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by measuring inhibition of iNOS activity in macrophage cells: GI ? GG > GU and LigC ? LicA ? LigF. The Michael acceptor chalcone, LicA, is likely responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GI. A sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was employed to quantify estrogen metabolism by measuring 2-MeOE1 as nontoxic and 4-MeOE1 as genotoxic biomarkers in the nontumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. GG, GU, and LigC increased 4-MeOE1, whereas GI and LicA inhibited 2- and 4-MeOE1 levels. GG, GU (5 ?g/mL), and LigC (1 ?M) also enhanced P450 1B1 expression and activities, which was further increased by inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IFN-?). LicA (1, 10 ?M) decreased cytokine- and TCDD-induced P450 1B1 gene expression and TCDD-induced xenobiotic response element luciferase reporter (IC50 = 12.3 ?M), suggesting an antagonistic effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which regulates P450 1B1. Similarly, GI (5 ?g/mL) reduced cytokine- and TCDD-induced P450 1B1 gene expression. Collectively, these data suggest that, of the three licorice species that are used in botanical supplements, GI represents the most promising chemopreventive licorice extract for women's health. Additionally, the differential effects of the Glycyrrhiza species on estrogen metabolism emphasize the importance of standardization of botanical supplements to species-specific bioactive compounds.
Project description:Women are increasingly using botanical dietary supplements (BDS) to reduce menopausal hot flashes. Although licorice (Glycyrrhiza sp.) is one of the frequently used ingredients in BDS, the exact plant species is often not identified. We previously showed that in breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A), Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) and G. inflata (GI), and their compounds differentially modulated P450 1A1 and P450 1B1 gene expression, which are responsible for estrogen detoxification and genotoxicity, respectively. GG and isoliquiritigenin (LigC) increased CYP1A1, whereas GI and its marker compound, licochalcone A (LicA), decreased CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of the bioactive licorice compounds, the metabolism of LicA, and whether GG, GI, and/or pure LicA modulate NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in an ACI rat model. In addition, the effect of licorice extracts and compounds on biomarkers of estrogen chemoprevention (CYP1A1) as well as carcinogenesis (CYP1B1) was studied. LicA was extensively glucuronidated and formed GSH adducts; however, free LicA as well as LigC were bioavailable in target tissues after oral intake of licorice extracts. GG, GI, and LicA caused induction of NQO1 activity in the liver. In mammary tissue, GI increased CYP1A1 and decreased CYP1B1, whereas GG only increased CYP1A1 LigC may have contributed to the upregulation of CYP1A1 after GG and GI administration. In contrast, LicA was responsible for GI-mediated downregulation of CYP1B1 These studies highlight the polypharmacologic nature of botanicals and the importance of standardization of licorice BDS to specific Glycyrrhiza species and to multiple constituents.
Project description:Botanical dietary supplements contain multiple bioactive compounds that target numerous biological pathways. The lack of uniform standardization requirements is one reason that inconsistent clinical effects are reported frequently. The multifaceted biological interactions of active principles can be disentangled by a coupled pharmacological/phytochemical approach using specialized ("knock-out") extracts. This is demonstrated for hops, a botanical for menopausal symptom management. Employing targeted, adsorbent-free countercurrent separation, Humulus lupulus extracts were designed for pre- and postmenopausal women by containing various amounts of the phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and the chemopreventive constituent xanthohumol (XH). Analysis of their estrogenic (alkaline phosphatase), chemopreventive (NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 [NQO1]), and cytotoxic bioactivities revealed that the estrogenicity of hops is a function of 8-PN, whereas their NQO1 induction and cytotoxic properties depend on XH levels. Antagonization of the estrogenicity of 8-PN by elevated XH concentrations provided evidence for the interdependence of the biological effects. A designed postmenopausal hop extract was prepared to balance 8-PN and XH levels for both estrogenic and chemopreventive properties. An extract designed for premenopausal women contains reduced 8-PN levels and high XH concentrations to minimize estrogenic while retaining chemopreventive properties. This study demonstrates the feasibility of modulating the concentrations of bioactive compounds in botanical extracts for potentially improved efficacy and safety.
Project description:Hops contain the phytoestrogen, 8-prenylnaringenin, and the cytoprotective compound, xanthohumol (XH). XH induces the detoxification enzyme, NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in vitro; however, the tissue distribution of XH and 8-prenylnaringenin and their tissue-specific activity have not been analyzed.An orally administered hop extract and subcutaneously injected XH were administered to Sprague-Dawley rats over 4 days. LC-MS-MS analysis of plasma, liver, and mammary gland revealed that XH accumulated in liver and mammary glands. Compared with the low level in the original extract, 8-prenylnaringenin was enriched in the tissues. Hops and XH-induced NQO1 in the liver, while only hops reduced NQO1 activity in the mammary gland. Mechanistic studies revealed that hops modulated NQO1 through three mechanisms. In liver cells, (i) XH modified Kelch-like ECH-associated protein leading to nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) translocation and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation; (ii) hop-mediated ARE induction was partially mediated through phosphorylation of Nrf2 by PKC; (iii) in breast cells, 8-prenylnaringenin reduced NQO1 likely through binding to estrogen receptor?, recruiting Nrf2, and downregulating ARE-regulated genes.XH and 8-prenylnaringenin in dietary hops are bioavailable to the target tissues. While hops and XH might be cytoprotective in the liver, 8-prenylnaringenin seems responsible for hop-mediated NQO1 reduction in the mammary gland.
Project description:Long-term exposure to estrogens including those in traditional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of developing hormone-dependent cancers. As a result, women are turning to over-the-counter (OTC) botanical dietary supplements, such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and hops (Humulus lupulus), as natural alternatives to HRT. The two major mechanisms which likely contribute to estrogen and/or HRT cancer risk are: the estrogen receptor-mediated hormonal pathway; and the chemical carcinogenesis pathway involving formation of estrogen quinones that damage DNA and proteins, hence initiating and promoting carcinogenesis. Because, OTC botanical HRT alternatives are in widespread use, they may have the potential for chemopreventive effects on estrogen carcinogenic pathways in vivo. Therefore, the effect of OTC botanicals on estrogen-induced malignant transformation of MCF-10A cells was studied. Cytochrome P450 catalyzed hydroxylation of estradiol at the 4-position leads to an o-quinone believed to act as the proximal carcinogen. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of estradiol metabolites showed that 4-hydroxylation was inhibited by hops, whereas black cohosh was without effect. Estrogen-induced expression of CYP450 1B1 and CYP450 1A1 was attenuated by the hops extract. Two phenolic constituents of hops (xanthohumol, XH; 8-prenylnaringenin, 8-PN) were tested: 8-PN was a potent inhibitor, whereas XH had no effect. Finally, estrogen-induced malignant transformation of MCF-10A cells was observed to be significantly inhibited by hops (5 ?g/mL) and 8-PN (50 nmol/L). These data suggest that hops extracts possess cancer chemopreventive activity through attenuation of estrogen metabolism mediated by 8-PN.
Project description:Humulus lupulus L. (hops) is a popular botanical dietary supplement used by women as a sleep aid and for postmenopausal symptom relief. In addition to its efficacy for menopausal symptoms, hops can also modulate the chemical estrogen carcinogenesis pathway and potentially protect women from breast cancer. In the present study, an enriched hop extract and the key bioactive compounds [6-prenylnarigenin (6-PN), 8-prenylnarigenin (8-PN), isoxanthohumol (IX), and xanthohumol (XH)] were tested for their effects on estrogen metabolism in breast cells (MCF-10A and MCF-7). The methoxyestrones (2-/4-MeOE1) were analyzed as biomarkers for the nontoxic P450 1A1 catalyzed 2-hydroxylation and the genotoxic P450 1B1 catalyzed 4-hydroxylation pathways, respectively. The results indicated that the hop extract and 6-PN preferentially induced the 2-hydroxylation pathway in both cell lines. 8-PN only showed slight up-regulation of metabolism in MCF-7 cells, whereas IX and XH did not have significant effects in either cell line. To further explore the influence of hops and its bioactive marker compounds on P450 1A1/1B1, mRNA expression and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity were measured. The results correlated with the metabolism data and showed that hop extract and 6-PN preferentially enhanced P450 1A1 mRNA expression and increased P450 1A1/1B1 activity. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by the isolated compounds was tested using xenobiotic response element (XRE) luciferase construct transfected cells. 6-PN was found to be an AhR agonist that significantly induced XRE activation and inhibited 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced XRE activity. 6-PN mediated induction of EROD activity was also inhibited by the AhR antagonist CH223191. These data show that the hop extract and 6-PN preferentially enhance the nontoxic estrogen 2-hydroxylation pathway through AhR mediated up-regulation of P450 1A1, which further emphasizes the importance of standardization of botanical extracts to multiple chemical markers for both safety and desired bioactivity.
Project description:There are increasing interests in natural compounds for cancer chemoprevention. Blocking agents represent an important class of chemopreventive compounds. They prevent carcinogens from undergoing metabolic activation and thereby suppressing their interaction with cellular macromolecular targets.The effect of phenolic compounds isolated from Barleria cristata var. alba as chemopreventive agent was evaluated. The ethyl acetate fraction of B. cristata was subjected to different chromatographic techniques for isolation of its major phenolic compounds. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their potential to induce the cancer chemopreventive enzyme marker NAD(P)H quinonereductase 1 (NQO1) in murine Hepa-1c1c7 cell model.The ethyl acetate fraction of B. cristata var. alba yielded five known compounds identified as verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), dimethoxyverbascoside (3), p-hydroxy benzoic acid (4), and apigenin-7-O-glucoside (5). Among the tested compounds, isoverbascoside (2) was shown to potently induce the activity of the enzyme in a dose -dependent manner. As a functional assay for detoxification, compound 2 was the strongest to protect Hepa-1c1c7 against the toxicity of menadione, a quinone substrate for NQO1.This effect seemed to be attributed to the compound's potential to induce both the catalytic activity and protein expression of NQO1 as revealed by enzyme assay and Western blotting, respectively.
Project description:Phase II detoxification enzymes are known to play essential roles in the detoxification and elimination of activated carcinogens during tumor initiation, while apoptosis is one of the most important chemopreventive targets for inhibiting tumor promotion in cancer. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive activity of two plant extracts, the ethanolic extract of Adenocaulon himalaicum (AHE) and the butanolic fraction of AHE (AHB). Both, the AHE and AHB induced NQO1 activity and had relatively high chemoprevention indices (CI=12.4). The AHE and AHB were associated with increased NQO1 and HO-1 mRNA levels via Nrf2-ARE pathway activation. In addition, the AHB increased CYP1A1 activity through AhR-XRE pathway activation. We also found that the AHE and AHB induced apoptosis, as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, an increase in the sub-G0/G1 content, chromatin condensation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and p53 induction. These data suggest that AHE and AHB act as bifunctional inducers and that their chemopreventive effects result from the biphasic induction of phase II detoxification enzymes and apoptosis. Therefore, these results suggest that A. himalaicum plant extracts have potential for use as chemopreventive agents for the prevention and/or treatment of human cancers.
Project description:Thermodynamic parameters for GU pairs are important for predicting the secondary structures of RNA and for finding genomic sequences that code for structured RNA. Optical melting curves were measured for 29 RNA duplexes with GU pairs to improve nearest neighbor parameters for predicting stabilities of helixes. The updated model eliminates a prior penalty assumed for terminal GU pairs. Six additional duplexes with the 5'GG/3'UU motif were added to the single representation in the previous database. This revises the ?G°(37) for the 5'GG/3'UU motif from an unfavorable 0.5 kcal/mol to a favorable -0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, the ?G°(37) for the 5'UG/3'GU motif changes from 0.3 to -0.6 kcal/mol. The correlation coefficients between predicted and experimental ?G°(37), ?H°, and ?S° for the expanded database are 0.95, 0.89, and 0.87, respectively. The results should improve predictions of RNA secondary structure.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Licorice has been shown to possess cancer chemopreventive effects. However, glycyrrhizin, a major component in licorice, was found to interfere with steroid metabolism and cause edema and hypertension. The roasting process of licorice modifies the chemical composition and converts glycyrrhizin to glycyrrhetinic acid. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-carcinogenic effects of the ethanol extract of roasted licorice (EERL) and to identify the active compound in EERL. MATERIALS/METHODS: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of roasted and un-roasted licorice were prepared. The active fraction was separated from the methylene chloride (MC)-soluble fraction of EERL and the structure of the purified compound was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The anti-carcinogenic effects of licorice extracts and licochalcone A was evaluated using a MTT assay, Western blot, flow cytometry, and two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. RESULTS: EERL was determined to be more potent and efficacious than the ethanol extract of un-roasted licorice in inhibiting the growth of DU145 and MLL prostate cancer cells, as well as HT-29 colon cancer cells. The aqueous extracts of un-roasted and roasted licorice showed minimal effects on cell growth. EERL potently inhibited growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast, B16-F10 melanoma, and A375 and A2058 skin cancer cells, whereas EERL slightly stimulated the growth of normal IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells and CCD118SK fibroblasts. The MC-soluble fraction was more efficacious than EERL in inhibiting DU145 cell growth. Licochalcone A was isolated from the MC fraction and identified as the active compound of EERL. Both EERL and licochalcone A induced apoptosis of DU145 cells. EERL potently inhibited chemically-induced skin papilloma formation in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Non-polar compounds in EERL exert potent anti-carcinogenic effects, and that roasted rather than un-roasted licorice should be favored as a cancer preventive agent, whether being used as an additive to food or medicine preparations.