Efficient production of acetoin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by disruption of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and expression of NADH oxidase.
ABSTRACT: Acetoin is widely used in food and cosmetic industry as taste and fragrance enhancer. For acetoin production in this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae JHY605 was used as a host strain, where the production of ethanol and glycerol was largely eliminated by deleting five alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5) and two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes (GPD1 and GPD2). To improve acetoin production, acetoin biosynthetic genes from Bacillus subtilis encoding α-acetolactate synthase (AlsS) and α-acetolactate decarboxylase (AlsD) were overexpressed, and BDH1 encoding butanediol dehydrogenase, which converts acetoin to 2,3-butanediol, was deleted. Furthermore, by NAD(+) regeneration through overexpression of water-forming NADH oxidase (NoxE) from Lactococcus lactis, the cofactor imbalance generated during the acetoin production from glucose was successfully relieved. As a result, in fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain JHY617-SDN produced 100.1 g/L acetoin with a yield of 0.44 g/g glucose.
Project description:Serratia sp. T241, a newly isolated xylose-utilizing strain, produced three 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) stereoisomers. In this study, three 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (BDH1-3) and one glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) involved in 2,3-BD isomers formation by Serratia sp. T241 were identified. In vitro conversion showed BDH1 and BDH2 could catalyzed (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin into (2S,3S)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD, while BDH3 and GDH exhibited the activities from (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin to meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD. Four encoding genes were assembled into E. coli with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. E. coli expressing budAB-bdh1/2 produced meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD. Correspondingly, (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD were obtained by E. coli expressing budAB-bdh3/gdh. These results suggested four enzymes might contribute to 2,3-BD isomers formation. Mutants of four genes were developed in Serratia sp. T241. ?bdh1 led to reduced concentration of meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD by 97.7% and 87.9%. (2R,3R)-2,3-BD with a loss of 73.3% was produced by ?bdh3. Enzyme activity assays showed the decrease of 98.4% and 22.4% by ?bdh1 and ?bdh3 compared with the wild strain. It suggested BDH1 and BDH3 played important roles in 2,3-BD formation, BDH2 and GDH have small effects on 2,3-BD production by Serratia sp. T241.
Project description:Acetoin is a major extracellular product of Bacillus subtilis grown on glucose and other fermentable carbon sources. The enzymes responsible for the formation of acetoin, acetolactate synthase, and acetolactate decarboxylase are synthesized in detectable amounts only in cells that have reached stationary phase. We have cloned and sequenced the genes encoding these enzymes, alsS and alsD, as well as a gene, alsR, that regulates their expression. alsS and alsD appear to compose a single operon, while alsR is transcribed divergently from the alsSD operon. AlsR shows significant homology to the LysR family of bacterial activator proteins, and when alsR is disrupted the alsSD operon is not expressed. Transcriptional fusions to alsS and alsR revealed that AlsR is required for the transcription of the alsSD operon, which increases during stationary phase. Two mutations that cause increased expression of the alsSD operon have been isolated, cloned, and sequenced. They each change an amino acid in the AlsR protein.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acetoin (AC) and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) as highly promising bio-based platform chemicals have received more attentions due to their wide range of applications. However, the non-efficient substrate conversion and mutually transition between AC and 2,3-BD in their natural producing strains not only led to a low selectivity but also increase the difficulty of downstream purification. Therefore, synthetic engineering of more suitable strains should be a reliable strategy to selectively produce AC and 2,3-BD, respectively. RESULTS:In this study, the respective AC (alsS and alsD) and 2,3-BD biosynthesis pathway genes (alsS, alsD, and bdhA) derived from Bacillus subtilis 168 were successfully expressed in non-natural AC and 2,3-BD producing Corynebacterium crenatum, and generated recombinant strains, C. crenatum SD and C. crenatum SDA, were proved to produce 9.86 g L-1 of AC and 17.08 g L-1 of 2,3-BD, respectively. To further increase AC and 2,3-BD selectivity, the AC reducing gene (butA) and lactic acid dehydrogenase gene (ldh) in C. crenatum were then deleted. Finally, C. crenatumΔbutAΔldh SD produced 76.93 g L-1 AC in one-step biocatalysis with the yield of 0.67 mol mol-1. Meanwhile, after eliminating the lactic acid production and enhancing 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase activity, C. crenatumΔldh SDA synthesized 88.83 g L-1 of 2,3-BD with the yield of 0.80 mol mol-1. CONCLUSIONS:The synthetically engineered C. crenatumΔbutAΔldh SD and C. crenatumΔldh SDA in this study were proved as an efficient microbial cell factory for selective AC and 2,3-BD production. Based on the insights from this study, further synthetic engineering of C. crenatum for AC and 2,3-BD production is suggested.
Project description:Background:Cupriavidus necator is the best-studied knallgas (also termed hydrogen oxidizing) bacterium and provides a model organism for studying the production of the storage polymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Genetically engineered strains could be applied for the autotrophic production of valuable chemicals. Nevertheless, the efficiency of the catalyzed processes is generally believed to be lower than with acetogenic bacteria. Experimental data on the potential efficiency of autotrophic production with C. necator are sparse. Hence, this study aimed at developing a strain for the production of the bulk chemical acetoin from carbon dioxide and to analyze the carbon and electron yield in detail. Results:We developed a constitutive promoter system based on the natural PHB promoter of this organism. Codon-optimized versions of the acetolactate dehydrogenase (alsS) and acetolactate decarboxylase (alsD) from Bacillus subtilis were cloned under control of the PHB promoter in order to produce acetoin from pyruvate. The production process's efficiency could be significantly increased by deleting the PHB synthase phaC2. Further deletion of the other PHB synthase encoded in the genome (phaC1) led to a strain that produced acetoin with > 100% carbon efficiency. This increase in efficiency is most probably due to a minor amount of cell lysis. Using a variation in hydrogen and oxygen gas mixtures, we observed that the optimal oxygen concentration for the process was between 15 and 20%. Conclusion:To the best of our knowledge, this study describes for the first time a highly efficient process for the chemolithoautotrophic production of the platform chemical acetoin.
Project description:The alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene aldB is clustered with the genes for the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. It can be transcribed with BCAA genes under isoleucine regulation or independently of BCAA synthesis under the control of its own promoter. The product of aldB is responsible for leucine sensibility under valine starvation. In the presence of more than 10 microM leucine, the alpha-acetolactate produced by the biosynthetic acetohydroxy acid synthase IlvBN is transformed to acetoin by AldB and, consequently, is not available for valine synthesis. AldB is also involved in acetoin formation in the 2,3-butanediol pathway, initiated by the catabolic acetolactate synthase, AlsS. The differences in the genetic organization, the expression, and the kinetics parameters of these enzymes between L. lactis and Klebsiella terrigena, Bacillus subtilis, or Leuconostoc oenos suggest that this pathway plays a different role in the metabolism in these bacteria. Thus, the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase from L. lactis plays a dual role in the cell: (i) as key regulator of valine and leucine biosynthesis, by controlling the acetolactate flux by a shift to catabolism; and (ii) as an enzyme catalyzing the second step of the 2,3-butanediol pathway.
Project description:Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h(-1) optical density unit(-1)), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production.
Project description:(3S)-Acetoin and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol are important platform chemicals widely applied in the asymmetric synthesis of valuable chiral chemicals. However, their production by fermentative methods is difficult to perform. This study aimed to develop a whole-cell biocatalysis strategy for the production of (3S)-acetoin and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol from meso-2,3-butanediol. First, E. coli co-expressing (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, NADH oxidase and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was developed for (3S)-acetoin production from meso-2,3-butanediol. Maximum (3S)-acetoin concentration of 72.38 g/L with the stereoisomeric purity of 94.65% was achieved at 24 h under optimal conditions. Subsequently, we developed another biocatalyst co-expressing (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase for (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol production from (3S)-acetoin. Synchronous catalysis together with two biocatalysts afforded 38.41 g/L of (2S,3S)-butanediol with stereoisomeric purity of 98.03% from 40 g/L meso-2,3-butanediol. These results exhibited the potential for (3S)-acetoin and (2S,3S)-butanediol production from meso-2,3-butanediol as a substrate via whole-cell biocatalysis.
Project description:The genes involved in the 2,3-butanediol pathway coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, alpha-acetolactate synthase (alpha-ALS), and acetoin (diacetyl) reductase were isolated from Klebsiella terrigena and shown to be located in one operon. This operon was also shown to exist in Enterobacter aerogenes. The budA gene, coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, gives in both organisms a protein of 259 amino acids. The amino acid similarity between these proteins is 87%. The K. terrigena genes budB and budC, coding for alpha-ALS and acetoin reductase, respectively, were sequenced. The 559-amino-acid-long alpha-ALS enzyme shows similarities to the large subunits of the Escherichia coli anabolic alpha-ALS enzymes encoded by the genes ilvB, ilvG, and ilvI. The K. terrigena alpha-ALS is also shown to complement an anabolic alpha-ALS-deficient E. coli strain for valine synthesis. The 243-amino-acid-long acetoin reductase has the consensus amino acid sequence for the insect-type alcohol dehydrogenase/ribitol dehydrogenase family and has extensive similarities with the N-terminal and internal regions of three known dehydrogenases and one oxidoreductase.
Project description:Butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the superfamily of the medium-chain dehydrogenases and reductases and converts reversibly R-acetoin and S-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol, respectively. It is specific for NAD(H) as a coenzyme, and it is the main enzyme involved in the last metabolic step leading to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol in yeast. In this study, we have used the activity of Bdh1p in different forms-purified enzyme, yeast extracts, permeabilized yeast cells, and as a fusion protein (with yeast formate dehydrogenase, Fdh1p)-to transform several vicinal diketones to the corresponding diols. We have also developed a new variant of the delitto perfetto methodology to place BDH1 under the control of the GAL1 promoter, resulting in a yeast strain that overexpresses butanediol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase activities in the presence of galactose and regenerates NADH in the presence of formate. While the use of purified Bdh1p allows the synthesis of enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol, and (3R,4R)-3,4-hexanediol, the use of the engineered strain (as an extract or as permeabilized cells) yields mixtures of the diols. The production of pure diol stereoisomers has also been achieved by means of a chimeric fusion protein combining Fdh1p and Bdh1p. Finally, we have determined the selectivity of Bdh1p toward the oxidation/reduction of the hydroxyl/ketone groups from (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol/2,3-pentanedione and (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol/2,3-hexanedione. In conclusion, Bdh1p is an enzyme with biotechnological interest that can be used to synthesize chiral building blocks. A scheme of the favored pathway with the corresponding intermediates is proposed for the Bdh1p reaction.
Project description:Acetoin is a promising chemical compound that can potentially serve as a high value-added platform for a broad range of applications. Many industrial biotechnological processes are moving towards the use of yeast as a platform. The multi-auxotrophic yeast, Candida glabrata, can accumulate a large amount of pyruvate, but produces only trace amounts of acetoin. Here, we attempted to engineer C. glabrata to redirect the carbon flux of pyruvate to increase acetoin production.Based on an in silico strategy, a synthetic, composite metabolic pathway involving two distinct enzymes, acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC), was constructed, leading to the accumulation of acetoin in C. glabrata. Further genetic modifications were introduced to increase the carbon flux of the heterologous pathway, increasing the production of acetoin to 2.08 g/L. Additionally, nicotinic acid was employed to regulate the intracellular NADH level, and a higher production of acetoin (3.67 g/L) was obtained at the expense of 2,3-butanediol production under conditions of a lower NADH/NAD+ ratio.With the aid of in silico metabolic engineering and cofactor engineering, C. glabrata was designed and constructed to improve acetoin production.