Rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial for low tumour burden non-follicular indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402.
ABSTRACT: The rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial (RESORT; E4402) was a phase 3 randomized prospective trial comparing maintenance rituximab (MR) versus a retreatment (RR) dosing strategy in asymptomatic, low tumour burden indolent lymphoma. A planned exploratory sub-study compared the two strategies for small lymphocytic (SLL) and marginal zone lymphomas (MZL). Patients responding to rituximab weekly × 4 were randomized to MR (single dose rituximab every 3 months until treatment failure) or RR (rituximab weekly × 4) at the time of each progression until treatment failure. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTTF). Patients with SLL (n = 57), MZL (n = 71) and unclassifiable small B-cell lymphoma (n = 3) received induction rituximab. The overall response rate (ORR) was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI) 31-49%; SLL ORR 22·8%; MZL ORR 52·1%]; all 52 responders were randomized. At a median of 4·3 years from randomization, treatment failure occurred in 18/23 RR and 15/29 MR. The median TTTF was 1·4 years for RR and 4·8 years for MR (P = 0·012); median time to first cytotoxic therapy was 6·3 years for RR and not reached for MR (P = 0·0002). Survival did not differ (P = 0·72). In low tumour burden SLL and MZL patients responding to rituximab induction, MR significantly improved TTTF as compared with RR.
Project description:In low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL), maintenance rituximab (MR) has been shown to improve progression-free survival when compared with observation. It is not known whether MR provides superior long-term disease control compared with re-treatment rituximab (RR) administered on an as-needed basis. E4402 (RESORT) was a randomized clinical trial designed to compare MR against RR.Eligible patients with previously untreated low-tumor burden FL received four doses of rituximab, and responding patients were randomly assigned to either RR or MR. Patients receiving RR were eligible for re-treatment at each disease progression until treatment failure. Patients assigned to MR received a single dose of rituximab every 3 months until treatment failure. The primary end point was time to treatment failure. Secondary end points included time to first cytotoxic therapy, toxicity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).A total of 289 patients were randomly assigned to RR or MR. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, the estimated median time to treatment failure was 3.9 years for patients receiving RR and 4.3 years for those receiving MR (P = .54). Three-year freedom from cytotoxic therapy was 84% for those receiving RR and 95% for those receiving MR (P = .03). The median number of rituximab doses was four patients receiving RR and 18 for those receiving MR. There was no difference in HRQOL. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities were infrequent in both arms.In low-tumor burden FL, a re-treatment strategy uses less rituximab while providing disease control comparable to that achieved with a maintenance strategy.
Project description:In the Asia-Pacific region, treatment options are limited for patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). Rituximab is widely used in this setting when purine analog-based therapies are not appropriate. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib compared with rituximab in a randomized, open-label phase 3 study in predominantly Asian patients with relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL. Patients (N = 160) were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive 420 mg ibrutinib (n = 106) until disease progression (PD) or unacceptable toxicity or up to six cycles of rituximab (n = 54). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS); key secondary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. Rituximab-treated patients could crossover to receive ibrutinib after confirmed PD. At data cutoff, median treatment duration was 16.4 months for ibrutinib and 4.6 months for rituximab. Ibrutinib significantly improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.180, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.105-0.308). ORR was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) with ibrutinib (53.8%) than with rituximab (7.4%). At a median follow-up of 17.8 months, ibrutinib improved OS compared with rituximab (HR = 0.446; 95% CI: 0.221-0.900; P = 0.0206). Overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar between treatments and was not exposure-adjusted. With ibrutinib, most common AEs were diarrhea and platelet count decreased; with rituximab, most common AEs were neutrophil count decreased and platelet count decreased. Grade ≥3 AEs were reported in 82.7% of ibrutinib-treated patients and 59.6% of rituximab-treated patients. Ibrutinib improved PFS, ORR, and OS compared with rituximab and displayed a manageable safety profile in Asian patients with relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL.
Project description:Advanced marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is an incurable B-cell malignancy dependent on B-cell receptor signaling. The phase 2 PCYC-1121 study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of single-agent ibrutinib 560 mg/d in 63 patients with relapsed/refractory MZL treated with prior rituximab (RTX) or rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy (RTX-CIT). We report the final analysis of PCYC-1121 with median follow-up of 33.1 months (range: 1.4-44.6). Overall response rate (ORR) was 58%; median duration of response (DOR) was 27.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.1 to not estimable [NE]); median progression-free survival (PFS) was 15.7 months (95% CI: 12.2-30.4); and median overall survival (OS) was not reached (95% CI: NE to NE). Patients with prior RTX treatment had better outcomes (ORR: 81%; median DOR: not reached [95% CI: 12.2 to NE]; median PFS: 30.4 months [95% CI: 22.1 to NE]; median OS: not reached [95% CI: 30.3 to NE]) vs those with prior RTX-CIT treatment (ORR: 51%; DOR: 12.4 months [95% CI: 2.8 to NE]; PFS: 13.8 months [95% CI: 8.3-22.5]; OS: not reached [95% CI: NE to NE]). ORRs were 63%, 47%, and 62% for extranodal, nodal, and splenic subtypes, respectively. With up to 45 months of ibrutinib treatment, the safety profile remained consistent with prior reports. The most common grade ?3 event was anemia (16%). Exploratory biomarker analysis showed NF-?B pathway gene mutations correlated with outcomes. Final analysis of PCYC-1121 demonstrated long-term safety and efficacy of ibrutinib in patients with relapsed/refractory MZL, regardless of prior treatment or MZL subtype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01980628.
Project description:Lack of consensus for first-line marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) treatment and toxicities associated with currently available systemic therapies have inspired evaluation of immunotherapeutic agents yielding robust outcomes with improved tolerability. We previously reported durable efficacy with first-line lenalidomide and rituximab (R2 ) in follicular lymphoma, MZL and small lymphocytic lymphoma with a subsequent long-term follow-up shown here in MZL patients. This phase 2 investigator-initiated study included previously untreated, stage III/IV MZL patients treated with lenalidomide 20 mg/day on days 1-21 and rituximab 375 mg/m2 on day 1 of each 28-day cycle, continuing in responders for ?6-12 cycles. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR); secondary endpoints were complete and partial response (CR, PR), safety, and progression-free survival (PFS). The ORR was 93% with 70% attaining CR/CR unconfirmed. At median follow-up of 75·1 months, median PFS was 59·8 months and 5-year OS was 96%. Most non-haematological adverse events (AE) were grade 1/2. Grade 3 haematological AEs were neutropenia (33%) and leucopenia (7%), and grade 4 were leucopenia (3%) and thrombocytopenia (3%). Two patients died of secondary malignancies; no treatment-related fatalities occurred. With extended follow-up, outcomes for MZL patients receiving R2 were robust with no unexpected late or delayed toxicities.
Project description:R-CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) and R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone + rituximab) are immunochemotherapy regimens frequently used for remission induction of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHLs). Rituximab maintenance (RM) significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with complete/partial remission (CR/PR). Here we report the final results of a randomized study comparing R-CVP to R-CHOP both followed by RM. Untreated patients in need of systemic therapy with symptomatic and progressive iNHLs including follicular (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), small lymphocytic (SLL), and lymphoplasmacytic (LPL) lymphoma were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive R-CVP or R-CHOP for eight cycles or until complete response (CR). All patients with CR/PR (partial response) received RM 375 mg/m2 q 2 months for 12 cycles. Primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS). Two-hundred and fifty patients [FL 42%, MZL/MALT 38%, LPL/ Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (WM) 11%, SLL 9%] were enrolled and randomized (R-CHOP: 127, R-CVP: 123). Median age was 56 years (21-85), 44% were male, 90% were in stage III-IV, 43% of FL patients had a Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score ?3, and 33·4% of all patients had an IPI score ?3. At the end of induction treatment, the CR/PR rate was 43·6/50·9% and 36·3/60·8% in the R-CHOP and R-CVP groups (P = 0·218) respectively. After a median follow-up of 67, 66, and 70 months, five-year EFS was 61% vs. 56% (not significant), progression-free survival (PFS) was 71% vs. 69% (not significant) and overall survival (OS) was 84% vs. 89% in the R-CHOP vs. the R-CVP arm respectively. Grade III/IV adverse events (65 vs. 22) occurred in 40 (33·1%) and 18 (15·3%) patients, P = 0·001; neutropenia in 16 (11·6%) and 4 (3·4%) patients, P = 0·017; infection in 14 (10·7%) and 3 (2·5%) patients,; P = 0·011; and a second neoplasm in three versus seven patients., in the R-CHOP and the R-CVP groups respectively. This multicentre randomized study with >five-year follow-up shows similar outcome in patients with indolent lymphoma in need of systemic therapy treated with R-CVP or R-CHOP immunochemotherapy and rituximab maintenance in both arms. The minor toxicity of the R-CVP regimen makes it a reasonable choice for induction treatment, leaving other active agents like doxorubicin or bendamustin for second-line therapy.
Project description:Rituximab, bortezomib, modified hyper-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, dexamethasone (VcR-CVAD) induction chemoimmunotherapy and maintenance rituximab (MR) were evaluated for efficacy and safety in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group protocol E1405. Patients with previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma received VcR-CVAD chemotherapy every 21 days for 6 cycles, followed by MR for 2 years. Transplant-eligible patients had the option of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) consolidation instead of MR. The primary end point was the complete response (CR) rate to VcR-CVAD. The secondary end points were overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicities. Seventy-five eligible patients with a median age of 62 (range 40-76) were enrolled. The ORR was 95% and a CR was achieved in 68% of patients. After a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 3-year PFS and OS were 72% and 88%, respectively. No substantial difference in PFS or OS was observed between patients treated with MR (n = 44) vs ASCT (n = 22). There were no unexpected toxicities. VcR-CVAD produced high ORR and CR rates in mantle cell lymphoma. MR after VcR-CVAD induction performed similarly to ASCT and may improve response duration. Randomized clinical trials comparing MR against ASCT should be considered and randomized clinical trials evaluating bortezomib's contribution to conventional therapy are under way. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00433537.
Project description:Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal presentation of lymphoma; however, the data for outcomes of patients with subtypes other than diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are limited. Therefore, we analyzed overall survival (OS) of adult patients diagnosed with PCNSL by histologic subtype between 1998 and 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results. A total of 4375 patients were identified. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range: 18-96). DLBCL was the most common histology (N=3,091), followed by follicular lymphoma (FL, N=83), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL, N=64), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL, N=63), Burkitt lymphoma (BL, N=27), small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL, N=22), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, N=13) and others (N=1,012). The 5-year OS rates were 30% in DLBCL, 66% in FL, 33% in PTCL, 79% in MZL, 42% in BL, 38% in SLL and 45% in HL. Radiation alone showed similar OS compared to no treatment in DLBCL, BL and PTCL, while radiation alone was associated with similar OS to chemotherapy or chemo-radiation in FL and MZL. The outcomes of patients with PCNSL are unfavorable; with the exception of FL and MZL which can potentially show prolonged survival with surgical resection or radiation monotherapy.
Project description:Preclinical studies suggest that SNPs in the Fc gamma receptor (FCGR) genes influence response to rituximab, but the clinical relevance of this is uncertain.We prospectively obtained specimens for genotyping in the rituximab extended schedule or re-treatment trial (RESORT) study, in which 408 previously untreated, low tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL) patients were treated with single agent rituximab. Patients received rituximab in 4 weekly doses and responders were randomized to rituximab re-treatment (RR) upon progression versus maintenance rituximab (MR). SNP genotyping was performed in 321 consenting patients.Response rates to initial therapy and response duration were correlated with the FCGR3A SNP at position 158 (rs396991) and the FCGR2A SNP at position 131 (rs1801274). The response rate to initial rituximab was 71%. No FCGR genotypes or grouping of genotypes were predictive of initial response. A total of 289 patients were randomized to RR (n = 143) or to MR (n = 146). With a median follow-up of 5.5 years, the 3-year response duration in the RR arm and the MR arm was 50% and 78%, respectively. Genotyping was available in 235 of 289 randomized patients. In patients receiving RR (n = 115) or MR (n = 120), response duration was not associated with any FCGR genotypes or genotype combinations.Based on this analysis of treatment-naïve, low tumor burden FL, we conclude that the FCGR3A and FCGR2A SNPs do not confer differential responsiveness to rituximab.
Project description:Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a heterogeneous B-cell malignancy for which no standard treatment exists. MZL is frequently linked to chronic infection, which may induce B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, resulting in aberrant B-cell survival and proliferation. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib in previously treated MZL. Patients with histologically confirmed MZL of all subtypes who received ?1 prior therapy with an anti-CD20 antibody-containing regimen were treated with 560 mg ibrutinib orally once daily until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was independent review committee-assessed overall response rate (ORR) by 2007 International Working Group criteria. Among 63 enrolled patients, median age was 66 years (range, 30-92). Median number of prior systemic therapies was 2 (range, 1-9), and 63% received ?1 prior chemoimmunotherapy. In 60 evaluable patients, ORR was 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35-62). With median follow-up of 19.4 months, median duration of response was not reached (95% CI, 16.7 to not estimable), and median progression-free survival was 14.2 months (95% CI, 8.3 to not estimable). Grade ?3 adverse events (AEs; >5%) included anemia, pneumonia, and fatigue. Serious AEs of any grade occurred in 44%, with grade 3-4 pneumonia being the most common (8%). Rates of discontinuation and dose reductions due to AEs were 17% and 10%, respectively. Single-agent ibrutinib induced durable responses with a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with previously treated MZL, confirming the role of BCR signaling in this malignancy. As the only approved therapy, ibrutinib provides a treatment option without chemotherapy for MZL. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01980628.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The response rate and survival improvement for rituximab, a CD20-targeting monoclonal antibody, have been demonstrated in marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapeutic regimens, yet relapses still occur despite treatment completion. Thus, extending the period of remission in MZL patients remains an essential goal. This multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase II study evaluated the survival efficacy of 2 years of rituximab-maintenance therapy in patients with stage III-IV CD20-positive MZL who had responded to first-line R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone). The objective of this study was to determine whether rituximab maintenance following R-CVP warrants further investigation. METHODS:Prior to rituximab-maintenance therapy, patients received 6-8 cycles of first-line R-CVP therapy for stage III-IV MZL. Rituximab (375 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m2), and vincristine (1.4 mg/m2; maximum 2 mg) were administered via an intravenous infusion on day 1 of each 3-week cycle, while oral prednisolone (100 mg) was given on days 1-5 of each 3-week cycle. The patients who achieved complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) to R-CVP treatment, were prescribed rituximab-maintenance therapy which was administered intravenously at a dose of 375 mg/m2 every 8 weeks for up to 12 cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and treatment safety. RESULTS:47 patients were enrolled, of whom, 45 (96%) received rituximab-maintenance treatment. Fifteen (33%) patients had nodal MZL. Following R-CVP first-line therapy, 20 (44%), 22 (49%), and 3 (7%) patients achieved CR, PR, and SD, respectively. After a median follow-up of 38.2 months, their observed 3-year PFS rate was 81%. During the rituximab-maintenance, 6 PR and 1 SD patients achieved CR following the administration of R-CVP. Elevated LDH and the presence of B symptoms were found to be significant prognostic factors for PFS (P?=?0.003) and demonstrated a 3-year OS rate of 90%. Rituximab-maintenance therapy was well tolerated, and the common treatment-emergent adverse events were sensory neuropathy (18%), myalgia (13%), fatigue (9%), and neutropenia (9%). CONCLUSION:Rituximab-maintenance therapy following first-line R-CVP demonstrated good PFS in patients with stage III-IV MZL, in addition to a favorable toxicity profile. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01213095.