Notch Signaling Components: Diverging Prognostic Indicators in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a lethal and aggressive malignancy. Currently, the identities of prognostic and predictive makers of NSCLC have not been fully established. Dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in many human malignancies, including NSCLC. However, the prognostic value of measuring Notch signaling and the utility of developing Notch-targeted therapies in NSCLC remain inconclusive. The present study investigated the association of individual Notch receptor and ligand levels with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier plotte database. This online database encompasses 2437 lung cancer samples. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The results showed that higher Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, and DLL1 mRNA expression predicted better overall survival (OS) in lung ADC, but showed no significance in SCC patients. Elevated Notch3, JAG2, and DLL3 mRNA expression was associated with poor OS of ADC patients, but not in SCC patients. There was no association between Notch4 and OS in either lung ADC or SCC patients. In conclusion, the set of Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, DLL1 and that of Notch3, JAG2, DLL3 played opposing prognostic roles in lung ADC patients. Neither set of Notch receptors and ligands was indicative of lung SCC prognosis. Notch signaling could serve as promising marker to predict outcomes in lung ADC patients. The distinct features of lung cancer subtypes and Notch components should be considered when developing future Notch-targeted therapies.
Project description:Notch signaling is activated in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer cells because of overexpression of Notch3, but the role of Notch ligands has not been fully defined. On the basis of gene expression profiling of a panel of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, we found that the predominant Notch ligands were JAG1, JAG2, DLL1, and DLL3. Given that Notch ligands reportedly have overlapping receptor binding specificities, we postulated that they have redundant biological roles. Arguing against this hypothesis, we found that JAG1 and JAG2 were differentially regulated; JAG1 expression was dependent upon epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation in HCC827 cells, which require EGFR for survival, whereas JAG2 expression was EGFR-independent in these cells. Furthermore, HCC827 cells underwent apoptosis following depletion of JAG1 but not JAG2, whereas co-culture experiments revealed that depletion of JAG2, but not JAG1, enhanced the ability of HCC827 cells to chemoattract THP-1 human monocytes. JAG2-depleted HCC827 cells expressed high levels of inflammation-related genes, including interleukin 1 (IL1) and a broad range of IL1-regulated cytokines, which was attenuated by inhibition of IL1 receptor (IL1R). Our findings suggest that JAG1 and JAG2 have distinct biological roles including a previously undiscovered role for JAG2 in regulating the expression of cytokines that can promote antitumor immunity.
Project description:Notch family members were first identified as cell adhesion molecules by cell aggregation assays in Drosophila studies. However, they are generally recognized as signaling molecules, and it was unclear if their adhesion function was restricted to Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that a mouse Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) functioned as a cell adhesion molecule. We here investigated whether this adhesion function was conserved in the diversified mammalian Notch ligands consisted of two families, Delta-like (Dll1, Dll3 and Dll4) and Jagged (Jag1 and Jag2). The forced expression of mouse Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, and Jag2, but not Dll3, on stromal cells induced the rapid and enhanced adhesion of cultured mast cells (MCs). This was attributed to the binding of Notch1 and Notch2 on MCs to each Notch ligand on the stromal cells themselves, and not the activation of Notch signaling. Notch receptor-ligand binding strongly supported the tethering of MCs to stromal cells, the first step of cell adhesion. However, the Jag2-mediated adhesion of MCs was weaker and unlike other ligands appeared to require additional factor(s) in addition to the receptor-ligand binding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the function of cell adhesion was conserved in mammalian as well as Drosophila Notch family members. Since Notch receptor-ligand interaction plays important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to disorders, our finding will provide a new perspective on these issues from the aspect of cell adhesion.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is a major health concern as it ranks third in incidence and second major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. A leading cause of treatment failure has been attributed to cancer stem cells that can invariably resist existing chemotherapeutic regimens. Notch signaling pathway has been involved in the maintenance of stem cells besides being crucial in cell fate decision and embryonic development. This pathway has also been implicated in several human malignancies including colorectal cancer. We investigated mRNA expression of four Notch receptors (Notch1-4), five ligands (Jag1, Jag2, Dll1, Dll3, and Dll4), and four target genes (Hes1, Hes5, Hey1, and Hey2) using highly specific TaqMan gene expression assays in colorectal adenomas and cancers. Upregulated expression of Notch receptors ranged between 29 and 73% in colorectal cancers and between 11 and 56% in adenomas. Expression of Notch3 and Notch4 receptors was significantly higher in colorectal cancers compared to normal and adenoma tissues. The Jagged and Delta-like ligands were overexpressed between 25 and 52% in colorectal cancers, while in adenomas, it ranged between 0 and 33%. Combining the data for upregulation of receptors and ligands suggests that 86% colorectal cancers and 56% adenomas exhibited overexpression of Notch pathway genes in our cohort. Notch target genes were upregulated between 24 and 33% in colorectal cancers and between 11 and 22% in adenomas. Collating upregulation of Notch receptors and ligands with the target genes showed concordance in 58% colorectal tumors. Additionally, we evaluated expression of Notch receptors, ligands, and target genes with prognosis using the TCGA mRNA expression dataset. Patients overexpressing Notch3, Notch4, and Hey1 had significantly poorer overall survival relative to those having lower levels of these genes. Taken together, Notch signaling components are aberrantly overexpressed in colorectal tumors, and development of therapeutics targeting the Notch pathway may prove to be beneficial in the management of colorectal cancers.
Project description:The Delta-Notch pathway is a signal exchanger between adjacent cells to regulate numerous differentiation steps during embryonic development. Blood vessel formation by sprouting angiogenesis requires high expression of the Notch ligand DLL4 in the leading tip cell, while Notch receptors in the trailing stalk cells are activated by DLL4 to achieve strong Notch signaling activity. Upon ligand binding, Notch receptors are cleaved by ADAM proteases and gamma-secretase. This releases the intracellular Notch domain that acts as a transcription factor. There is evidence that also Notch ligands (DLL1, DLL4, JAG1, JAG2) are processed upon receptor binding to influence transcription in the ligand-expressing cell. Thus, the existence of bi-directional Delta-Notch signaling has been proposed. We report here that the Notch ligands DLL1 and JAG1 are processed in endothelial cells in a gamma-secretase-dependent manner and that the intracellular ligand domains accumulate in the cell nucleus. Overexpression of JAG1 intracellular domain (ICD) as well as DLL1-ICD, DLL4-ICD and NOTCH1-ICD inhibited endothelial proliferation. Whereas NOTCH1-ICD strongly repressed endothelial migration and sprouting angiogenesis, JAG1-ICD, DLL1-ICD and DLL4-ICD had no significant effects. Consistently, global gene expression patterns were only marginally affected by the processed Notch ligands. In addition to its effects as a transcription factor, NOTCH1-ICD promotes cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix in a transcription-independent manner. However, JAG1-ICD, DLL1-ICD and DLL4-ICD did not influence endothelial cell adhesion. In summary, reverse signaling of Notch ligands appears to be dispensable for angiogenesis in cellular systems.
Project description:NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3 and NOTCH4 are transmembrane receptors that transduce juxtacrine signals of the delta?like canonical Notch ligand (DLL)1, DLL3, DLL4, jagged canonical Notch ligand (JAG)1 and JAG2. Canonical Notch signaling activates the transcription of BMI1 proto?oncogene polycomb ring finger, cyclin D1, CD44, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, hes family bHLH transcription factor 1, hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1, MYC, NOTCH3, RE1 silencing transcription factor and transcription factor 7 in a cellular context?dependent manner, while non?canonical Notch signaling activates NF??B and Rac family small GTPase 1. Notch signaling is aberrantly activated in breast cancer, non?small?cell lung cancer and hematological malignancies, such as T?cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B?cell lymphoma. However, Notch signaling is inactivated in small?cell lung cancer and squamous cell carcinomas. Loss?of?function NOTCH1 mutations are early events during esophageal tumorigenesis, whereas gain?of?function NOTCH1 mutations are late events during T?cell leukemogenesis and B?cell lymphomagenesis. Notch signaling cascades crosstalk with fibroblast growth factor and WNT signaling cascades in the tumor microenvironment to maintain cancer stem cells and remodel the tumor microenvironment. The Notch signaling network exerts oncogenic and tumor?suppressive effects in a cancer stage? or (sub)type?dependent manner. Small?molecule ??secretase inhibitors (AL101, MRK?560, nirogacestat and others) and antibody?based biologics targeting Notch ligands or receptors [ABT?165, AMG 119, rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova?T) and others] have been developed as investigational drugs. The DLL3?targeting antibody?drug conjugate (ADC) Rova?T, and DLL3?targeting chimeric antigen receptor?modified T cells (CAR?Ts), AMG 119, are promising anti?cancer therapeutics, as are other ADCs or CAR?Ts targeting tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17, CD19, CD22, CD30, CD79B, CD205, Claudin 18.2, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)2, FGFR3, receptor?type tyrosine?protein kinase FLT3, HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor, NECTIN4, inactive tyrosine?protein kinase 7, inactive tyrosine?protein kinase transmembrane receptor ROR1 and tumor?associated calcium signal transducer 2. ADCs and CAR?Ts could alter the therapeutic framework for refractory cancers, especially diffuse?type gastric cancer, ovarian cancer and pancreatic cancer with peritoneal dissemination. Phase III clinical trials of Rova?T for patients with small?cell lung cancer and a phase III clinical trial of nirogacestat for patients with desmoid tumors are ongoing. Integration of human intelligence, cognitive computing and explainable artificial intelligence is necessary to construct a Notch?related knowledge?base and optimize Notch?targeted therapy for patients with cancer.
Project description:Various studies have assessed the clinicopathological and prognostic value of Notch1 and Notch3 expression in Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but their results remain controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to address the above issues by using a total of 19 studies involving 3663 patients. The correlations between Notch1 and Notch3 expression and clinicopathological features and NSCLC prognosis were analyzed. The meta-analysis indicated that higher expression of Notch1 was associated with greater possibility of lymph node metastasis and higher TNM stages. Moreover, patients with Notch1 overexpression and Notch3 overexpression showed significantly poor overall survival (Notch1: HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06-1.57, p = 0.468 and I(2)?= 0.0%; Notch3: HR, 1.57; 95%CI, 1.04-2.36, p = 0.445 and I(2)?= 0.0%). Furthermore, there are statistically significant association between overall survival of NSCLC patients and the expression of Notch signaling ligand DLL3 and target gene HES1. Our meta-analysis supports that Notch signaling is a valuable bio-marker to predict progression and targeting Notch signaling could benefit subpopulation of NSCLC patients.
Project description:The Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll3 are coexpressed in the presomitic mesoderm of mouse embryos. Despite their coexpression, mutations in Dll1 and Dll3 cause strikingly different defects. To determine if there is any functional equivalence, we replaced Dll1 with Dll3 in mice. Dll3 does not compensate for Dll1; DLL1 activates Notch in Drosophila wing discs, but DLL3 does not. We do not observe evidence for antagonism between DLL1 and DLL3, or repression of Notch activity in mice or Drosophila. In vitro analyses show that differences in various domains of DLL1 and DLL3 individually contribute to their biochemical nonequivalence. In contrast to endogenous DLL1 located on the surface of presomitic mesoderm cells, we find endogenous DLL3 predominantly in the Golgi apparatus. Our data demonstrate distinct in vivo functions for DLL1 and DLL3. They suggest that DLL3 does not antagonize DLL1 in the presomitic mesoderm and warrant further analyses of potential physiological functions of DLL3 in the Golgi network.
Project description:Notch genes play a critical role in mammary gland growth, development and tumorigenesis. In the present study, we have quantitatively determined the levels and mRNA expression patterns of the Notch receptor genes, their ligands and target genes in the postnatal mouse mammary gland. The steady state levels of Notch3 mRNA are the highest among receptor genes, Jagged1 and Dll3 mRNA levels are the highest among ligand genes and Hey2 mRNA levels are highest among expressed Hes/Hey target genes analyzed during different stages of postnatal mammary gland development. Using an immunohistochemical approach with antibodies specific for each Notch receptor, we show that Notch proteins are temporally regulated in mammary epithelial cells during normal mammary gland development in the FVB/N mouse. The loss of ovarian hormones is associated with changes in the levels of Notch receptor mRNAs (Notch2 higher and Notch3 lower) and ligand mRNAs (Dll1 and Dll4 are higher, whereas Dll3 and Jagged1 are lower) in the mammary gland of ovariectomized mice compared to intact mice. These data define expression of the Notch ligand/receptor system throughout development of the mouse mammary gland and help set the stage for genetic analysis of Notch in this context.
Project description:Notch signaling regulates cell fate selection during development in multiple organs including the lung. Previous studies on the role of Notch in the lung focused mostly on Notch pathway core components or receptor-specific functions. It is unclear, however, how Jagged or Delta-like ligands collectively or individually (Jag1, Jag2, Dll1, Dll4) influence differentiation of airway epithelial progenitors. Using mouse genetic models we show major differences in Jag and Dll in regulation and establishment of cell fate. Jag ligands had a major impact in balancing distinct cell populations in conducting airways, but had no role in the establishment of domains and cellular abundance in the neuroendocrine (NE) microenvironment. Surprisingly, Dll ligands were crucial in restricting cell fate and size of NE bodies and showed an overlapping role with Jag in differentiation of NE-associated secretory (club) cells. These mechanisms may potentially play a role in human conditions that result in aberrant NE differentiation, including NE hyperplasias and cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Notch intercellular communication instructs tissue-specific T-cell development and function. In this study, we explored the roles of dendritic cell (DC)-expressed Notch ligands in the regulation of T-cell effector function. METHODS:We generated mice with CD11c lineage-specific deletion of Notch Delta-like ligand (Dll)1 and Jagged (Jag)2. Using these genetically-ablated mice and engineered pharmacological Notch ligand constructs, the roles of various Delta-like and Jagged ligands in the regulation of T-cell-mediated immunity were investigated. We assessed tumor growth, mouse survival, cytokine production, immunophenotyping of myeloid and lymphoid populations infiltrating the tumors, expression of checkpoint molecules and T-cell function in the experimental settings of murine lung and pancreatic tumors and cardiac allograft rejection. Correlative studies were also performed for the expression of NOTCH ligands, NOTCH receptors and PD-1 on various subsets of myeloid and lymphoid cells in tumor-infiltrating immune cells analyzed from primary human lung cancers. RESULTS:Mice with CD11c lineage-specific deletion of Notch ligand gene Dll1, but not Jag2, exhibited accelerated growth of lung and pancreatic tumors concomitant with decreased antigen-specific CD8+T-cell functions and effector-memory (Tem) differentiation. Increased IL-4 but decreased IFN-? production and elevated populations of T-regulatory and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were observed in Dll1-ablated mice. Multivalent clustered DLL1-triggered Notch signaling overcame DC Dll1 deficiency and improved anti-tumor T-cell responses, whereas the pharmacological interference by monomeric soluble DLL1 construct suppressed the rejection of mouse tumors and cardiac allograft. Moreover, monomeric soluble JAG1 treatment reduced T-regulatory cells and improved anti-tumor immune responses by decreasing the expression of PD-1 on CD8+Tem cells. A significant correlation was observed between DC-expressed Jagged and Delta-like ligands with Tem-expressed PD-1 and Notch receptors, respectively, in human lung tumor-infiltrates. CONCLUSION:Our data show the importance of specific expression of Notch ligands on DCs in the regulation of T-cell effector function. Thus, strategies incorporating selectively engineered Notch ligands could provide a novel approach of therapeutics for modulating immunity in various immunosuppressive conditions including cancer.