Associations of total and free 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D with serum markers of inflammation in older men.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is hypothesized to suppress inflammation. We tested total and free vitamin D metabolites and their association with inflammatory markers. Interleukin-6 levels were lower with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and free 25OHD associations mirrored those of 25OHD. However, associations for the two metabolites diverged for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) soluble receptors.Vitamin D is hypothesized to suppress inflammation, and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and inflammatory markers are inversely correlated. However, total serum 25OHD may not be the best indicator of biologically active vitamin D.We tested serum total 25OHD, total 1,25(OH)2D, vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and estimated free 25OHD and free 1,25(OH)2D associations with inflammatory markers serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-? and their soluble receptors, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP) as continuous outcomes and the presence of ?2 inflammatory markers in the highest quartile as a dichotomous outcome, in a random subcohort of 679 men in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.IL-6 was lower in men with higher 25OHD (-0.23 ?g/mL per standard deviation (SD) increase in 25OHD, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) -0.07 to -0.38 ?g/mL) and with higher 1,25(OH)2D (-0.20 ?g/mL, 95 % CI -0.0004 to -0.39 ?g/mL); free D associations were slightly stronger. 25OHD and DBP, but not 1,25(OH)2D, were independently associated with IL-6. TNF-? soluble receptors were inversely associated with 1,25(OH)2D but positively associated with 25OHD, and each had independent effects. The strongest association with ?2 inflammatory markers in the highest quartile was for free 1,25(OH)2D (odds ratios (OR) 0.70, 95 % CI 0.54 to 0.89 per SD increase in free 1,25(OH)2D).Associations of 1,25(OH)2D and free 25OHD with IL-6 mirrored those of 25OHD, suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D and free D do not improve upon 25OHD in population-based IL-6 studies. However, associations for the two metabolites diverged for TNF-? soluble receptor, warranting examination of both metabolites in studies of TNF-? and its antagonists.
Project description:Preoperative anemia is considered an independent risk factor of poor clinical outcome in cardiac surgical patients. Low vitamin D status may increase anemia risk.We investigated 3,615 consecutive patients scheduled for cardiac surgery to determine the association between preoperative anemia (hemoglobin [Hb] <12.5 g/dL) and circulating levels of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D).Of the study cohort, 27.8 % met the criteria for anemia. In patients with deficient 25OHD levels (<30 nmol/l) mean Hb concentrations were 0.5 g/dL lower than in patients with adequate 25OHD levels (50.0-125 nmol/l; P<0.001). Regarding 1,25(OH)2D, mean Hb concentrations were 1.2 g/dL lower in the lowest 1,25(OH)2D category (<40 pmol/l) than in the highest 1,25(OH)2D category (>70 pmol/l; P<0.001). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses, the odds ratios for anemia of the lowest categories of 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D were 1.48 (95%CI:1.19-1.83) and 2.35 (95%CI:1.86-2.97), compared with patients who had adequate 25OHD levels and 1,25(OH)2D values in the highest category, respectively. Anemia risk was greatest in patients with dual deficiency of 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D (multivariable-adjusted OR = 3.60 (95%CI:2.40-5.40). Prevalence of deficient 25OHD levels was highest in anemia of nutrient deficiency, whereas low 1,25(OH)2D levels were most frequent in anemia of chronic kidney disease.This cross-sectional study demonstrates an independent inverse association between vitamin D status and anemia risk. If confirmed in clinical trials, preoperative administration of vitamin D or activated vitamin D (in case of chronic kidney disease) would be a promising strategy to prevent anemia in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery.
Project description:25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D) need to be bound to carrier proteins to be transported to their target cells. The majority of either 25OHD or 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D is bound to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), a smaller fraction is bound to albumin and only very small amounts of 25OHD or 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D are free. Albumin-bound 25OHD or 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D is relatively easily available after dissociation from albumin. Thus, the sum of free and albumin-bound forms is called bioavailable 25OHD and bioavailable 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D. Total 25OHD and 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D are defined as the sum of free, albumin-bound and DBP-bound 25OHD and 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D, respectively. This cross-sectional study in 427 pregnant women compared the correlation of the six vitamin D compounds with biomarkers of bone health, lipid metabolism, kidney function, endocrine parameters, and group B water-soluble vitamins. Among the 25OHD metabolites analysed, total 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D showed clearly the best correlation with calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, adiponectin, LDL, HDL, urea, thyroxine, and group B water-soluble vitamins. When comparing the three 25OHD metabolites, both free 25OHD and bioavailable 25OHD showed overall good correlations with calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, adiponectin, LDL, HDL, urea, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and group B water-soluble vitamins, The correlations of 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D and 25OHD metabolites went always in opposite directions. Only PTH correlates always inversely with all six vitamin D compounds. In conclusion, free 25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D are more precise determinants of the vitamin D status than total 25(OH)D in normal pregnancy, whereas total 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D is superior to free and bioavailable 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D. Except for PTH, correlations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D metabolites with typical clinical chemistry readouts go in opposite directions.
Project description:Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) plays a key role in the bioavailability of active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) and its precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), but accurate analysis of DBP-bound and free 25OHD and 1,25(OH)(2)D is difficult. To address this, two new mathematical models were developed to estimate: 1) serum levels of free 25OHD/1,25(OH)(2)D based on DBP concentration and genotype; 2) the impact of DBP on the biological activity of 25OHD/1,25(OH)(2)D in vivo. The initial extracellular steady state (eSS) model predicted that 50 nM 25OHD and 100 pM 1,25(OH)(2)D), <0.1% 25OHD and <1.5% 1,25(OH)(2)D are 'free' in vivo. However, for any given concentration of total 25OHD, levels of free 25OHD are higher for low affinity versus high affinity forms of DBP. The eSS model was then combined with an intracellular (iSS) model that incorporated conversion of 25OHD to 1,25(OH)(2)D via the enzyme CYP27B1, as well as binding of 1,25(OH)(2)D to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The iSS model was optimized to 25OHD/1,25(OH)(2)D-mediated in vitro dose-responsive induction of the vitamin D target gene cathelicidin (CAMP) in human monocytes. The iSS model was then used to predict vitamin D activity in vivo (100% serum). The predicted induction of CAMP in vivo was minimal at basal settings but increased with enhanced expression of VDR (5-fold) and CYP27B1 (10-fold). Consistent with the eSS model, the iSS model predicted stronger responses to 25OHD for low affinity forms of DBP. Finally, the iSS model was used to compare the efficiency of endogenously synthesized versus exogenously added 1,25(OH)(2)D. Data strongly support the endogenous model as the most viable mode for CAMP induction by vitamin D in vivo. These novel mathematical models underline the importance of DBP as a determinant of vitamin D 'status' in vivo, with future implications for clinical studies of vitamin D status and supplementation.
Project description:Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties and seems to reduce the risk of infections. Whether low vitamin D concentrations are independent risk factors for nosocomial postoperative infections in surgical patients remains to be studied in detail.In 3,340 consecutive cardiac surgical patients, we investigated the association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD; indicator of nutritional vitamin D status) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D; active vitamin D hormone) with nosocomicial infections. The primary endpoint was a composite of thoracic wound infection, sepsis, and broncho-pulmonary infection. Vitamin D status was measured on the last preoperative day. Infections were assessed until discharge. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between vitamin D metabolite concentrations and the composite endpoint.The primary endpoint was reached by 5.6% (n = 186). In patients who reached and did not reach the endpoint, in-hospital mortality was 13.4% and 1.5%, respectively (P<0.001). Median (IQR) 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations were 43. 2 (29.7-61.9) nmol/l and 58.0 (38.5-77.5) pmol/l, respectively. Compared with the highest 1,25(OH)2D quintile (>81.0 pmol/l), the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of infection was 2.57 (95%CI:1.47-4.49) for the lowest 1,25(OH)2D quintile (<31.5 pmol/l) and 1.85 (95%CI:1.05-3.25) for the second lowest quintile (31.5-49.0 pmol/l). There was no significant association between 25OHD concentrations and the primary endpoint.Our data indicate an independent association of low 1,25(OH)2D levels with the risk of postoperative infections in cardiac surgical patients. Future studies should pay more attention on the clinical relevance of circulating 1,25(OH)2D and its regulation.
Project description:PURPOSE:27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), an endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), drives the growth of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, is known to inhibit expression of CYP27B1, which is very similar in structure and function to CYP27A1, the synthesizing enzyme of 27HC. Therefore, we hypothesized that 1,25(OH)2D may also inhibit expression of CYP27A1, thereby reducing 27HC concentrations in the blood and tissues that express CYP27A1, including breast cancer tissue. METHODS:27HC, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and 1,25(OH)2D were measured in sera from 29 breast cancer patients before and after supplementation with low-dose (400 IU/day) or high-dose (10,000 IU/day) vitamin D in the interval between biopsy and surgery. RESULTS:A significant increase (p = 4.3E-5) in 25OHD and a decrease (p = 1.7E-1) in 27HC was observed in high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D subjects. Excluding two statistical outliers, 25OHD and 27HC levels were inversely correlated (p = 7.0E-3). CONCLUSIONS:Vitamin D supplementation can decrease circulating 27HC of breast cancer patients, likely by CYP27A1 inhibition. This suggests a new and additional modality by which vitamin D can inhibit ER+ breast cancer growth, though a larger study is needed for verification.
Project description:Previous work on vitamin D in the prostate has focused on the prostatic epithelium, from which prostate cancer arises. Prostatic epithelial cells are surrounded by stroma, which has well-established regulatory control over epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and the inflammatory response. Here we examined the regulation of vitamin D-related genes and inflammatory genes by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) in laser-capture microdissected prostate tissue from a vitamin D3 clinical trial and in an in vitro model that facilitates stromal-epithelial crosstalk. Analysis of the trial tissues showed that VDR was present in both cell types, whereas expression of the hydroxylases was the highest in the epithelium. Examination of gene expression by prostatic (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations showed that VDR was significantly lower in prostate tissues with the highest concentration of 1,25(OH)2D, and down-regulation of VDR by 1,25(OH) 2D was confirmed in the primary cell cultures. Analysis of inflammatory genes in the patient tissues revealed that IL-6 expression was the highest in the prostate stroma while PTGS2 (COX2) levels were lowest in the prostate cancer tissues from men in the highest tertile of prostatic 1,25(OH)2D. In vitro, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8 were suppressed by 1,25 (OH)2D in the primary epithelial cells, whereas TNF-? and PTGS2 were suppressed by 1,25(OH) 2D in the stromal cells. Importantly, the ability of 1,25(OH)2D to alter pro-inflammatory-induced changes in epithelial cell growth were dependent on the presence of the stromal cells. In summary, whereas both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate express VDR and can presumably respond to 1,25(OH)2D, the prostatic epithelium appears to be the main producer of 1,25(OH)2D. Further, while the prostate epithelium was more responsive to the anti-inflammatory activity of 1,25 (OH)2D than stromal cells, stroma-epithelial crosstalk enhanced the phenotypic effects of 1,25(OH)2D and the inflammatory process in the prostate gland.
Project description:Cigarette smoking is associated with increased inflammation and defective antibacterial responses in the airways. Interestingly, vitamin D has been shown to suppress inflammation and to improve antibacterial defense. However, it is currently unknown whether vitamin D may modulate inflammation and antibacterial defects in human cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed airways. To explore these unresolved issues, alveolar macrophages obtained from non-smoking and smoking subjects as well as human cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-treated THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) to address inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Although basal levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines did not differ between non-smoking and smoking subjects, 1,25(OH)2D did reduce levels of IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1 in alveolar macrophages in response to LPS/IFN-?, although not statistically significant for TNF-? and IL-6 in smokers. CSE did not significantly alter vitamin D metabolism (expression levels of CYP24A1 or CYP27B1) in THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, stimulation with 1,25(OH)2D reduced mRNA expression levels and/or protein levels of IL-8, TNF-? and MCP-1 in CSE-treated THP-1 macrophages. 1,25(OH)2D did not improve defects in phagocytosis of E. coli bacteria or the oxidative burst response in CSE-treated THP-1 macrophages or alveolar macrophages from smokers. However, 1,25(OH)2D significantly enhanced mRNA expression and/or protein levels of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in alveolar macrophages and THP-1 macrophages, independently of CS exposure. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that vitamin D could be a new strategy for attenuating airway inflammation and improving antibacterial defense in CS-exposed airways.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Limited data suggest that lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and uranium (U) may disrupt vitamin D metabolism and inhibit production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], the active vitamin D metabolite, from 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in the kidney.<h4>Objectives</h4>We evaluated the association between blood lead (BPb) and urine arsenic (As), Cd, molybdenum (Mo), thallium (Tl), and U with markers of vitamin D metabolism [25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D].<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cross-sectional study of 512 adolescents in Torreón, a town in Mexico with a Pb smelter near residential areas. BPb was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine As, Cd, Mo, Tl, and U were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay and a radioimmunoassay, respectively. Multivariable linear models with vitamin D markers as the outcome were used to estimate associations of BPb and creatinine-corrected urine As and metal concentrations with serum vitamin D concentrations, controlling for age, sex, adiposity, smoking, socioeconomic status, and time outdoors.<h4>Results</h4>Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with urine Mo and Tl [1.5 (95% CI: 0.4, 2.6) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.1) ng/mL higher with a doubling of exposure, respectively]. Serum 1,25(OH)2D was positively associated with urine As and U [3.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 5.9) and 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 3.7) pg/mL higher, respectively], with little change in associations after additional adjustment for serum 25(OH)D. Pb and Cd were not associated with 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D concentrations.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, our findings did not support a negative effect of As or metal exposures on serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Additional research is needed to confirm positive associations between serum 1,25(OH)2D and urine U and As concentrations and to clarify potential underlying mechanisms.
Project description:Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is a key factor in determining monocyte induction of the antimicrobial protein cathelicidin, which requires intracrine conversion of 25OHD to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]. Both vitamin D metabolites circulate bound to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), but the effect of this on induction of monocyte cathelicidin remains unclear.Human monocytes were cultured in medium containing 1) serum from DBP knockout (DBP(-/-)) or DBP(+/-) mice, 2) serum-free defined supplement reconstituted with DBP or albumin (control), and 3) human serum with different DBP [group-specific component [Gc]] genotypes with varying affinities for vitamin D metabolites. In each case, response to added 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 25OHD(3) was determined by measuring expression of mRNA for cathelicidin and 24-hydroxylase. Monocyte internalization of DBP was assessed by fluorescent tagging followed by microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of tagged DBP.Monocytes cultured in DBP(-/-) serum showed more potent induction of cathelicidin by 25OHD(3) or 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) when compared with DBP(+/-) serum. Likewise, DBP added to serum-free medium attenuated 25OHD(3)/1,25(OH)(2)D(3) responses. Fluorescently tagged DBP showed low-level uptake by monocytes, but this did not appear to involve a megalin-mediated mechanism. Human serum containing low-affinity Gc2-1S or Gc2-2, respectively, supported 2.75-fold (P = 0.003) and 2.43-fold (P = 0.016) higher induction of cathelicidin by 25OHD relative to cells cultured with high affinity Gc1F-1F.These data indicate that DBP plays a pivotal role in regulating the bioavailablity of 25OHD to monocytes. Vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial responses are therefore likely to be strongly influenced by DBP polymorphisms.
Project description:Surgical stress reduces concentrations of most proteins in serum and necessitates a rapid adjustment of hormones dependent on protein binding. Activation of vitamin D by renal 1?-hydroxylation is dependent on protein binding because 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) is formed after megalin-mediated reabsorption of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Postoperative alterations in serum concentrations of DBP and albumin may therefore impair 1,25(OH)2D3 production. Our objective was to determine sex-specific changes in serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and sex steroids 2, 6, 24, and 48 hours and 3 weeks postoperatively. Fourteen women and eleven men aged 45 to 77 years without severe comorbidities undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty participated in this prospective study in a tertiary center for arthroplasty (trial ID: NCT02336932). The main outcome measures were total and free serum concentrations of 25OHD, 1,25(OH)2D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, DBP, albumin, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), calcium, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Serum albumin and SHBG decreased postoperatively (?albumin48h -18% [-22%; -14%]). Unexpectedly, concentrations of DBP and 25OHD remained unaltered, but 1,25(OH)2D3 declined postoperatively. 1,25(OH)2D3 was 3 weeks after surgery -24% (-40%; -8%) lower than preoperative levels, whereas 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D remained unchanged in postmenopausal women. The calculated conversion rate of 25OHD to 1,25(OH)2D3 was strongly associated with serum 25-OHD and PTH preoperatively, whereas serum calcium was most predictive postoperatively. In conclusion, surgery had no effect on serum concentrations of DBP, 25OHD, and PTH, whereas production of 1,25(OH)2D3 was markedly reduced. Further studies are needed to determine duration and putative outcome effects of this postoperative 1,25(OH)2D3 deficit in women, which in part may be due to discordance in CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 activity.