Strategies for clinical trials in type 1 diabetes.
ABSTRACT: During the past one to two decades, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the immunopathology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the potential for immune interventions that can alter the natural history of the disease. This progress has resulted from the use of standardized study designs, endpoints, and, to a certain extent, mechanistic analyses in intervention trials in the setting of new-onset T1D. To date, most of these trials have involved single-agent interventions but, increasingly, future trials will test therapeutic combinations that are based on a compelling scientific rationale and testable mechanistic hypotheses. These increasingly complex trials will benefit from novel trial designs (such as factorial or adaptive designs), enhanced clinical endpoints that more directly assess islet pathology (such as ?-cell death assays and islet or pancreatic imaging), improved responder analyses, and sophisticated mechanistic assays that provide deep phenotyping of lymphocyte subsets, gene expression profiling, in vitro T cell functional assessments, and antigen-specific responses. With this developing armamentarium of enhanced trial designs, endpoints, and clinical and mechanistic response analyses, we can expect substantial progress in better understanding the breakdown in immunologic tolerance in T1D and how to restore it to achieve significant and long-lasting preservation of islet function.
Project description:We identified autoantibodies (AAb) reacting with a variant IA-2 molecule (IA-2var) that has three amino acid substitutions (Cys27, Gly608, and Pro671) within the full-length molecule. We examined IA-2var AAb in first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetes (T1D) probands from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study. The presence of IA-2var-specific AAb in relatives was associated with accelerated progression to T1D in those positive for AAb to GAD65 and/or insulin but negative in the standard test for IA-2 AAb. Furthermore, relatives with single islet AAb (by traditional assays) and carrying both IA-2var AAb and the high-risk HLA-DRB1*04-DQB1*03:02 haplotype progress rapidly to onset of T1D. Molecular modeling of IA-2var predicts that the genomic variation that alters the three amino acids induces changes in the three-dimensional structure of the molecule, which may lead to epitope unmasking in the IA-2 extracellular domain. Our observations suggest that the presence of AAb to IA-2var would identify high-risk subjects who would benefit from participation in prevention trials who have one islet antibody by traditional testing and otherwise would be misclassified as "low risk" relatives.
Project description:The addition of chemotherapeutic agents to ionizing radiation has improved survival in many malignancies. Cure rates may be further improved by adding novel targeted agents to current radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy regimens. Despite promising laboratory data, progress in the clinical development of new drugs with radiation has been limited. To define and address the problems involved, a collaborative effort between individuals within the translational research program of the Radiation Oncology Therapy Group and the National Cancer Institute was established. We discerned challenges to drug development with radiation including: 1) the limited relevance of preclinical work, 2) the pharmaceutical industry's diminished interest, and 3) the important individual skills and institutional commitments required to ensure a successful program. The differences between early-phase trial designs with and without radiation are noted as substantial. The traditional endpoints for early-phase clinical trials-acute toxicity and maximum-tolerated dose-are of limited value when combining targeted agents with radiation. Furthermore, response rate is not a useful surrogate marker of activity in radiation combination trials.Consequently, a risk-stratified model for drug-dose escalation with radiation is proposed, based upon the known and estimated adverse effects. The guidelines discuss new clinical trial designs, such as the time-to-event continual reassessment method design for phase I trials, randomized phase II "screening" trials, and the use of surrogate endpoints, such as pathological response. It is hoped that by providing a clear pathway, this article will accelerate the rate of drug development with radiation.
Project description:Previous studies suggest that children who progress to type 1 diabetes (T1D) later in life already have an altered serum lipid molecular profile at birth. Here, we compared cord blood lipidome across the three study groups: children who progressed to T1D (PT1D; n = 30), children who developed at least one islet autoantibody but did not progress to T1D during the follow-up (P1Ab; n = 33), and their age-matched controls (CTR; n = 38). We found that phospholipids, specifically sphingomyelins, were lower in T1D progressors when compared to P1Ab and the CTR. Cholesterol esters remained higher in PT1D when compared to other groups. A signature comprising five lipids was predictive of the risk of progression to T1D, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.83. Our findings provide further evidence that the lipidomic profiles of newborn infants who progress to T1D later in life are different from lipidomic profiles in P1Ab and CTR.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases among children in Western countries. Earlier metabolomics studies suggest that T1D is preceded by dysregulation of lipid metabolism. Here we used a lipidomics approach to analyze molecular lipids in a prospective series of 428 plasma samples from 40 children who progressed to T1D (PT1D), 40 children who developed at least a single islet autoantibody but did not progress to T1D during the follow-up (P1Ab) and 40 matched controls (CTR). Sphingomyelins were found to be persistently downregulated in PT1D when compared to the P1Ab and CTR groups. Triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines were mainly downregulated in PT1D as compared to P1Ab at the age of 3 months. Our study suggests that distinct lipidomic signatures characterize children who progressed to islet autoimmunity or overt T1D, which may be helpful in the identification of at-risk children before the initiation of autoimmunity.
Project description:We discuss group-sequential designs in superiority clinical trials with multiple co-primary endpoints, that is, when trials are designed to evaluate if the test intervention is superior to the control on all primary endpoints. We consider several decision-making frameworks for evaluating efficacy or futility, based on boundaries using group-sequential methodology. We incorporate the correlations among the endpoints into the calculations for futility boundaries and sample sizes as a function of other design parameters, including mean differences, the number of analyses, and efficacy boundaries. We investigate the operating characteristics of the proposed decision-making frameworks in terms of efficacy/futility boundaries, power, the Type I error rate, and sample sizes, while varying the number of analyses, the correlations among the endpoints, and the mean differences. We provide an example to illustrate the methods and discuss practical considerations when designing efficient group-sequential designs in clinical trials with co-primary endpoints.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by loss of insulin producing beta cells and reliance on exogenous insulin for survival. T1D is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and the incidence is increasing, especially in children less than 5 years of age. In individuals with a genetic predisposition, an unidentified trigger initiates an abnormal immune response and the development of islet autoantibodies directed against proteins in insulin producing beta cells. There are currently four biochemical islet autoantibodies measured in the serum directed against insulin, glutamic decarboxylase, islet antigen 2, and zinc transporter 8. Development of islet autoantibodies occurs before clinical diagnosis of T1D, making T1D a predictable disease in an individual with 2 or more autoantibodies. Screening for islet autoantibodies is still predominantly done through research studies, but efforts are underway to screen the general population. The benefits of screening for islet autoantibodies include decreasing the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis that can be life threatening, initiating insulin therapy sooner in the disease process, and evaluating safe and specific therapies in large randomized clinical intervention trials to delay or prevent progression to diabetes onset.
Project description:Drug development enterprise is struggling because of prohibitively high costs and slow progress. There is urgent need for adoption of novel adaptive designs to improve the efficiency and success of clinical trials. A major barrier is that many conventional designs are inadequate for modern drug development, yet most novel adaptive designs are difficult to understand, require complicated statistical modeling, demand complex computation, and need expensive infrastructure for implementation. The objective of this article is to introduce and review a class of novel adaptive designs, known as model-assisted designs, to remove this barrier and increase the use of novel adaptive designs. Model-assisted designs enjoy superior performance comparable to more complicated, model-based adaptive designs, but their decision rule can be pretabulated and included in the protocol-thus implemented as simply as the conventional designs. We review state-of-the-art model-assisted designs for phase I clinical trials for single-agent, drug-combination and late-onset toxicity scenarios. We also briefly introduce model-assisted designs for phase II trials to handle binary, coprimary endpoints and delayed response. Freely available user-friendly software and trial examples (trialdesign.org) facilitate the adoption of model-assisted designs.
Project description:The possible interrelations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ, non-HLA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and islet autoantibodies were investigated at clinical onset in 1-34-year-old type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients (n=305) and controls (n=203). Among the non-HLA SNPs reported by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium, 24% were supported in this Swedish replication set including that the increased risk of minor PTPN22 allele and high-risk HLA was modified by GAD65 autoantibodies. The association between T1D and the minor AA+AC genotype in ERBB3 gene was stronger among IA-2 autoantibody-positive patients (comparison P=0.047). The association between T1D and the common insulin (AA) genotype was stronger among insulin autoantibody (IAA)-positive patients (comparison P=0.008). In contrast, the association between T1D and unidentified 26471 gene was stronger among IAA-negative (comparison P=0.049) and IA-2 autoantibody-negative (comparison P=0.052) patients. Finally, the association between IL2RA and T1D was stronger among IAA-positive than among IAA-negative patients (comparison P=0.028). These results suggest that the increased risk of T1D by non-HLA genes is often modified by both islet autoantibodies and HLA-DQ. The interactions between non-HLA genes, islet autoantibodies and HLA-DQ should be taken into account in T1D prediction studies as well as in prevention trials aimed at inducing immunological tolerance to islet autoantigens.
Project description:Transplantation of pancreatic islets within a biomaterial device is currently under investigation in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Patients' preferences on such implants could guide the designs of next-generation implantable devices; however, such information is not currently available. We surveyed the preferences of 482 patients with T1D on the size, shape, visibility, and transplantation site of islet containing implants. More than 83% of participants were willing to receive autologous stem cells, and there was no significant association between implant fabricated by one's own stem cell with gender (<i>?</i> <sup>2</sup> (1, <i>n</i> = 468) = 0.28; <i>P</i> = 0.6) or with age (<i>?</i> <sup>2</sup> (4, <i>n</i> = 468) = 2.92; <i>P</i> = 0.6). Preferred location for islet transplantation within devices was under the skin (52.7%). 48.3% preferred microscopic disks, and 32.3% preferred a thin device (like a credit card). Moreover, 58.4% preferred the implant to be as small as possible, 25.4% did not care about visibility, and 16.2% preferred their implants not to be visible. Among female participants, 81% cared about the implant visibility, whereas this number was 64% for male respondents (<i>?</i> <sup>2</sup> test (1, <i>n</i> = 468) = 16.34; <i>P</i> < 0.0001). 22% of those younger than 50 years of age and 30% of those older than 50 did not care about the visibility of implant (<i>?</i> <sup>2</sup> test (4, <i>n</i> = 468) = 23.69; <i>P</i> < 0.0001). These results suggest that subcutaneous sites and micron-sized devices are preferred choices among patients with T1D who participated in our survey.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disorder resulting from immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreatic islets. Prediction of T1D is now possible, as having 2 or more islet autoantibodies confers a 100% risk of diabetes development. With the ability to predict disease development, clinical trials to prevent diabetes onset have been completed and are currently under way. This review focuses on the natural history, prediction, and prevention trials in T1D. We review the lessons learned from these attempts at preventing a chronic autoimmune disease and apply the paradigm from T1D prevention to other autoimmune disorders.