Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Drainage without Fluoroscopic Guidance for Extraluminal Complicated Cysts.
ABSTRACT: Background. Endoscopic ultrasound- (EUS-) guided drainage is generally performed under fluoroscopic guidance. However, improvements in endoscopic and EUS techniques and experience have led to questions regarding the usefulness of fluoroscopy. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of EUS-guided drainage of extraluminal complicated cysts without fluoroscopic guidance. Methods. Patients who had undergone nonfluoroscopic EUS-guided drainage of extraluminal complicated cysts were enrolled. Drainage was performed via a transgastric, transduodenal, or transrectal approach. Single or double 7 Fr double pigtail stents were inserted. Results. Seventeen procedures were performed in 15 patients in peripancreatic fluid collections (n = 13) and pelvic abscesses (n = 4). The median lesion size was 7.1?cm (range: 2.8-13.0?cm), and the mean time spent per procedure was 26.2 ± 9.8 minutes (range: 16-50 minutes). Endoscopic drainage was successful in 16 of 17 (94.1%) procedures. There were no complications. All patients experienced symptomatic improvement and revealed partial to complete resolution according to follow-up computed tomography findings. Two patients developed recurrent cysts that were drained during repeat procedures, with eventual complete resolution. Conclusion. EUS-guided drainage without fluoroscopic guidance is a technically feasible, safe, and effective procedure for the treatment of extraluminal complicated cysts.
Project description:Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has been increasingly reported as an alternative to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Moreover, conversion to EUS-BD can be a good alternative when transpapillary biliary drainage is technically possible but complicated by cholangitis because EUS-BD enables one-step internal drainage not traversing the tumor. Herein, we report a case of recurrent cholangitis due to hemobilia and cholecystitis due to tumor involvement to the cystic duct after transpapillary stent placement, which was successfully managed by conversion to EUS-BD and EUS-guided gallbladder drainage in one session.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Recently, the use of various endoscopic procedures under X-ray fluoroscopic guidance, such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), enteral endoscopy and stenting, has been rapidly increasing because of the minimally invasive nature of these procedures compared with that of surgical intervention. With the spread of CT and fluoroscopic interventions, including endoscopic procedures under X-ray guidance, high levels of radiation exposure (RE) from medical imaging have led to major concerns throughout society. However, information about RE related to these image-guided procedures in gastrointestinal endoscopy is scarce, and the RE reference levels have not been established. The aim of this study is to prospectively collect the actual RE dose and to help establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in the field of gastroenterology in Japan.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>This is a multicentre, prospective observational study that is being conducted to collect the actual RE from treatments and diagnostic procedures, including ERCP, interventional EUS, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, enteral metallic stent placement and enteral tube placement. We will measure the total fluoroscopy time (min), the total dose-area product (Gycm<sup>2</sup>) and air-kerma (mGy) of those procedures. Because we are collecting the actual RE data and identifying the influential factors through a prospective, nationwide design, this study will provide guidance regarding the DRLs of ERCP, interventional EUS, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, enteral metallic stent placement and enteral tube placement.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>Approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of Toyonaka Municipal Hospital (25 April 2019). The need for informed consent will be waived via the <i>opt-out</i> method of each hospital website.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>The UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000036525.
Project description:Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided drainage is widely used for the treatment of specific types of peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). Infectious complications have been reported. It is recommended that the infection rate should be assessed by measuring risk factors. The objectives of this study were to measure whether the risk of infection after EUS-guided drainage was associated with patient- and procedure-related factors.Eighty-three patients were eligible for inclusion from September 2008 to November 2012. EUS-guided drainage was performed in all patients. Infectious complications were observed, and data on patient- and procedure-related factors were collected. Patient-related factors mainly included age, sex, etiology of PFC, and cyst location and diameter. Procedure-related factors mainly included approach of EUS-guided drainage and stent diameter. Separate multivariate logistic regression models for all EUS-guided drainage were carried out.Complete EUS-guided drainage was achieved in all patients. A definitive diagnosis of infection after EUS-guided drainage was made in seven patients. All seven patients had a history of acute pancreatitis, and the cyst diameters were all >15 cm. Three patients had diabetes mellitus.The cyst diameter was an independent risk factor for infection. Larger cysts with a diameter >15 cm should perhaps be drained initially with multiple pigtail or a larger diameter self-expandable metal stents to try to avoid infection.
Project description:Background and study aims? Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) are increasingly used for drainage of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON). Recent studies suggested greater adverse event (AE) rates with LAMS for WON. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the safety and efficacy of LAMS with double-pigtail plastic stents (DPPS) for endoscopic drainage of WON. The primary aim was to evaluate stent-related AEs. Methods? In October 2019, we searched the Ovid (Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane) and Scopus databases for studies assessing a specific LAMS or DPPS for WON drainage conducted under EUS guidance. Safety outcomes were AE rates of bleeding, stent migration, perforation, and stent occlusion. Efficacy outcomes were WON resolution and number of procedures needed to achieve resolution. A subanalysis including non-EUS-guided cases was performed. Results? Thirty studies including one randomized controlled trial (total 1,524 patients) were analyzed. LAMS were associated with similar bleeding (2.5?% vs. 4.6?%, P?=? 0.39) and perforation risk (0.5?% vs. 1.1?%, P?=? 0.35) compared to DPPS. WON resolution (87.4?% vs. 87.5?%, P?=? 0.99), number of procedures to achieve resolution (2.09 vs. 1.88, P?=? 0.72), stent migration (5.9?% vs. 6.8?%, P?=? 0.79), and stent occlusion (3.8?% vs. 5.2?%, P?=? 0.78) were similar for both groups. Inclusion of non-EUS-guided cases led to significantly higher DPPS bleeding and perforation rates. Conclusions? LAMS and DPPS were associated with similar rates of AEs and WON resolution when limiting analysis to EUS-guided cases. Higher bleeding rates were seen in historical studies of DPPS without EUS guidance. Additional high-quality studies of WON treatment using consistent outcome definitions are needed.
Project description:Background and Objectives:Ethanol retention therapy (ERT) under EUS guidance or a percutaneous approach is a safe treatment for large symptomatic hepatic cysts. However, reports on the long-term outcomes after ERT are very rare. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of ERT in symptomatic large hepatic cysts. Materials and Methods:A total of 47 consecutive patients with large symptomatic hepatic cysts treated at the Asan Medical Center from April 2009 to October 2017 were analyzed. Thirty patients with right hepatic cysts were treated with ERT through a percutaneous approach, and 14 patients with left hepatic cysts were treated with ERT under EUS guidance. Three patients were treated with ERT using both methods. Results:Of the 47 patients, 43 (91%) showed complete regression and four (9%) showed partial regression on abdominal computed tomography. Recurrence of the cysts was not observed during the follow-up surveillance of a median of 66 months. Conclusions:Percutaneous catheter drainage-guided ERT and EUS-guided ERT, based on their favorable long-term outcomes, may be considered as first-line treatments in patients with large symptomatic hepatic cysts.
Project description:Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is now firmly established as one of the essential tools for diagnosis in most gastrointestinal MDTs across the UK. However, the ability to provide therapy with EUS has resulted in a significant impact on the management of the patients. These include drainage of peripancreatic collections, EUS-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram, EUS-guided coeliac plexus blocks, etc. The rapid development of this area in endoscopy is a combination of newer tools and increasing expertise by endosonographers to push the boundaries of intervention with EUS. However, the indications are limited and we are at the start of the learning curve for these high-risk procedures. These therapies should, therefore, be confined to centres with a robust multidisciplinary team, including interventional endoscopists, radiologists and surgeons.
Project description:Background and Objectives:Biliary drainage (BD) under EUS guidance is usually indicated for malignant biliary obstruction. Recently, EUS-guided transluminal treatment has been applied to benign biliary disease (BBD). This multicenter retrospective study evaluated the clinical impact of EUS-guided transluminal stent deployment for BBD with long-term follow-up. Patients and Methods:This retrospective study investigated patients treated between September 2015 and October 2016 at participating hospitals in the therapeutic endoscopic group. The inclusion criteria comprised complications with BBD obstructive jaundice or cholangitis and failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or inaccessible ampulla of Vater. Results:Twenty-six patients underwent EUS-guided transluminal stent deployment. Indications for EUS-guided transluminal stent deployment comprised anastomotic biliary stricture (n = 17), bile duct stones (n = 5), inflammatory biliary stricture (n = 3), and acute pancreatitis prevention (n = 1). Thirteen of these 26 patients underwent scheduled reintervention, with technical success achieved in all 13 patients. None of the deployed stents became dysfunctional. Among the 13 patients who underwent reintervention on demand, stents had become dysfunctional in six patients (stent patency: 48, 90, 172, 288, 289, and 608 days). Reintervention was successfully performed in all patients. During follow-up (median, 749 days), severe adverse events were not seen in any patients. Conclusion:We concluded that EUS-guided transluminal stent deployment for BBD is feasible and safe. Because metal stent dysfunction was more frequent when deployed on demand, such stents should be exchanged for plastic stents in a scheduled manner if a metal stent is used.
Project description:Pancreatic cancers are usually detected at an advanced stage and have poor prognosis. About one fifth of these arise from pancreatic cystic lesions. Yet not all lesions are precancerous, and imaging tools lack adequate accuracy for distinguishing precancerous from benign cysts. Therefore, decisions on surgical resection usually rely on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Unfortunately, cyst fluid often contains few cells, and fluid chemical analysis lacks accuracy, resulting in dire consequences, including unnecessary pancreatic surgery for benign cysts and the development of cancer. Here, we report an optical spectroscopic technique, based on a spatial gating fibre-optic probe, that predicts the malignant potential of pancreatic cystic lesions during routine diagnostic EUS-FNA procedures. In a double-blind prospective study in 25 patients, with 14 cysts measured in vivo and 13 postoperatively, the technique achieved an overall accuracy of 95%, with a 95%confidence interval of 78-99%, in cysts with definitive diagnosis.
Project description:We report a case of a woman with a medical history of classic Whipple surgery who underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided pancreatic drainage due to smouldering acute pancreatitis secondary to an obstructing pancreatic ductal stone. A gastro-pancreaticojejunostomy anastomosis was created anterogradely, with dilation of both the anastomoses in the same procedure, with subsequent decompression of the pancreatic duct. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) is often impossible to perform in patients with post-Whipple procedure anatomy due to inaccessibility to the pancreaticojejunostomy anastomosis. EUS-guided pancreatic drainage may be offered in these patients in whom the pancreatic duct cannot be accessed at ERP. It has been used as a platform for access to and drainage of the pancreatic duct either by rendezvous or transmural drainage. However, only one of four patients achieve successful completion of the rendezvous procedure. There are limited data regarding safety and long-term outcome of this procedure, as well as scant guidelines on the optimal time for leaving stents in place. We believe definitive endoscopic therapy should be attempted, whenever possible, after relief of obstruction. In our case, we expect that stent occlusion is inevitable and that long-term drainage is possible due to drainage occurring between the stent and the stone.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There is a lack of consensus on how endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided pseudocyst drainage should be performed. This survey was carried out amongst members of the Asian Endoscopic Ultrasonography Group (AEG) to describe their practices in performing this procedure. METHODS: This was an Asia wide multi-institutional survey amongst members of the Asian EUS group conducted between November and December 2013. The responses to a 19-question survey with regard to the practice of pseudocyst drainage were obtained. RESULTS: In total, 19 endoscopists responded to the questionnaire and the mean (SD) number of procedures performed by each endoscopist was 87.95 (40); 42.2?% believed that prior endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is required and pancreatic duct stenting is indicated in patients with pancreatic duct disruption; 47.4?% used tapered catheters for track dilation and 42.1?% used the cystotome; 84.1?% would dilate the track up to 8 to 10?mm in size. Metallic stents were used by 10.5?% of the respondents and transcystic catheters were employed by 26.3?%. Those who were more experienced in the procedure tended to use the cystotome more frequently (P?=?0.02) and removed the stents in less than 3 months after insertion (P?=?0.011). CONCLUSION: This was the first Asia wide survey in the practice of pseudocyst drainage. There were wide variations in practice and randomized studies are urgently needed to establish the best approach for management of this condition. There is also a pressing need for establishment of a consensus for safe practices.