Homologous recombination maintenance of genome integrity during DNA damage tolerance.
ABSTRACT: The DNA strand exchange protein Rad51 provides a safe mechanism for the repair of DNA breaks using the information of a homologous DNA template. Homologous recombination (HR) also plays a key role in the response to DNA damage that impairs the advance of the replication forks by providing mechanisms to circumvent the lesion and fill in the tracks of single-stranded DNA that are generated during the process of lesion bypass. These activities postpone repair of the blocking lesion to ensure that DNA replication is completed in a timely manner. Experimental evidence generated over the last few years indicates that HR participates in this DNA damage tolerance response together with additional error-free (template switch) and error-prone (translesion synthesis) mechanisms through intricate connections, which are presented here. The choice between repair and tolerance, and the mechanism of tolerance, is critical to avoid increased mutagenesis and/or genome rearrangements, which are both hallmarks of cancer.
Project description:DNA-damage tolerance (DDT) is defined as a mechanism by which eukaryotic cells resume DNA synthesis to fill the single-stranded DNA gaps left by replication-blocking lesions. Eukaryotic cells employ two different means of DDT, namely translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and template switching, both of which are coordinately regulated through sequential ubiquitination of PCNA at the K164 residue. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the same PCNA-K164 residue can also be sumoylated, which recruits the Srs2 helicase to prevent undesired homologous recombination (HR). While the mediation of TLS by PCNA monoubiquitination has been extensively characterized, the method by which K63-linked PCNA polyubiquitination leads to template switching remains unclear. We recently identified a yeast heterotetrameric Shu complex that couples error-free DDT to HR as a critical step of template switching. Here we report that the Csm2 subunit of Shu physically interacts with Rad55, an accessory protein involved in HR. Rad55 and Rad57 are Rad51 paralogues and form a heterodimer to promote Rad51-ssDNA filament formation by antagonizing Srs2 activity. Although Rad55-Rad57 and Shu function in the same pathway and both act to inhibit Srs2 activity, Shu appears to be dedicated to error-free DDT while the Rad55-Rad57 complex is also involved in double-strand break repair. This study reveals the detailed steps of error-free lesion bypass and also brings to light an intrinsic interplay between error-free DDT and Srs2-mediated inhibition of HR.
Project description:DNA lesion bypass is mediated by DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways and homologous recombination (HR). The DDT pathways, which involve translesion synthesis and template switching (TS), are activated by the ubiquitylation (ub) of PCNA through components of the RAD6-RAD18 pathway, whereas the HR pathway is independent of RAD18 However, it is unclear how these processes are coordinated within the context of chromatin. Here we show that Bre1, an ubiquitin ligase specific for histone H2B, is recruited to chromatin in a manner coupled to replication of damaged DNA. In the absence of Bre1 or H2Bub, cells exhibit accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions. Consequently, the damaged forks become unstable and resistant to repair. We provide physical, genetic, and cytological evidence that H2Bub contributes toward both Rad18-dependent TS and replication fork repair by HR. Using an inducible system of DNA damage bypass, we further show that H2Bub is required for the regulation of DDT after genome duplication. We propose that Bre1-H2Bub facilitates fork recovery and gap-filling repair by controlling chromatin dynamics in response to replicative DNA damage.
Project description:Here, we investigate the role of the budding yeast Shu complex in promoting homologous recombination (HR) upon replication fork damage. We recently found that the Shu complex stimulates Rad51 filament formation during HR through its physical interactions with Rad55-Rad57. Unlike other HR factors, Shu complex mutants are primarily sensitive to replicative stress caused by MMS and not to more direct DNA breaks. Here, we uncover a novel role for the Shu complex in the repair of specific MMS-induced DNA lesions and elucidate the interplay between HR and translesion DNA synthesis. We find that the Shu complex promotes high-fidelity bypass of MMS-induced alkylation damage, such as N3-methyladenine, as well as bypassing the abasic sites generated after Mag1 removes N3-methyladenine lesions. Furthermore, we find that the Shu complex responds to ssDNA breaks generated in cells lacking the abasic site endonucleases. At each lesion, the Shu complex promotes Rad51-dependent HR as the primary repair/tolerance mechanism over error-prone translesion DNA polymerases. Together, our work demonstrates that the Shu complex's promotion of Rad51 pre-synaptic filaments is critical for high-fidelity bypass of multiple replication-blocking lesion.
Project description:Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HR in vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits the extent of HR and represents a new potential target for anticancer therapy.
Project description:In the absence of telomerase, telomeres progressively shorten with every round of DNA replication, leading to replicative senescence. In telomerase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the shortest telomere triggers the onset of senescence by activating the DNA damage checkpoint and recruiting homologous recombination (HR) factors. Yet, the molecular structures that trigger this checkpoint and the mechanisms of repair have remained elusive. By tracking individual telomeres, we show that telomeres are subjected to different pathways depending on their length. We first demonstrate a progressive accumulation of subtelomeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) through 5'-3' resection as telomeres shorten. Thus, exposure of subtelomeric ssDNA could be the signal for cell cycle arrest in senescence. Strikingly, early after loss of telomerase, HR counteracts subtelomeric ssDNA accumulation rather than elongates telomeres. We then asked whether replication repair pathways contribute to this mechanism. We uncovered that Rad5, a DNA helicase/Ubiquitin ligase of the error-free branch of the DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathway, associates with native telomeres and cooperates with HR in senescent cells. We propose that DDT acts in a length-independent manner, whereas an HR-based repair using the sister chromatid as a template buffers precocious 5'-3' resection at the shortest telomeres.
Project description:The genome of all organisms is constantly threatened by numerous agents that cause DNA damage. When the replication fork encounters an unrepaired DNA lesion, two DNA damage tolerance pathways are possible: error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) that requires specialized DNA polymerases, and error-free damage avoidance that relies on homologous recombination (HR). The balance between these two mechanisms is essential since it defines the level of mutagenesis during lesion bypass, allowing genetic variability and adaptation to the environment, but also introduces the risk of generating genome instability. Here we report that the mere proximity of replication-blocking lesions that arise in Escherichia coli's genome during a genotoxic stress leads to a strong increase in the use of the error-prone TLS. We show that this increase is caused by the local inhibition of HR due to the overlapping of single-stranded DNA regions generated downstream of the lesions. This increase in TLS is independent of SOS activation, but its mutagenic effect is additive with the one of SOS. Hence, the combination of SOS induction and lesions proximity leads to a strong increase in TLS that becomes the main lesion tolerance pathway used by the cell during a genotoxic stress.
Project description:It has been long assumed that post-mitotic neurons only utilize the error-prone non-homologous end-joining pathway to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) associated with oxidative damage to DNA, given the inability of non-replicating neuronal DNA to utilize a sister chromatid template in the less error-prone homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway. However, we and others have found recently that active transcription triggers a replication-independent recombinational repair mechanism in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Here we observed that the HR repair protein RAD52 is recruited to sites of DNA DSBs in terminally differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. This recruitment is dependent on the presence of a nascent mRNA generated during active transcription, providing evidence that an RNA-templated HR repair mechanism exists in non-dividing, terminally differentiated neurons. This recruitment of RAD52 in neurons is decreased by transcription inhibition. Importantly, we found that high concentrations of amyloid ?, a toxic protein associated with Alzheimer's disease, inhibits the expression and DNA damage response of RAD52, potentially leading to a defect in the error-free, RNA-templated HR repair mechanism. This study shows a novel RNA-dependent repair mechanism of DSBs in post-mitotic neurons and demonstrates that defects in this pathway may contribute to neuronal genomic instability and consequent neurodegenerative phenotypes such as those seen in Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:Previous studies revealed DNA damage to occur during the toxic action of PaT, a fungal anticodon ribonuclease (ACNase) targeting the translation machinery via tRNA cleavage. Here, we demonstrate that other translational stressors induce DNA damage-like responses in yeast as well: not only zymocin, another ACNase from the dairy yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also translational antibiotics, most pronouncedly hygromycin B (HygB). Specifically, DNA repair mechanisms BER (base excision repair), HR (homologous recombination) and PRR (post replication repair) provided protection, whereas NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) aggravated toxicity of all translational inhibitors. Analysis of specific BER mutants disclosed a strong HygB, zymocin and PaT protective effect of the endonucleases acting on apurinic sites. In cells defective in AP endonucleases, inactivation of the DNA glycosylase Ung1 increased tolerance to ACNases and HygB. In addition, Mag1 specifically contributes to the repair of DNA lesions caused by HygB. Consistent with DNA damage provoked by translation inhibitors, mutation frequencies were elevated upon exposure to both fungal ACNases and HygB. Since polymerase ? contributed to toxicity in all instances, error-prone lesion-bypass probably accounts for the mutagenic effects. The finding that differently acting inhibitors of protein biosynthesis induce alike cellular responses in DNA repair mutants is novel and suggests the dependency of genome stability on translational fidelity.
Project description:DNA lesions that block replication can be bypassed by error-prone or error-free mechanisms. Error-prone mechanisms rely on specialized translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases that directly replicate over the lesion, whereas error-free pathways use an undamaged duplex as a template for lesion bypass. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most mutagenic TLS of spontaneous and induced DNA damage relies on DNA polymerase zeta (Polzeta) activity. Here, we use a distinct mutational signature produced by Polzeta in a frameshift-reversion assay to examine the role of the yeast mismatch repair (MMR) system in regulating Polzeta-dependent mutagenesis. Whereas MMR normally reduces mutagenesis by removing errors introduced by replicative DNA polymerases, we find that the MMR system is required for Polzeta-dependent mutagenesis. In the absence of homologous recombination, however, the error-prone Polzeta pathway is not affected by MMR status. These results demonstrate that MMR promotes Polzeta-dependent mutagenesis by inhibiting an alternative, error-free pathway that depends on homologous recombination. Finally, in contrast to its ability to remove mistakes made by replicative DNA polymerases, we show that MMR fails to efficiently correct errors introduced by Polzeta.
Project description:DNA replication is sensitive to damage in the template. To bypass lesions and complete replication, cells activate recombination-mediated (error-free) and translesion synthesis-mediated (error-prone) DNA damage tolerance pathways. Crucial for error-free DNA damage tolerance is template switching, which depends on the formation and resolution of damage-bypass intermediates consisting of sister chromatid junctions. Here we show that a chromatin architectural pathway involving the high mobility group box protein Hmo1 channels replication-associated lesions into the error-free DNA damage tolerance pathway mediated by Rad5 and PCNA polyubiquitylation, while preventing mutagenic bypass and toxic recombination. In the process of template switching, Hmo1 also promotes sister chromatid junction formation predominantly during replication. Its C-terminal tail, implicated in chromatin bending, facilitates the formation of catenations/hemicatenations and mediates the roles of Hmo1 in DNA damage tolerance pathway choice and sister chromatid junction formation. Together, the results suggest that replication-associated topological changes involving the molecular DNA bender, Hmo1, set the stage for dedicated repair reactions that limit errors during replication and impact on genome stability.