The BARD1/HP1 interaction: Another clue to heterochromatin involvement in homologous recombination.
ABSTRACT: Chromatin compaction represents a barrier for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, heterochromatin components are also required for DSB repair by homologous recombination. The BARD1/HP1 interaction, required for the retention of BRCA1, CTIP, and RAD51 at DSB sites, may play a critical role in the crosstalk between chromatin compaction and DSB repair.
Project description:Stable retention of BRCA1/BARD1 complexes at sites of DNA damage is required for the proper response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Here, we demonstrate that the BRCT domain of BARD1 is crucial for its retention through interaction with HP1. In response to DNA damage, BARD1 interacts with Lys9-dimethylated histone H3 (H3K9me2) in an ATM-dependent but RNF168-independent manner. This interaction is mediated primarily by HP1?. A conserved HP1-binding motif in the BARD1 BRCT domain directly interacted with the chromoshadow domain of HP1 in vitro. Mutations in this motif (or simultaneous depletion of all three HP1 isoforms) disrupted retention of BARD1, BRCA1, and CtIP at DSB sites and allowed ectopic accumulation of RIF1, an effector of nonhomologous end-joining, at damaged loci in S-phase. UNC0638, a small-molecule inhibitor of histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT), abolished retention and cooperated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib to block cancer cell growth. Taken together, our findings show how BARD1 promotes retention of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex at damaged DNA sites and suggest the use of HKMT inhibitors to leverage the application of PARP inhibitors to treat breast cancer.
Project description:The breast and ovarian cancer predisposition protein BRCA1 forms three mutually exclusive complexes with Fanconi anemia group J protein (FANCJ, also called BACH1 or BRIP1), CtIP, and Abraxas/RAP80 through its BRCA1 C terminus (BRCT) domains, while its RING domain binds to BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 (BARD1). We recently found that the interaction between heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and BARD1 is required for the accumulation of BRCA1 and CtIP at sites of DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we investigated the importance of HP1 and BARD1-HP1 interaction in the localization of FANCJ together with the other BRCA1-BRCT binding proteins to clarify the separate role of the HP1-mediated pathway from the RNF8/RNF168-induced ubiquitin-mediated pathway for BRCA1 function. FANCJ interacts with HP1? in a BARD1-dependent manner, and this interaction was enhanced by ionizing radiation or irinotecan hydrochloride treatment. Simultaneous depletion of all three HP1 isoforms with shRNAs disrupts the accumulation of FANCJ and CtIP, but not RAP80, at double-strand break sites. Replacement of endogenous BARD1 with a mutant BARD1 that is incapable of binding to HP1 also disrupts the accumulation of FANCJ and CtIP, but not RAP80. In contrast, RNF168 depletion disrupts the accumulation of only RAP80, but not FANCJ or CtIP. Consequently, the accumulation of conjugated ubiquitin was only inhibited by RNF168 depletion, whereas the accumulation of RAD51 and sister chromatid exchange were only inhibited by HP1 depletion or disruption of the BARD1-HP1 interaction. Taken together, the results suggest that the BRCA1-FANCJ and BRCA1-CtIP complexes are not downstream of the RNF8/RNF168/ubiquitin pathway, but are instead regulated by the HP1 pathway that precedes homologous recombination DNA repair.
Project description:The opposing activities of 53BP1 and BRCA1 influence pathway choice in DNA double-strand-break repair. How BRCA1 counteracts the inhibitory effect of 53BP1 on DNA resection and homologous recombination is unknown. Here we identify the site of BRCA1-BARD1 required for priming ubiquitin transfer from E2?ubiquitin and demonstrate that BRCA1-BARD1's ubiquitin ligase activity is required for repositioning 53BP1 on damaged chromatin. We confirm H2A ubiquitination by BRCA1-BARD1 and show that an H2A-ubiquitin fusion protein promotes DNA resection and repair in BARD1-deficient cells. BRCA1-BARD1's function in homologous recombination requires the chromatin remodeler SMARCAD1. SMARCAD1 binding to H2A-ubiquitin and optimal localization to sites of damage and activity in DNA repair requires its ubiquitin-binding CUE domains. SMARCAD1 is required for 53BP1 repositioning, and the need for SMARCAD1 in olaparib or camptothecin resistance is alleviated by 53BP1 loss. Thus, BRCA1-BARD1 ligase activity and subsequent SMARCAD1-dependent chromatin remodeling are critical regulators of DNA repair.
Project description:The choice between double-strand break (DSB) repair by either homology-directed repair (HDR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is tightly regulated. Defects in this regulation can induce genome instability and cancer. 53BP1 is critical for the control of DSB repair, promoting NHEJ, and inhibiting the 5' end resection needed for HDR. Using dysfunctional telomeres and genome-wide DSBs, we identify Rif1 as the main factor used by 53BP1 to impair 5' end resection. Rif1 inhibits resection involving CtIP, BLM, and Exo1; limits accumulation of BRCA1/BARD1 complexes at sites of DNA damage; and defines one of the mechanisms by which 53BP1 causes chromosomal abnormalities in Brca1-deficient cells. These data establish Rif1 as an important contributor to the control of DSB repair by 53BP1.
Project description:DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) function to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in G2 phase with HR preferentially repairing heterochromatin-associated DSBs (HC-DSBs). Here, we examine the regulation of repair pathway usage at two-ended DSBs in G2. We identify the speed of DSB repair as a major component influencing repair pathway usage showing that DNA damage and chromatin complexity are factors influencing DSB repair rate and pathway choice. Loss of NHEJ proteins also slows DSB repair allowing increased resection. However, expression of an autophosphorylation-defective DNA-PKcs mutant, which binds DSBs but precludes the completion of NHEJ, dramatically reduces DSB end resection at all DSBs. In contrast, loss of HR does not impair repair by NHEJ although CtIP-dependent end resection precludes NHEJ usage. We propose that NHEJ initially attempts to repair DSBs and, if rapid rejoining does not ensue, then resection occurs promoting repair by HR. Finally, we identify novel roles for ATM in regulating DSB end resection; an indirect role in promoting KAP-1-dependent chromatin relaxation and a direct role in phosphorylating and activating CtIP.
Project description:Genotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by error-free homologous recombination (HR) or mutagenic non-homologous end-joining1. HR supresses tumorigenesis1, but is restricted to the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle when a sister chromatid is present2. Breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) promotes HR by antagonizing the anti-resection factor TP53-binding protein 1(53BP1) (refs. 2-5), but it remains unknown how BRCA1 function is limited to the S and G2 phases. We show that BRCA1 recruitment requires recognition of histone H4 unmethylated at lysine 20 (H4K20me0), linking DSB repair pathway choice directly to sister chromatid availability. We identify the ankyrin repeat domain of BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1 (BARD1)-the obligate BRCA1 binding partner3-as a reader of H4K20me0 present on new histones in post-replicative chromatin6. BARD1 ankyrin repeat domain mutations disabling H4K20me0 recognition abrogate accumulation of BRCA1 at DSBs, causing aberrant build-up of 53BP1, and allowing anti-resection activity to prevail in S and G2. Consequently, BARD1 recognition of H4K20me0 is required for HR and resistance to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. Collectively, this reveals that BRCA1-BARD1 monitors the replicative state of the genome to oppose 53BP1 function, routing only DSBs within sister chromatids to HR.
Project description:Heterochromatin is a barrier to DNA repair that correlates strongly with elevated somatic mutation in cancer. CHD class II nucleosome remodeling activity (specifically CHD3.1) retained by KAP-1 increases heterochromatin compaction and impedes DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair requiring Artemis. This obstruction is alleviated by chromatin relaxation via ATM-dependent KAP-1S824 phosphorylation (pKAP-1) and CHD3.1 dispersal from heterochromatic DSBs; however, how heterochromatin compaction is actually adjusted after CHD3.1 dispersal is unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that Artemis-dependent DSB repair in heterochromatin requires ISWI (imitation switch)-class ACF1-SNF2H nucleosome remodeling. Compacted chromatin generated by CHD3.1 after DNA replication necessitates ACF1-SNF2H-mediated relaxation for DSB repair. ACF1-SNF2H requires RNF20 to bind heterochromatic DSBs, underlies RNF20-mediated chromatin relaxation, and functions downstream of pKAP-1-mediated CHD3.1 dispersal to enable DSB repair. CHD3.1 and ACF1-SNF2H display counteractive activities but similar histone affinities (via the plant homeodomains of CHD3.1 and ACF1), which we suggest necessitates a two-step dispersal and recruitment system regulating these opposing chromatin remodeling activities during DSB repair.
Project description:The tumour suppressor complex BRCA1-BARD1 functions in the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks by homologous recombination. During this process, BRCA1-BARD1 facilitates the nucleolytic resection of DNA ends to generate a single-stranded template for the recruitment of another tumour suppressor complex, BRCA2-PALB2, and the recombinase RAD51. Here, by examining purified wild-type and mutant BRCA1-BARD1, we show that both BRCA1 and BARD1 bind DNA and interact with RAD51, and that BRCA1-BARD1 enhances the recombinase activity of RAD51. Mechanistically, BRCA1-BARD1 promotes the assembly of the synaptic complex, an essential intermediate in RAD51-mediated DNA joint formation. We provide evidence that BRCA1 and BARD1 are indispensable for RAD51 stimulation. Notably, BRCA1-BARD1 mutants with weakened RAD51 interactions show compromised DNA joint formation and impaired mediation of homologous recombination and DNA repair in cells. Our results identify a late role of BRCA1-BARD1 in homologous recombination, an attribute of the tumour suppressor complex that could be targeted in cancer therapy.
Project description:Homologous recombination (HR) is a major mechanism to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Although tumor suppressor CtIP is critical for DSB end resection, a key initial event of HR repair, the mechanism regulating the recruitment of CtIP to DSB sites remains largely unknown. Here, we show that acidic nucleoplasmic DNA-binding protein 1 (And-1) forms complexes with CtIP as well as other repair proteins, and is essential for HR repair by regulating DSB end resection. Furthermore, And-1 is recruited to DNA DSB sites in a manner dependent on MDC1, BRCA1 and ATM, down-regulation of And-1 impairs end resection by reducing the recruitment of CtIP to damage sites, and considerably reduces Chk1 activation and other damage response during HR repair. These findings collectively demonstrate a hitherto unknown role of MDC1?And-1?CtIP axis that regulates CtIP-mediated DNA end resection and cellular response to DSBs.
Project description:The CtIP protein facilitates homology-directed repair (HDR) of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) by initiating DNA resection, a process in which DSB ends are converted into 3'-ssDNA overhangs. The BRCA1 tumor suppressor, which interacts with CtIP in a phospho-dependent manner, has also been implicated in DSB repair through the HDR pathway. It was recently reported that the BRCA1-CtIP interaction is essential for HDR in chicken DT40 cells. To examine the role of this interaction in mammalian cells, we generated cells and mice that express Ctip polypeptides (Ctip-S326A) that fail to bind BRCA1. Surprisingly, isogenic lines of Ctip-S326A mutant and wild-type cells displayed comparable levels of HDR function and chromosomal stability. Although Ctip-S326A mutant cells were modestly sensitive to topoisomerase inhibitors, mice expressing Ctip-S326A polypeptides developed normally and did not exhibit a predisposition to cancer. Thus, in mammals, the phospho-dependent BRCA1-CtIP interaction is not essential for HDR-mediated DSB repair or for tumor suppression.