Three additional inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors: molecular cloning and differential localization in brain and peripheral tissues.
ABSTRACT: Three inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) cDNAs, designated IP3R-II, -III, and -IV, were cloned from a mouse placenta cDNA library. All three display strong homology in membrane-spanning domains M7 and M8 to the originally cloned cerebellar IP3R-I, with divergences predominantly in cytoplasmic domains. Levels of mRNA for the three additional IP3Rs in general are substantially lower than for IP3R-I, though in the gastrointestinal tract the levels of IP3R-III may be comparable to IP3R-I. Cerebellar Purkinje cells express at least two and possibly three distinct IP3Rs, suggesting heterogeneity of IP3 action within a single cell.
Project description:Studies in the Xenopus model system have provided considerable insight into the developmental role of intracellular Ca2+ signals produced by activation of IP3Rs (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors). However, unlike mammalian systems where three IP3R subtypes have been well characterized, our molecular understanding of the IP3Rs that underpin Ca2+ signalling during Xenopus embryogenesis relate solely to the original characterization of the 'Xenopus IP3R' cloned and purified from Xenopus laevis oocytes several years ago. In the present study, we have identified Xenopus type 2 and type 3 IP3Rs and report the full-length sequence, genomic architecture and developmental expression profile of these additional IP3R subtypes. In the light of the emerging genomic resources and opportunities for genetic manipulation in the diploid frog Xenopus tropicalis, these data will facilitate manipulations to resolve the contribution of IP3R diversity in Ca2+ signalling events observed during vertebrate development.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) are Ca2+ channels that localize to intracellular Ca2+ stores such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recently, IP3Rs were found to participate in the formation of the cytoskeleton and cellular adhesions. In this study, we examined the cellular localization of type I, II, and III IP3Rs to assess their role in cellular adhesion in rat osteoclasts. Rat bone marrow cells were cultured in alpha-MEM with 10% fetal bovine serum, M-CSF, RANKL, and 1,25(OH)2D3 for 1 week to promote osteoclast formation. Type I, II, and III IP3R expression in the osteoclasts was then examined by RT-PCR. Double-staining was performed using antibodies against type I, II, and III IP3Rs and DiOC6, an ER marker, or TRITC-phalloidin, an actin filament marker. Expression of all three IP3Rs was detected in the newly formed osteoclasts; however, the localization of the type I and II IP3Rs was predominantly close to nuclear, and possibly colocalized with the ER, while the type III IP3Rs were localized to the ER and podosomes, actin-rich adhesion structures in osteoclasts. These findings suggest that type III IP3Rs are associated with osteoclast adhesion.
Project description:IP3Rs (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors) are the intracellular channels that mediate release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum in response to the many stimuli that evoke Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation. We characterized and purified type 1 IP3R heterologously expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and used the purified IP3R1 to determine its three-dimensional structure by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. Recombinant IP3R1 has 4-fold symmetry with overall dimensions of approx. 19.5 nm x 19.5 nm x 17.5 nm. It comprises a small domain, which is likely to include the pore, linked by slender bridges to a large cytoplasmic domain with four petal-like regions. Our structures of recombinant IP3R1 and native cerebellar IP3R have similar appearances and dimensions. The only notable difference is the absence of a central stigma-like domain from the cytoplasmic region of recombinant IP3R1. The first structure of a recombinant IP3R is an important step towards developing three-dimensional structures of IP3R that better contribute to our understanding of the structural basis of IP3R activation.
Project description:Calcium plays an integral role to many cellular processes including contraction, energy metabolism, gene expression, and cell death. The inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) is a calcium channel expressed in cardiac tissue. There are three IP3R isoforms encoded by separate genes. In the heart, the IP3R-2 isoform is reported to being most predominant with regards to expression levels and functional significance. The functional roles of IP3R-1 and IP3R-3 in the heart are essentially unexplored despite measureable expression levels. Here we show that all three IP3Rs isoforms are expressed in both neonatal and adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, and in human heart tissue. The three IP3R proteins are expressed throughout the cardiomyocyte sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using isoform specific siRNA, we found that expression of all three IP3R isoforms are required for hypertrophic signaling downstream of endothelin-1 stimulation. Mechanistically, IP3Rs specifically contribute to activation of the hypertrophic program by mediating the positive inotropic effects of endothelin-1 and leading to downstream activation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells. Our findings highlight previously unidentified functions for IP3R isoforms in the heart with specific implications for hypertrophic signaling in animal models and in human disease.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) are tetrameric intracellular Ca(2+)-release channels with each subunit containing a binding site for IP3in the amino terminus. We provide evidence that four IP3molecules are required to activate the channel under diverse conditions. Comparing the concentration-response relationship for binding and Ca(2+)release suggested that IP3Rs are maximally occupied by IP3before substantial Ca(2+)release occurs. We showed that ligand binding-deficient subunits acted in a dominant-negative manner when coexpressed with wild-type monomers in the chicken immune cell line DT40-3KO, which lacks all three genes encoding IP3R subunits, and confirmed the same effect in an IP3R-null human cell line (HEK-3KO) generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Using dimeric and tetrameric concatenated IP3Rs with increasing numbers of binding-deficient subunits, we addressed the obligate ligand stoichiometry. The concatenated IP3Rs with four ligand-binding sites exhibited Ca(2+)release and electrophysiological properties of native IP3Rs. However, IP3failed to activate IP3Rs assembled from concatenated dimers consisting of one binding-competent and one binding-deficient mutant subunit. Similarly, IP3Rs containing two monomers of IP3R2short, an IP3binding-deficient splice variant, were nonfunctional. Concatenated tetramers containing only three binding-competent ligand-binding sites were nonfunctional under a wide range of activating conditions. These data provide definitive evidence that IP3-induced Ca(2+)release only occurs when each IP3R monomer within the tetramer is occupied by IP3, thereby ensuring fidelity of Ca(2+)release.
Project description:Bok is a member of the Bcl-2 protein family that governs the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, although the role that Bok plays in this pathway is unclear. We have shown previously in cultured cell lines that Bok interacts strongly with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), suggesting that it may contribute to the structural integrity or stability of IP3R tetramers. Here we report that Bok is similarly IP3R-assocated in mouse tissues, that essentially all cellular Bok is IP3R bound, that it is the helical nature of the Bok BH4 domain, rather than specific amino acids, that mediates binding to IP3Rs, that Bok is dramatically stabilized by binding to IP3Rs, that unbound Bok is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome, and that binding to IP3Rs limits the pro-apoptotic effect of overexpressed Bok. Agents that stimulate IP3R activity, apoptosis, phosphorylation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress did not trigger the dissociation of mature Bok from IP3Rs or Bok degradation, indicating that the role of proteasome-mediated Bok degradation is to destroy newly synthesized Bok that is not IP3R associated. The existence of this unexpected proteolytic mechanism that is geared toward restricting Bok to that which is bound to IP3Rs, implies that unbound Bok is deleterious to cell viability and helps explain the current uncertainty regarding the cellular role of Bok.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 Rs) are intracellular Ca(2+) channels. Interactions of the commonly used antagonists of IP3Rs with IP3R subtypes are poorly understood.IP3-evoked Ca(2+) release from permeabilized DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R was measured using a luminal Ca(2+) indicator. The effects of commonly used antagonists on IP3-evoked Ca(2+) release and (3) H-IP3 binding were characterized.Functional analyses showed that heparin was a competitive antagonist of all IP3R subtypes with different affinities for each (IP3R3 > IP3R1 ? IP3R2). This sequence did not match the affinities for heparin binding to the isolated N-terminal from each IP3R subtype. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and high concentrations of caffeine selectively inhibited IP3R1 without affecting IP3 binding. Neither Xestospongin C nor Xestospongin D effectively inhibited IP3-evoked Ca(2+) release via any IP3R subtype.Heparin competes with IP3, but its access to the IP3-binding core is substantially hindered by additional IP3R residues. These interactions may contribute to its modest selectivity for IP3R3. Practicable concentrations of caffeine and 2-APB inhibit only IP3R1. Xestospongins do not appear to be effective antagonists of IP3Rs.
Project description:The IP3R (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor) forms tetrameric Ca2+ channels in ER (endoplasmic reticulum) membranes, where channel activity is largely under the control of the co-agonists IP3 and Ca2+. In cells stimulated using extracellular ligands that persistently elevate phosphoinositidase C activity, IP3Rs are rapidly ubiquitinated and then degraded by the proteasome through as yet undefined mechanisms. Whereas binding of IP3 has been suggested to be a key event in the triggering of IP3R ubiquitination the role of Ca2+ in this process remains unknown. In the present study we use alphaT3-1 mouse pituitary cells expressing exogenous wild-type or mutant-type-I IP3Rs (IP3R1) to provide several lines of evidence that Ca2+ is also a trigger. Firstly, depletion of ER Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin blocked wild-type IP3R1 ubiquitination. Secondly, ubiquitination was blocked by mutating Glu2100 to Asp, which is known to markedly suppress Ca2+-binding to IP3R1 and the potency of Ca2+ as a stimulus for channel opening. Thirdly, mutating Asp2550 to Ala, which inhibits Ca2+ flux through the channel pore, partially inhibited ubiquitination indicating that Ca2+ released via wild-type IP3R1 contributes to triggering ubiquitination. Fourthly, and consistent with this conclusion, although suppression of increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration did not inhibit the ubiquitination of wild-type IP3R1, it strongly inhibited the ubiquitination of the Asp2550 to Ala mutant. Overall, these results show that Ca2+ plays an important role in triggering IP3R ubiquitination. Additional experiments with IP3R1 containing an Arg265 to Gln mutation, which decreases IP3-binding affinity, confirmed that IP3-binding also plays a role. Finally, the mutations at Glu2100, Asp2550 and Arg265 inhibited IP3R1 degradation to an extent that paralleled their inhibitory effects on ubiquitination. We conclude that IP3R ubiquitination and degradation are triggered by the concerted action of IP3- and Ca2+-binding.
Project description:We determined the amino acid sequence responsible for the calmodulin (CaM)-binding ability of mouse type 1 Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor (IP3R1). We expressed various parts of IP3R1 from deleted cDNA and examined their CaM-binding ability. It was shown that the sequence stretching from Lys-1564 to Arg-1585 is necessary for the binding. The full-length IP3R1 with replacement of Trp-1576 by Ala lost its CaM-binding ability. Antibody against residues 1564-1585 of IP3R1 inhibited cerebellar IP3R1 from binding CaM. The fluorescence spectrum of the peptide that corresponds to residues 1564-1585 shifted when Ca(2+)-CaM was added. From the change in the fluorescence spectrum, we estimated the dissociation constant (KD) between the peptide and CaM to be 0.7 microM. The submicromolar value of KD suggests an actual interaction between CaM and IP3R1 within cells. The CaM-binding ability of other types of IP3Rs was also examined. A part of the type 2IP3R, including the region showing sequence identity with the CaM-binding domain of IP3R1, also bound CaM, while the expressed full-length type 3 IP3R did not.
Project description:The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) in the endoplasmic reticulum mediates calcium signaling that impinges on intracellular processes. IP3Rs are allosteric proteins comprising four subunits that form an ion channel activated by binding of IP3 at a distance. Defective allostery in IP3R is considered crucial to cellular dysfunction, but the specific mechanism remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that a pleiotropic enzyme transglutaminase type 2 targets the allosteric coupling domain of IP3R type 1 (IP3R1) and negatively regulates IP3R1-mediated calcium signaling and autophagy by locking the subunit configurations. The control point of this regulation is the covalent posttranslational modification of the Gln2746 residue that transglutaminase type 2 tethers to the adjacent subunit. Modification of Gln2746 and IP3R1 function was observed in Huntington disease models, suggesting a pathological role of this modification in the neurodegenerative disease. Our study reveals that cellular signaling is regulated by a new mode of posttranslational modification that chronically and enzymatically blocks allosteric changes in the ligand-gated channels that relate to disease states.