Solvent-Dependent Facile Synthesis of Diaryl Selenides and Biphenols Employing Selenium Dioxide.
ABSTRACT: Biphenols are important structure motifs for ligand systems in organic catalysis and are therefore included in the category of so-called "privileged ligands". We have developed a new synthetic pathway to construct these structures by the use of selenium dioxide, a stable, powerful, and commercially available oxidizer. Our new, and easy to perform protocol gives rise to biphenols and diaryl selenides depending on the solvent employed. Oxidative treatment of phenols in acetic acid yields the corresponding biphenols, whereas conversion in pyridine results in the preferred formation of diaryl selenides. As a consequence, we were able to isolate a broad scope of novel diaryl selenides, which could act as pincer-like ligands with further applications in organic synthesis or as ligands in transition metal catalysis.
Project description:A novel method of photoinduced synthesis of unsymmetrical diaryl selenides from triarylbismuthines and diaryl diselenides has been developed. Although the arylation reactions with triarylbismuthines are usually catalyzed by transition-metal complexes, the present arylation of diaryl diselenides with triarylbismuthines proceeds upon photoirradiation in the absence of transition-metal catalysts. A variety of unsymmetrical diaryl selenides can be conveniently prepared by using this arylation method.
Project description:Chiral diols and biphenols catalyze the multicomponent condensation reaction of phenols, aldehydes, and alkenyl or aryl boronates. The condensation products are formed in good yields and enantioselectivities. The reaction proceeds via an initial Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aldehyde and phenol to yield an ortho-quinone methide that undergoes an enantioselective boronate addition. A cyclization pathway was discovered while exploring the scope of the reaction that provides access to chiral 2,4-diaryl chroman products, the core of which is a structural motif found in natural products.
Project description:A mild, practical, and efficient method for the synthesis of unsymmetrical o-biphenols (including o-phenol-naphthols and o-binaphthols) has been developed. Unsymmetrical bis-aryloxy silanes, which were readily prepared in a semi-one-pot fashion, underwent the Pd-catalyzed intramolecular arylation followed by a routine TBAF desilylation step to furnish valuable unsymmetrical biphenols without necessity of isolation of seven-membered intermediates. The excellent functional group tolerance allows for synthesis of a variety of functionalized o-biphenols and o-binaphthols from easily available staring materials.
Project description:Transition metal catalysis has emerged as an important means for C-C activation that allows mild and selective transformations. However, the current scope of C-C bonds that can be activated is primarily restricted to either highly strained systems or more polarized C-C bonds. In contrast, the catalytic activation of non-polar and unstrained C-C moieties remains an unmet challenge. Here we report a general approach for the catalytic activation of the unstrained C(aryl)-C(aryl) bonds in 2,2'-biphenols. The key is to utilize the phenol moiety as a handle to install phosphinites as a recyclable directing group. Using hydrogen gas as the reductant, monophenols are obtained with a low catalyst loading and high functional group tolerance. This approach is also applied to the synthesis of 2,3,4-trisubstituted phenols. A further mechanistic study suggests that the C-C activation step is mediated by a rhodium(I) monohydride species. Finally, a preliminary study on breaking the inert biphenolic moieties in lignin models is illustrated.
Project description:Cleavage of C-O bonds in lignin can afford the renewable aryl sources for fine chemicals. However, the high bond energies of these C-O bonds, especially the 4-O-5-type diaryl ether C-O bonds (~314?kJ/mol) make the cleavage very challenging. Here, we report visible-light photoredox-catalyzed C-O bond cleavage of diaryl ethers by an acidolysis with an aryl carboxylic acid and a following one-pot hydrolysis. Two molecules of phenols are obtained from one molecule of diaryl ether at room temperature. The aryl carboxylic acid used for the acidolysis can be recovered. The key to success of the acidolysis is merging visible-light photoredox catalysis using an acridinium photocatalyst and Lewis acid catalysis using Cu(TMHD)<sub>2</sub>. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that the catalytic cycle occurs via a rare selective electrophilic attack of the generated aryl carboxylic radical on the electron-rich aryl ring of the diphenyl ether. This transformation is applied to a gram-scale reaction and the model of 4-O-5 lignin linkages.
Project description:In the search for new ligands for the Ullmann diaryl ether synthesis, permitting the coupling of electron-rich aryl bromides at relatively low temperatures, 56 structurally diverse multidentate ligands were screened in a model system that uses copper iodide in acetonitrile with potassium phosphate as the base. The ligands differed largely in their performance, but no privileged structural class could be identified.
Project description:Chiral biphenols catalyze the enantioselective Petasis reaction of alkenyl boronates, secondary amines, and ethyl glyoxylate. The reaction requires the use of 15 mol % of (S)-VAPOL as the catalyst, alkenyl boronates as nucleophiles, ethyl glyoxylate as the aldehyde component, and 3 A molecular sieves as an additive. The chiral alpha-amino ester products are obtained in good yields (71-92%) and high enantiomeric ratios (89:11-98:2). Mechanistic investigations indicate single ligand exchange of acyclic boronate with VAPOL and tetracoordinate boronate intermediates.
Project description:A metal-free oxidative rearrangement was explored for the synthesis of 1,2-diaryl diketones by utilizing ?,?-unsaturated diaryl ketones and I2/TBHP in good to high yields. The reaction proceeds via oxidative aryl migration, followed by C-C bond cleavage. A simple and high-yielding protocol was developed for the synthesis of a wide range of 1,2-diaryl diketones, which are the backbone for a variety of medicinally important molecules.
Project description:Bicyclic arenyl selenides are of much importance because of their pharmaceutical applications. A simple method for their synthesis has been developed by a reaction of 2-naphthol and styrenyl selenocyanate/diaryl diselenide in the presence of a base at room temperature. The selenation occurs exclusively at the 1-position of 2-naphthol unit. The reactions are relatively fast (2-4 h) and high yielding. A library of substituted naphthyl styrenyl and naphthyl aryl selenides are obtained by this procedure.
Project description:A simple and efficient protocol to prepare divinyl selenides has been developed by the regio- and stereoselective addition of sodium selenide species to aryl alkynes. The nucleophilic species was generates in situ, from the reaction of elemental selenium with NaBH?, utilizing PEG-400 as the solvent. Several divinyl selenides were obtained in moderate to excellent yields with selectivity for the (Z,Z)-isomer by a one-step procedure that was carried out at 60 °C in short reaction times. The methodology was extended to tellurium, giving the desired divinyl tellurides in good yields. Furthermore, the Fe-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of bis(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) selenide 3f with (4-methoxyphenyl)magnesium bromide 5 afforded resveratrol trimethyl ether 6 in 57% yield.