Highly Branched Pentasaccharide-Bearing Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Studies.
ABSTRACT: Detergents are essential tools for membrane protein manipulation. Micelles formed by detergent molecules have the ability to encapsulate the hydrophobic domains of membrane proteins. The resulting protein-detergent complexes (PDCs) are compatible with the polar environments of aqueous media, making structural and functional analysis feasible. Although a number of novel agents have been developed to overcome the limitations of conventional detergents, most have traditional head groups such as glucoside or maltoside. In this study, we introduce a class of amphiphiles, the PSA/Es with a novel highly branched pentasaccharide hydrophilic group. The PSA/Es conferred markedly increased stability to a diverse range of membrane proteins compared to conventional detergents, indicating a positive role for the new hydrophilic group in maintaining the native protein integrity. In addition, PDCs formed by PSA/Es were smaller and more suitable for electron microscopic analysis than those formed by DDM, indicating that the new agents have significant potential for the structure-function studies of membrane proteins.
Project description:Amphiphile selection is a critical step for structural studies of membrane proteins (MPs). We have developed a family of steroid-based facial amphiphiles (FAs) that are structurally distinct from conventional detergents and previously developed FAs. The unique FAs stabilize MPs and form relatively small protein-detergent complexes (PDCs), a property considered favorable for MP crystallization. We attempted to crystallize several MPs belonging to different protein families, including the human gap junction channel protein connexin 26, the ATP binding cassette transporter MsbA, the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor-like bacteriorhodopsin, and cytochrome P450s (peripheral MPs). Using FAs alone or mixed with other detergents or lipids, we obtained 3D crystals of the above proteins suitable for X-ray crystallographic analysis. The fact that FAs enhance MP crystallizability compared with traditional detergents can be attributed to several properties, including increased protein stability, formation of small PDCs, decreased PDC surface flexibility, and potential to mediate crystal lattice contacts.
Project description:The understanding of integral membrane protein (IMP) structure and function is hampered by the difficulty of handling these proteins. Aqueous solubilization, necessary for many types of biophysical analysis, generally requires a detergent to shield the large lipophilic surfaces of native IMPs. Many proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile family show favorable behavior relative to conventional detergents, as manifested in multiple membrane protein systems, leading to enhanced structural stability and successful crystallization. MNG amphiphiles are promising tools for membrane protein science because of the ease with which they may be prepared and the facility with which their structures may be varied.
Project description:The critical contribution of membrane proteins in normal cellular function makes their detailed structure and functional analysis essential. Detergents, amphipathic agents with the ability to maintain membrane proteins in a soluble state in aqueous solution, have key roles in membrane protein manipulation. Structural and functional stability is a prerequisite for biophysical characterization. However, many conventional detergents are limited in their ability to stabilize membrane proteins, making development of novel detergents for membrane protein manipulation an important research area. The architecture of a detergent hydrophobic group, that directly interacts with the hydrophobic segment of membrane proteins, is a key factor in dictating their efficacy for both membrane protein solubilization and stabilization. In the current study, we developed two sets of maltoside-based detergents with four alkyl chains by introducing dendronic hydrophobic groups connected to a trimaltoside head group, designated dendronic trimaltosides (DTMs). Representative DTMs conferred enhanced stabilization to multiple membrane proteins compared to the benchmark conventional detergent, DDM. One DTM (i.e., DTM-A6) clearly outperformed DDM in stabilizing human ?2 adrenergic receptor (?2AR) and its complex with Gs protein. A further evaluation of this DTM led to a clear visualization of ?2AR-Gs complex via electron microscopic analysis. Thus, the current study not only provides novel detergent tools useful for membrane protein study, but also suggests that the dendronic architecture has a role in governing detergent efficacy for membrane protein stabilization.
Project description:Tripod amphiphiles are designed to promote the solubilization and stabilization of intrinsic membrane proteins in aqueous solution; facilitation of crystallization is a long-range goal. Membrane proteins are subjects of extensive interest because of their critical biological roles, but proteins of this type can be difficult to study because of their low solubility in water. The nonionic detergents that are typically used to achieve solubility can have the unintended effect of causing protein denaturation. Tripod amphiphiles differ from conventional detergents in that the lipophilic segment contains a branchpoint, and previous work has shown that this unusual amphiphilic architecture can be advantageous relative to traditional detergent structures. Here, we report the crystal structures of several tripod amphiphiles that contain an N-oxide hydrophilic group. The data suggest that tripods can adapt themselves to a nonpolar surface by altering the hydrophobic appendage that projects toward that surface and their overall orientation relative to that surface. Although it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding amphiphile association in solution from crystallographic data, trends observed among the packing patterns reported here suggest design strategies to be implemented in future studies.
Project description:The ability to design detergents that are suitable for protein analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) represents an on-going challenge in the field of native MS. Desirable detergent characteristics include charge-reducing properties and low gas-phase stabilities of complexes formed with proteins. In this work, the gas-phase properties of oligoglycerol detergents (OGDs) are optimized by fine tuning of their molecular structure. Furthermore, a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) approach is presented that estimates the gas-phase properties of detergents simply by studying the dissociation behaviour of protein-detergent complexes (PDCs) formed with the soluble protein ?-lactoglobulin (BLG). Graphical Abstract ?.
Project description:Despite their major biological and pharmacological significance, the structural and functional study of membrane proteins remains a significant challenge. A main issue is the isolation of these proteins in a stable and functional state from native lipid membranes. Detergents are amphiphilic compounds widely used to extract membrane proteins from the native membranes and maintain them in a stable form during downstream analysis. However, due to limitations of conventional detergents, it is essential to develop novel amphiphiles with optimal properties for protein stability in order to advance membrane protein research. Here we designed and synthesized 1,3,5-triazine-cored dimaltoside amphiphiles derived from cyanuric chloride. By introducing variations in the alkyl chain linkage (ether/thioether) and an amine-functionalized diol linker (serinol/diethanolamine), we prepared two sets of 1,3,5-triazine-based detergents. When tested with several model membrane proteins, these agents showed remarkable efficacy in stabilizing three transporters and two G protein-coupled receptors. Detergent behavior substantially varied depending on the detergent structural variation, allowing us to explore detergent structure-property-efficacy relationships. The 1,3,5-triazine-based detergents introduced here have significant potential for membrane protein study as a consequence of their structural diversity and universal stabilization efficacy for several membrane proteins.
Project description:Detergents are widely used to isolate membrane proteins from lipid bilayers, but many proteins solubilized in conventional detergents are structurally unstable. Thus, there is major interest in the development of novel amphiphiles to facilitate membrane protein research. In this study, we have designed and synthesized novel amphiphiles with a rigid scyllo-inositol core, designated scyllo-inositol glycosides (SIGs). Varying the headgroup structure allowed the preparation of three sets of SIGs that were evaluated for their effects on membrane protein stability. When tested with a few model membrane proteins, representative SIGs conferred enhanced stability to the membrane proteins compared to a gold standard conventional detergent (DDM). Of the novel amphiphiles, a SIG designated STM-12 was most effective at preserving the stability of the multiple membrane proteins tested here. In addition, a comparative study of the three sets suggests that several factors, including micelle size and alkyl chain length, need to be considered in the development of novel detergents for membrane protein research. Thus, this study not only describes new detergent tools that are potentially useful for membrane protein structural study but also introduces plausible correlations between the chemical properties of detergents and membrane protein stabilization efficacy.
Project description:Integral membrane proteins either alone or as complexes carry out a range of key cellular functions. Detergents are indispensable tools in the isolation of membrane proteins from biological membranes for downstream studies. Although a large number of techniques and tools, including a wide variety of detergents, are available, purification and structural characterization of many membrane proteins remain challenging. In the current study, a new class of tripod amphiphiles bearing two different penta-saccharide head groups, designated TPSs, were developed and evaluated for their ability to extract and stabilize a range of diverse membrane proteins. Variations in the structures of the detergent head and tail groups allowed us to prepare three sets of the novel agents with distinctive structures. Some TPSs (TPS-A8 and TPS-E7) were efficient at extracting two proteins in a functional state while others (TPS-E8 and TPS-E10L) conferred marked stability to all membrane proteins (and membrane protein complexes) tested here compared to a conventional detergent. Use of TPS-E10L led to clear visualization of a receptor-Gs complex using electron microscopy, indicating profound potential in membrane protein research.
Project description:Detergents serve as useful tools for membrane protein structural and functional studies. Their amphipathic nature allows detergents to associate with the hydrophobic regions of membrane proteins whilst maintaining the proteins in aqueous solution. However, widely used conventional detergents are limited in their ability to maintain the structural integrity of membrane proteins and thus there are major efforts underway to develop novel agents with improved properties. We prepared mesitylene-cored glucoside amphiphiles (MGAs) with three alkyl chains and compared these agents with previously developed xylene-linked maltoside agents (XMAs) with two alkyl chains and a conventional detergent (DDM). When these agents were evaluated for four membrane proteins including a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), some agents such as MGA-C13 and MGA-C14 resulted in markedly enhanced stability of membrane proteins compared to both DDM and the XMAs. This favourable behaviour is due likely to the increased hydrophobic density provided by the extra alkyl chain. Thus, this study not only describes new glucoside agents with potential for membrane protein research, but also introduces a new detergent design principle for future development.
Project description:Membrane proteins allow effective communication between cells and organelles and their external environments. Maintaining membrane protein stability in a non-native environment is the major bottleneck to their structural study. Detergents are widely used to extract membrane proteins from the membrane and to keep the extracted protein in a stable state for downstream characterisation. In this study, three sets of steroid-based amphiphiles-glyco-diosgenin analogues (GDNs) and steroid-based pentasaccharides either lacking a linker (SPSs) or containing a linker (SPS-Ls)-have been developed as new chemical tools for membrane protein research. These detergents were tested with three membrane proteins in order to characterise their ability to extract membrane proteins from the membrane and to stabilise membrane proteins long-term. Some of the detergents, particularly the SPS-Ls, displayed favourable behaviour with the tested membrane proteins. This result indicates the potential utility of these detergents as chemical tools for membrane protein structural study and a critical role of the simple alkyl spacer in determining detergent efficacy.