Prospective Characterization of the Risk Factors for Transmission and Symptoms of Primary Human Herpesvirus Infections Among Ugandan Infants.
ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections are common during infancy. Primary infections are frequently asymptomatic and best studied prospectively by using direct viral detection.Oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected weekly from Ugandan newborn infants, their mothers, and other children in the household. Blood specimens were collected every 4 months. Samples were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-8, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Thirty-two infants, 32 mothers, and 49 other household children were followed for a median of 57 weeks. Seventeen mothers had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection; no infants acquired HIV-1. The 12-month incidence of postnatal infection was 76% for HHV-6B, 59% for CMV, 47% for EBV, 8% for HSV-1, and 0% for HHV-8. The quantity of oropharyngeal shedding by contacts was associated with HHV-6A or HHV-6B transmission. Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with EBV transmission, while breastfeeding and younger child contacts were associated with CMV transmission. Except for HSV-1, primary HHV infections were subclinical.By capturing exposures and acquisition events, we found that the incidence and risk factors of infection vary by HHV type. HSV-1 infection, unlike other HHV infections, caused acute clinical illness in these infants.
Project description:Human herpesviruses (HHV) establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted primarily via shedding at mucosal surfaces. Each HHV causes a unique spectrum of disease depending on the infected individual's age and immunity. We collected weekly oral swabs from young children and mothers in 32 Ugandan households for a median of one year. We characterized kinetics of oral shedding during primary and chronic infection for each virus. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 were shed at high rates following primary infection. The rate of oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding was lower overall, and children and mothers with chronic HSV infection had lower shedding rates than children with primary infection. CMV shedding rate and viral load were higher in children with primary infection compared to children with chronic infection, and even lower in mothers with chronic infection. HHV-6 shedding rate and viral load were similar between children with primary or chronic infection, but lower in mothers. EBV shedding rate and quantity decreased less dramatically in mothers versus children, with HIV-positive mothers shedding at a higher rate than HIV-negative mothers. Each HHV has a distinct pattern of oral shedding which depends partially on the age and immune status of the host.
Project description:Human herpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are human viruses capable of chromosomal integration. Approximately 1% of the human population carries one copy of HHV-6A/B integrated into every cell in their body, referred to as inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6A/B (iciHHV-6A/B). Whether iciHHV-6A/B is transcriptionally active in vivo and how it shapes the immunological response are still unclear. In this study, we screened DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data for 650 individuals available through the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and identified 2 iciHHV-6A- and 4 iciHHV-6B-positive candidates. When corresponding tissue-specific gene expression signatures were analyzed, low levels HHV-6A/B gene expression was found across multiple tissues, with the highest levels of gene expression in the brain (specifically for HHV-6A), testis, esophagus, and adrenal gland. U90 and U100 were the most highly expressed HHV-6 genes in both iciHHV-6A- and iciHHV-6B-positive individuals. To assess whether tissue-specific gene expression from iciHHV-6A/B influences the immune response, a cohort of 15,498 subjects was screened and 85 iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects were identified. Plasma samples from iciHHV-6A/B+ and age- and sex-matched controls were analyzed for antibodies to control antigens (cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], and influenza virus [FLU]) or HHV-6A/B antigens. Our results indicate that iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects have significantly more antibodies against the U90 gene product (IE1) than do non-iciHHV-6-positive individuals. Antibody responses against EBV and FLU antigens or HHV-6A/B gene products either not expressed or expressed at low levels, such as U47, U57, and U72, were identical between controls and iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects. CMV-seropositive individuals with iciHHV-6A/B+ have more antibodies against CMV pp150 than do CMV-seropositive controls. These results argue that spontaneous gene expression from integrated HHV-6A/B leads to an increase in antigenic burden that translates into a more robust HHV-6A/B-specific antibody response.IMPORTANCE HHV-6A and -6B are human herpesviruses that have the unique property of being able to integrate into the telomeric regions of human chromosomes. Approximately 1% of the world's population carries integrated HHV-6A/B genome in every cell of their body. Whether viral genes are transcriptionally active in these individuals is unclear. By taking advantage of a unique tissue-specific gene expression data set, we showed that the majority of tissues from iciHHV-6 individuals do not show HHV-6 gene expression. Brain and testes showed the highest tissue-specific expression of HHV-6 genes in two separate data sets. Two HHV-6 genes, U90 (immediate early 1 protein) and U100 (glycoproteins Q1 and Q2), were found to be selectively and consistently expressed across several human tissues. Expression of U90 translates into an increase in antigen-specific antibody response in iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects relative to controls. Future studies will be needed to determine the mechanism of gene expression, the effects of these genes on human gene transcription networks, and the pathophysiological impact of having increased viral protein expression in tissue in conjunction with increased antigen-specific antibody production.
Project description:Human herpes viruses (HHVs) are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0) and 14 days later (after treatment), or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.
Project description:Infections with DNA viruses are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. This study describes the analytical and clinical performance characteristics of the Arc Bio Galileo Pathogen Solution, an all-inclusive metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) reagent and bioinformatics pipeline that allows the simultaneous quantitation of 10 transplant-related double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses (adenovirus [ADV], BK virus [BKV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human herpesvirus 6A [HHV-6A], HHV-6B, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, JC virus [JCV], and varicella-zoster virus [VZV]). The mNGS 95% limit of detection ranged from 14 copies/ml (HHV-6) to 191 copies/ml (BKV), and the lower limit of quantitation ranged from 442?international units (IU)/ml (EBV) to 661 copies/ml (VZV). An evaluation of 50 residual plasma samples with at least one DNA virus detected in prior clinical testing showed a total percent agreement of mNGS and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of 89.2% (306/343), with a ? statistic of 0.725. The positive percent agreement was 84.9% (73/86), and the negative percent agreement was 90.7% (233/257). Furthermore, mNGS detected seven subsequently confirmed coinfections that were not initially requested by qPCR. Passing-Bablok regression revealed a regression line of y?=?0.953x?+?0.075 (95% confidence interval [CI] of the slope, 0.883 to 1.011; intercept, -0.100 to 0.299), and Bland-Altman analysis (mNGS - qPCR) showed a slight positive bias (0.28 log10 concentration; 95% limits of agreement, -0.62 to 1.18). In conclusion, the mNGS-based Galileo pipeline demonstrates analytical and clinical performance comparable to that of qPCR for transplant-related DNA viruses.
Project description:Detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) other than cytomegalovirus (CMV) in colonic mucosa of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. This study identified eight HHVs in the colonic mucosa of individuals with IBD and compared the results with immunocompetent and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.A total of 89 individuals who had colorectal ulcer on colonoscopy were enrolled: 26 with immunocompetency (n = 26), 41 with IBD, and 22 with HIV infection. We examined the colonic ulcers for the presence of eight HHVs-herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1/2, varicella zoster virus (VZV), CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8-using mucosal PCR.The IBD group had positivity rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 53.7%, 24.4%, 39%, 39%, and 0% for HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8, respectively. The positivity rates of EBV and CMV in colonic mucosa increased significantly in the order of the immunocompetent, IBD, and HIV groups (EBV: 23.1%, 53.7%, 72.7%, P for trend = 0.0005; CMV, 7.7%, 24.4%, 54.5%, P for trend = 0.0003, respectively), but no increase was found in the other HHVs. Median mucosal EBV DNA values in the immunocompetent, IBD, and HIV groups were 0, 76, and 287 copies/?g DNA, respectively (P for trend = 0.002). Corresponding median mucosal CMV DNA values were 0, 0, and 17 copies/?g DNA (P for trend = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the positivity rates of the eight HHVs between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.The HHVs of EBV, CMV, HHV-6, and HHV-7, but not of HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, or HHV-8, were identified in the colonic mucosa of IBD individuals. EBV and CMV in colonic mucosa was correlated with host immune status in increasing order of immunocompetent, IBD, and HIV-infected individuals.
Project description:Early-life infections and associated neuroinflammation is incriminated in the pathogenesis of various mood disorders. Infection with human roseoloviruses, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, allows viral latency in the central nervous system and other tissues, which can later be activated causing cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate possible association of HHV-6A and HHV-6B activation with three different groups of psychiatric patients. DNA qPCR, immunofluorescence and FISH studies were carried out in post-mortem posterior cerebellum from 50 cases each of bipolar disorder (BPD), schizophrenia, 15 major depressive disorder (MDD) and 50 appropriate control samples obtained from two well-known brain collections (Stanley Medical Research Institute). HHV-6A and HHV-6B late proteins (indicating active infection) and viral DNA were detected more frequently (p < 0.001 for each virus) in human cerebellum in MDD and BPD relative to controls. These roseolovirus proteins and DNA were found less frequently in schizophrenia cases. Active HHV-6A and HHV-6B infection in cerebellar Purkinje cells were detected frequently in BPD and MDD cases. Furthermore, we found a significant association of HHV-6A infection with reduced Purkinje cell size, suggesting virus-mediated abnormal Purkinje cell function in these disorders. Finally, gene expression analysis of cerebellar tissue revealed changes in pathways reflecting an inflammatory response possibly to HHV-6A infection. Our results provide molecular evidence to support a role for active HHV-6A and HHV-6B infection in BPD and MDD.
Project description:There are nine herpesviruses known to infect humans, of which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most widely distributed (>90% of adults infected). This ubiquitous virus is implicated in a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Previous analyses of the EBV genome revealed numerous regions with evidence of generating unusually stable and conserved RNA secondary structures and led to the discovery of a novel class of EBV non-coding (nc)RNAs: the stable intronic sequence (sis)RNAs. To gain a better understanding of the roles of RNA structure in EBV biology and pathogenicity, we revisit EBV using recently developed tools for genome-wide motif discovery and RNA structural characterization. This corroborated previous results and revealed novel motifs with potential functionality; one of which has been experimentally validated. Additionally, since many herpesviruses increasingly rival the seroprevalence of EBV (VZV, HHV-6 and HHV-7 being the most notable), analyses were expanded to include all sequenced human Herpesvirus RefSeq genomes, allowing for genomic comparisons. In total 10 genomes were analyzed, for EBV (types 1 and 2), HCMV, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, HSV-1, HSV-2, KSHV, and VZV. All resulting data were archived in the RNAStructuromeDB (https://structurome.bb.iastate.edu/herpesvirus) to make them available to a wide array of researchers.
Project description:Seroprevalence data of human herpesviruses (HHVs) are limited for sub-Saharan Africa. These are important to provide an indication of potential burden of HHV-related disease, in particular in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals who are known to be at increased risk of these conditions in the Western world. In this cross-sectional study among 405 HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy naïve individuals in rural South Africa the seroprevalence of HHVs was: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (98%), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (87%), varicella zoster virus (VZV) (89%), and 100% for both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Independent factors associated with VZV seropositivity were low educational status and having children. Lack of in-house access to drinking water was independently associated with positive HSV-1 serostatus, whereas Shangaan ethnicity was associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Increasing age was associated with higher IgG titres to both EBV and CMV, whereas CD4 cell count was negatively associated with EBV and CMV IgG titres. Moreover, IgG titres of HSV-1 and 2, VZV and CMV, and CMV and EBV were positively correlated. The high HHV seroprevalence emphasises the importance of awareness of these viral infections in HIV-infected individuals in South Africa.
Project description:Human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) is a T lymphotropic ?-herpesvirus that is clearly distinct from human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) according to molecular biological features. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses recently classified HHV-6B as a separate species. The primary HHV-6B infection causes exanthem subitum and is sometimes associated with severe encephalopathy. More than 90% of the general population is infected with HHV-6B during childhood, and the virus remains throughout life as a latent infection. HHV-6B reactivation causes encephalitis in immunosuppressed patients. The cellular receptor for HHV-6A entry was identified as human CD46, but the receptor for HHV-6B has not been clear. Here we found that CD134, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, functions as a specific entry receptor for HHV-6B. A T-cell line that is normally nonpermissive for HHV-6B infection became highly susceptible to infection when CD134 was overexpressed. CD134 was down-regulated in HHV-6B-infected T cells. Soluble CD134 interacted with the HHV-6B glycoprotein complex that serves as a viral ligand for cellular receptor, which inhibited HHV-6B but not HHV-6A infection in target cells. The identification of CD134 as an HHV-6B specific entry receptor provides important insight into understanding HHV-6B entry and its pathogenesis.
Project description:Background:Improved understanding of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus kinetics after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) would facilitate development of therapeutic strategies. Methods:We tested weekly plasma samples from 404 patients through day 100 after allogeneic HCT for cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus (HHV) 6A and 6B, BK polyomavirus (BKV), adenovirus (AdV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Episodes lasting ?1 week were defined as blips and >1 week as persistent. We described virus-specific kinetics, analyzed the association of virus area under the curve (AUC) with overall mortality, and identified risk factors for persistent episodes. Results:We identified 428 episodes of CMV, 292 of BKV, 224 of HHV-6B, 46 of AdV, and 53 of EBV. CMV and BKV had the highest proportions of persistent episodes (68% and 80%, respectively). Detection and kinetics varied by virus. HHV-6B episodes reached maximum levels fastest and had the shortest intervals between detection and end-organ disease. End-organ disease occurred within 14 days of viremia in 68% of cases, generally during persistent episodes. For all viruses, higher viral load AUC increased risk for overall mortality through day 365, persistent episodes had higher viral load than blips, and higher first positive viral load significantly increased risk for persistent episodes. First viral load >2 log10 copies/mL (range, 2.04-3.06 per virus) had high specificity for persistent episodes. Conclusions:Persistent high viral load dsDNA viremia episodes after allogeneic HCT predict mortality. Virus-specific kinetics can guide timing and thresholds for early intervention in studies of novel agents.