Can Sarcopenia Quantified by Ultrasound of the Rectus Femoris Muscle Predict Adverse Outcome of Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients as well as Frailty? A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: To compare sarcopenia and frailty for outcome prediction in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients.Frailty has been associated with adverse outcomes and describes a status of muscle weakness and decreased physiological reserve leading to increased vulnerability to stressors. However, frailty assessment depends on patient cooperation. Sarcopenia can be quantified by ultrasound and the predictive value of sarcopenia at SICU admission for adverse outcome has not been defined.We conducted a prospective, observational study of SICU patients. Sarcopenia was diagnosed by ultrasound measurement of rectus femoris cross-sectional area. Frailty was diagnosed by the Frailty Index Questionnaire based on 50 variables. Relationship between variables and outcomes was assessed by multivariable regression analysis NCT02270502.Sarcopenia and frailty were quantified in 102 patients and observed in 43.1% and 38.2%, respectively. Sarcopenia predicted adverse discharge disposition (discharge to nursing facility or in-hospital mortality, odds ratio 7.49; 95% confidence interval 1.47-38.24; P = 0.015) independent of important clinical covariates, as did frailty (odds ratio 8.01; 95% confidence interval 1.82-35.27; P = 0.006); predictive ability did not differ between sarcopenia and frailty prediction model, reflected by ? values of 21.74 versus 23.44, respectively, and a net reclassification improvement (NRI) of -0.02 (P = 0.87). Sarcopenia and frailty predicted hospital length of stay and the frailty model had a moderately better predictive accuracy for this outcome.Bedside diagnosis of sarcopenia by ultrasound predicts adverse discharge disposition in SICU patients equally well as frailty. Sarcopenia assessed by ultrasound may be utilized as rapid beside modality for risk stratification of critically ill patients.
Project description:Importance:High health care costs encourage initiatives that avoid overuse of resources and identify opportunities to promote appropriate care. Objective:To investigate the causes of potentially avoidable surgical intensive care unit (SICU) admissions and disposition delays to determine whether targeted interventions could decrease these stays. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective, observational study focused on potentially avoidable SICU days, as determined by observers with input from the rounding intensivists at a 24-bed open SICU at an urban, academic hospital. The preintervention phase occurred from April 6 through June 21, 2015; after implementation of targeted interventions, the postintervention phase occurred from April 4 through June 28, 2016. Data collected included demographic characteristics, reason for admission, and length of stay. All patients admitted to the SICU during the preintervention and postintervention phases were included in the analysis. Interventions:Based on results collected in the preintervention phase, targeted interventions were designed and implemented from July 1, 2015, through March 31, 2016, including (1) reducing SICU care for minor traumatic brain injury, (2) optimizing postoperative airway management, (3) enhancing communication between services regarding transfers to the SICU, (4) identifying and facilitating more timely end-of-life conversations and supportive care consultations, and (5) encouraging early disposition of patients to floor beds. Main Outcomes and Measures:Changes in the proportion of potentially avoidable SICU days owing to potentially avoidable admissions and/or disposition delays. Results:A total of 459 patients (253 men [55.1%] and 206 women [44.9%]; median age, 62 years [interquartile range, 46-75 years]) were admitted during the preintervention and postintervention phases. Of 261 patients admitted during the preintervention period and 245 during the postintervention period, median SICU and hospital length of stay remained unchanged. A reduction was noted in the percentage of postintervention SICU days owing to potentially avoidable admissions (152 of 1168 days [13%] vs 118 of 1338 days [8.8%]; P?=?.001) and disposition delays (138 of 1168 days [11.8%] vs 97 of 1338 days [7.2%]; P?<?.001). During the postintervention period, decreases were noted in the SICU days related to the most common sources of potentially avoidable admissions (SICU stay ?24 hours, airway concerns, and somnolence) and disposition delays (end-of-life decisions and floor bed unavailable) as well as in the overall rate of potentially avoidable days (269 of 1168 days [23%] vs 205 of 1338 days [15.3%]; P?<?.001). Conclusions and Relevance:Nearly one-fourth of SICU days could be categorized as potentially avoidable. Targeted interventions resulted in a significant reduction of potentially avoidable SICU days.
Project description:Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field. We contrast assessments of sarcopenia, which consider muscle mass and function, with assessments of frailty, which often additionally consider social, cognitive and psychological domains. Frailty is emerging as an important syndrome in respiratory disease, being strongly associated with poor outcome. We also unpick the relationship between sarcopenia, frailty and skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic respiratory disease and reveal these as interlinked but distinct clinical phenotypes. Suggested areas for future work include the application of sarcopenia and frailty models to restrictive diseases and population-based samples, prospective prognostic assessments of sarcopenia and frailty in relation to common multidimensional indices, plus the investigation of exercise, nutritional and pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease.
Project description:Gastric cancer is a major health problem, and frailty and sarcopenia will affect the postoperative outcomes in older people. However, there is still no systematic review to determine the role of frailty and sarcopenia in predicting postoperative outcomes among older patients with gastric cancer who undergo gastrectomy surgery.We searched Embase, Medline through the Ovid interface and PubMed websites to identify potential studies. All the search strategies were run on August 24, 2016. We searched the Google website for unpublished studies on June 1, 2017. The data related to the endpoints of gastrectomy surgery were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to estimate the association between sarcopenia and adverse postoperative outcomes by using Stata version 11.0. PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed.After screening 500 records, we identified eight studies, including three prospective cohort studies and five retrospective cohort studies. Only one study described frailty, and the remaining seven studies described sarcopenia. Frailty was statistically significant for predicting hospital mortality (OR 3.96; 95% CI: 1.12-14.09, P = 0.03). Sarcopenia was also associated with postoperative outcomes (pooled OR 3.12; 95% CI: 2.23-4.37). No significant heterogeneity was observed across these pooled studies (Chi2 = 3.10, I2 = 0%, P = 0.685).Sarcopenia and frailty seem to have significant adverse impacts on the occurrence of postoperative outcomes. Well-designed prospective cohort studies focusing on frailty and quality of life with a sufficient sample are needed.
Project description:Sarcopenia and frailty are commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, including decompensation and wait-list mortality. The impact of these entities in patients with differing disease etiologies has not been elucidated. We aim to ascertain the change in their prevalence over time on the wait list and determine their impact on hospitalization, delisting, and wait-list survival, specifically for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Adult patients who were evaluated for their first liver transplant from 2014 to 2016 with a primary diagnosis of NASH (n = 136) or ALD (n = 129) were included. Computed tomography scans were used to determine the presence of sarcopenia and myosteatosis. Frailty was diagnosed using the Rockwood frailty index. Patients with NASH had a significantly lower prevalence of sarcopenia (22% versus 47%; P < 0.001) but a significantly higher prevalence of frailty (49% versus 34%; P = 0.03) when compared with patients with ALD at the time of listing. In patients with NASH, sarcopenia was not associated with adverse events, but a higher frailty score was associated with an increased length of hospitalization (P = 0.05) and an increased risk of delisting (P = 0.02). In patients with ALD, univariate analysis showed the presence of sarcopenia was associated with an increased risk of delisting (P = 0.01). In conclusion, sarcopenia and frailty occur with differing prevalence with variable impact on outcomes in wait-listed patients with NASH and ALD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study tested the hypothesis that sarcopenia and its constituent components, reduced lean muscle mass and impaired motor function, are associated with reduced survival and increased risk of incident disabilities.<h4>Methods</h4>1466 community-dwelling older adults underwent assessment of muscle mass with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), grip strength, gait speed and other components of physical frailty and annual self-report assessments of disability. We used Cox proportional hazards models that controlled for age, sex, race, education and height to examine the associations of a continuous sarcopenia metric with the hazard of death and incident disabilities.<h4>Results</h4>Mean baseline age was about 80 years old and follow-up was 5.5 years. In a proportional hazards model controlling for age, sex, race, education and baseline sarcopenia, each 1-SD higher score on a continuous sarcopenia scale was associated with lower hazards of death (HR 0.70, 95%CI [0.62, 0.78]), incident IADL (HR 0.80,95%CI [0.70, 0.93]), incident ADL disability (HR 0.80 95%CI [71, 91]) and incident mobility disability (HR 0.81, 95%CI [0.70, 0.93]). Further analyses suggest that grip strength and gait speed rather than muscle mass drive the associations with all four adverse health outcomes. Similar findings were observed when controlling for additional measures used to assess physical frailty including BMI, fatigue and physical activity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Motor function is the primary driver of the associations of sarcopenia and physical frailty with diverse adverse health outcomes. Further work is needed to identify other facets of muscle structure and motor function which together can identify adults at risk for specific adverse health outcomes.
Project description:Sarcopenia is a surrogate marker of patient frailty that estimates the physiologic reserve of an individual patient. We sought to investigate the impact of sarcopenia on short- and long-term outcomes in patients having undergone surgical intervention for primary hepatic malignancies.Ninety-six patients who underwent hepatic resection or liver transplantation for HCC or ICC at the John Hopkins Hospital between 2000 and 2013 met inclusion criteria. Sarcopenia was assessed by the measurement of total psoas major volume (TPV) and total psoas area (TPA). The impact of sarcopenia on perioperative complications and survival was assessed.Mean age was 61.9 years and most patients were men (61.4 %). Mean adjusted TPV was lower in women (23.3 cm(3)/m) versus men (34.9 cm(3)/m) (P?<?0.01); 47 patients (48.9 %) had sarcopenia. The incidence of a postoperative complication was 40.4 % among patients with sarcopenia versus 18.4 % among patients who did not have sarcopenia (P?=?0.01). Of note, all Clavien grade ?3 complications (n?=?11, 23.4 %) occurred in the sarcopenic group. On multivariable analysis, the presence of sarcopenia was an independent predictive factor of postoperative complications (OR?=?3.06). Sarcopenia was not associated with long-term survival (HR?=?1.23; P?=?0.51).Sarcopenia, as assessed by TPV, was an independent factor predictive of postoperative complications following surgical intervention for primary hepatic malignancies.
Project description:Importance:Objective preoperative risk assessment tools, such as the Modified Frailty Index (mFI), may inform patient and physician decision making when considering total laryngectomy. Estimation of outcomes may help to set realistic expectations about recovery and outcomes and facilitate optimal resource management. Objective:To evaluate the association between the mFI score as a measure of frailty and outcomes following total laryngectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants:Retrospective evaluation using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP), a risk- and case-mix-adjusted national quality assessment program. The ACS NSQIP database identified 595 patients who underwent total laryngectomy between 2006 and 2012. Patients were assessed for demographics and comorbidity and were stratified on the basis of calculated mFI score. Outcomes, including postoperative complications, length of hospitalization, and discharge destination, were evaluated as a function of increasing frailty using multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Main Outcomes and Measures:Risk of postoperative complications, length of hospitalization, and discharge disposition. Results:After exclusion of patients who experienced significant deviation from standard care protocols and those with missing or incomplete data, 343 individuals were included in the analysis. Of these, 278 (81.0%) were men, and the mean age was 63 years (95% CI, 61.9-64.4 years). Increasing frailty resulted in a nonlinear but progressive rise in incidence of postoperative adverse events. Overall, 96 (28.0%) patients experienced a postoperative complication, and patients with an mFI score of 3 or higher were more likely to develop postoperative complications than were patients with an mFI score of 0 (50.0% vs 16.7%; OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.72- 8.51). Patients in the highest frailty group experienced a longer mean duration of hospitalization (14.2 vs 9.5 days; difference, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.3-8.1 days) and were more likely to require skilled care after discharge (33.3% vs 3.2%; difference, 30.1%; 95% CI, 7.4%-52.9%). Conclusions and Relevance:An mFI score of 3 or higher is associated with increased risk for postoperative complications, longer hospitalization, and need for postdischarge skilled care following total laryngectomy. The mFI provides a personalized risk assessment to better inform patients, physicians, and payers when planning a total laryngectomy.
Project description:Background:Although low alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have been associated with poor outcomes in the elderly population, the determinants subtending this association have been poorly explored. To gain insight into this topic, we analyzed data from a prospective population-based database (InCHIANTI study) in which frailty, disability, sarcopenia, and pyridoxine levels were systematically assessed. Methods:Data are from 765 participants aged more than 65 years (mean age 75.3 years, women 61.8%), without chronic liver disease, malignancies, or alcohol abuse. Frailty was defined according to Fried criteria, sarcopenia through peripheral Quantitative-Computed-Tomography (lowest gender-specific tertile of the residuals of a linear regression of muscle mass from height and fat mass), and disability as self-reported need for help in at least one basic daily living activity. Associations of ALT with overall and cardiovascular mortality were assessed by Cox-models with time-dependent covariates. Results:ALT activity was inversely associated with frailty, sarcopenia, disability, and pyridoxine deficiency; however, higher ALT was confirmed to be protective with respect of overall and cardiovascular mortality even in multiple-adjusted models including all these covariates (overall: hazard ratio [HR] 0.98 [0.96-1], p = .02; cardiovascular: 0.94 [0.9-0.98], p < .01). The association between ALT activity and mortality was nonlinear (J-shaped), and subjects in the lower quintiles of ALT levels showed a sharply increased overall and cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions:These results suggest that reduced ALT levels in older individuals can be considered as a marker of frailty, disability, and sarcopenia, and as an independent predictor of adverse outcomes. The possible relationship between reduced ALT and impaired hepatic metabolic functions should be explored.
Project description:With the aging population and consequent increase in associated prevalence of frailty, dementia, and multimorbidity, primary care physicians will be overwhelmed with the complexity of the psychosocial and clinical presentation. Geriatric syndromes including frailty, sarcopenia, cognitive impairment, and anorexia of aging (AA) either in isolation or in combination are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes and if recognized early, and appropriately managed, will lead to decreased disability. Primary care practices are often located in residential settings and are in an ideal position to incorporate preventive screening and geriatric assessment with personalized management. However, primary care physicians lack the time, multidisciplinary resources, or skills to conduct geriatric assessment, and the limited number of geriatricians worldwide further complicates the matter. There is no one effective strategy to implement geriatric assessment in primary care which is rapid, cost-effective, and do not require geriatricians. Rapid Geriatric Assessment (RGA) takes <5 min to complete. It screens for frailty, sarcopenia, AA, and cognition with assisted management pathway without the need of a geriatrician. We developed RGA iPad application for screening with assisted management in two primary care practices and explored the feasibility and overall prevalence of frailty, sarcopenia, and AA. The assessment was conducted by trained nurses and coordinators. Among 2,589 older patients ?65 years old, the prevalence of frailty was 5.9%, pre-frail 31.2%, and robust 62.9%. Fatigue was present in 17.8%, and among them, the prevalence of undiagnosed depression as assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 was 76.4% and 13.5% of total. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 15.4%, and 13.9% experienced at least one fall in the past year. AA was prevalent in 10.9%. The time taken to do the assessment with defined algorithm was on average 5 min or less per patient, and 96% managed to complete the assessment prior to seeing their doctor in the same session. The RGA app is a rapid and feasible tool to be used by any healthcare professional in primary care for identification of geriatric syndrome with assisted management.
Project description:Introduction: With increasing age the prevalence of frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition and dysphagia increases. These are all independent markers of outcome. This study explores the prevalence of these four and explores relationships between them. Methods: A convenience sample of 122 patients admitted to acute medical and frailty wards were recruited. Each was assessed using appropriate screening tools; Clinical Frailty Score (CFS) for frailty, SARC-F for sarcopenia, Nutritional Risk Tool (NRT) for nutritional status and 4QT for dysphagia. Results: The mean age of the participants was 80.53 years (65-99 years), and 50.37% (68) were female. Overall, 111 of the 122 (91.0%) reported the presence of at least one of the quartet. The median CFS was 5 (1-9), with 84 patients (68.9%) having a score of ?5 (moderate or severely frail); The median SARC-F was 5 (0-10), with 64 patients (52.5%) having a score of ?5; The median NRT was 0 (0-8) and 33 patients (27.0%) scored ? 1. A total of 77 patients (63.1%) reported no difficulty with swallowing/dysphagia (4QT ? 1) and 29 (23.7%) had only one factor. Sixteen patients (13.1%) had all four. There was a significant correlation between nutritional status and dysphagia, but not with frailty or sarcopenia. There were significant correlations between frailty and both sarcopenia and dysphagia. Conclusions: In our sample of acute medical and frailty ward patients, there was a much higher prevalence than expected (91%) of either: frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition or dysphagia. The prevalence of all four was present in 13% of patients. We suggest that frailty, sarcopenia, nutritional risk and dysphagia comprise an "Older Adult Quartet". Further study is required to investigate the effect of the "Older Adult Quartet" on morbidity and mortality.