Transformation of Breast Reconstruction via Additive Biomanufacturing.
ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to current breast reconstruction options. However, the conventional approach of using a scaffold in combination with adipose-derived precursor cells poses several problems in terms of scalability and hence clinical feasibility. Following the body-as-a-bioreactor approach, this study proposes a unique concept of delayed fat injection into an additive biomanufactured and custom-made scaffold. Three study groups were evaluated: Empty scaffold, Scaffold containing 4?cm(3) lipoaspirate and Empty scaffold +2-week prevascularisation period. In group 3, of prevascularisation, 4?cm(3) of lipoaspirate was injected into scaffolds after 2 weeks. Using a well-characterised additive biomanufacturing technology platform, patient-specific scaffolds made of medical-grade-polycaprolactone were designed and fabricated. Scaffolds were implanted in subglandular pockets in immunocompetent minipigs (n?=?4) for 24-weeks. Angiogenesis and adipose tissue regeneration were observed in all constructs. Histological evaluation showed that the prevascularisation?+?lipoaspirate group had the highest relative area of adipose tissue (47.32%?±?4.12) which was significantly higher than both lipoaspirate-only (39.67%?±?2.04) and empty control group (8.31%?±?8.94) and similar to native breast tissue (44.97%?±?14.12). This large preclinical animal study provides proof-of-principle that the clinically applicable prevascularisation and delayed fat-injection techniques can be used for regeneration of large volumes of adipose tissue.
Project description:Soft tissue fillers are rapidly gaining popularity for aesthetic improvements or repair of adipose tissue deficits. Several injectable biopolymers have been investigated for this purpose, but often show rapid resorption or limited adipogenesis and do not mimic the native adipose extracellular matrix (ECM). We have generated an injectable adipose matrix scaffold by efficiently removing both the cellular and lipid contents of human lipoaspirate. The decellularized material retained the complex composition of peptides and glycosaminoglycans found in native adipose ECM. This matrix can be further processed by solubilizing the extracted ECM to generate a thermally responsive hydrogel that self-assembles upon subcutaneous injection. This hydrogel also supports the growth and survival of patient matched adipose-derived stem cells in vitro. The development of an injectable hydrogel from human lipoaspirate represents a minimally invasive option for adipose tissue engineering in terms of both the collection of source material and delivery of the scaffold.
Project description:Underlying metabolic disease is poor adipose tissue function characterized by impaired glucose tolerance and low expression of health promoting adipokines. Currently, no treatments specifically target the adipose tissue and we are investigating polymer scaffolds for localized drug delivery as a therapeutic platform. In this work we implanted porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffolds into the epididymal fat of mice. Surprisingly, "empty" scaffolds decreased blood glucose levels in healthy mice as well as epididymal fat pad size. By injecting a fluorescent glucose tracer into mice, we determined that glucose uptake increases by 60% in epididymal fat pads with scaffolds; in contrast, glucose uptake was not elevated in other major metabolic organs, suggesting the enhanced glucose uptake at the scaffold implant site was responsible for decreased blood glucose levels. Histology indicated increased cellularity and tissue remodeling around the scaffold and we found increased expression of glucose transporter 1 and insulin-like growth factor 1, which are proteins involved in wound healing that can also modulate blood glucose levels through their promotion of glucose uptake. Regarding clinical translation, "empty" scaffolds decreased obesity and improved glucose tolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. These findings demonstrate increased cellular activity in the adipose tissue, such as that associated with the host response to biomaterial implant, is beneficial in mice suffering from metabolic complications of over nutrition, possibly because it mitigates the positive energy balance that leads to the obese, diabetic state. More broadly, this work reaffirms that in addition to the local host response typically investigated, biomaterial implant has systemic physiological effects and suggests that there may be implications for therapy.
Project description:Despite many advances in tissue engineering, there are still significant challenges associated with restructuring, repairing, or replacing damaged tissue in the body. Currently, a major obstacle has been trying to develop a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering that provides the correct mechanical properties to endure the loads associated with articular joints as well as promote cell-scaffold interactions to aid in extracellular matrix deposition. In addition, adipogenic tissue engineering is widely growing due to an increased need for more innovative reconstructive therapies following adipose tissue traumas and cosmetic surgeries. Recently, lipoaspirate tissue has been identified as a viable alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells because it contains a supportive stroma that can easily be isolated. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can differentiate into a variety of mesodermal lineages including the adipogenic and chondrogenic phenotypes. Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds have been shown to be a promising alternative and stem cells have been widely used to evaluate the compatibility, viability, and bioactivity of these materials. Polycaprolactone is a bioresorbable polymer, which has been widely used for biomedical and tissue engineering applications. The fundamental concept behind successful synthetic tissue-engineered scaffolds is to promote progenitor cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, and induce differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, and finally integration with host tissue. In this study, we investigated the adhesion, proliferation, and chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs on nanowire surfaces. A solvent-free gravimetric template technique was used to fabricate polycaprolactone nanowires surfaces. The results indicated that during the growth period i.e., initial 7 days of culture, the nanowire surfaces (NW) supported adhesion and proliferation of the cells that had elongated morphologies. However, cell on surfaces without nanowires had non-elongated morphologies. Further, immunofluorescence imaging of marker proteins showed that the nanowires surfaces did not appear to support chondrogenic differentiation whereas supported adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs.
Project description:There is a critical need for monitoring physiologically relevant, sustainable, human adipose tissues in vitro to gain new insights into metabolic diseases. To support long-term culture, a 3D silk scaffold assisted culture system is developed that maintains mature unilocular adipocytes ex vivo in coculture with preadipocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells obtained from small volumes of liquefied adipose samples. Without the silk scaffold, adipose tissue explants cannot be sustained in long-term culture (3 months) due to their fragility. Adjustments to media components are used to tune lipid metabolism and proliferation, in addition to responsiveness to an inflammatory stimulus. Interestingly, patient specific responses to TNF? stimulation are observed, providing a proof-of-concept translational technique for patient specific disease modeling in the future. In summary, this novel 3D scaffold assisted approach is required for establishing physiologically relevant, sustainable, human adipose tissue systems from small volumes of lipoaspirate, making this methodology of great value to studies of metabolism, adipokine-driven diseases, and other diseases where the roles of adipocytes are only now becoming uncovered.
Project description:Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated the role of noggin, a bone morphogenetic protein-2 inhibitor, in vascular development and angiogenesis. The authors hypothesized that noggin suppression in human adipose-derived stromal cells would enhance vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo to a greater extent than bone morphogenetic protein-2 alone. METHODS:Human adipose-derived stromal cells were isolated from human lipoaspirate (n = 6) noggin was knocked down using lentiviral techniques. Knockdown was confirmed and angiogenesis was assessed by tubule formation and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cells were seeded onto scaffolds and implanted into a 4-mm critical size calvarial defect. In vivo angiogenic signaling was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Human adipose-derived stromal cells with noggin suppression secreted significantly higher amounts of angiogenic proteins, expressed higher levels of angiogenic genes, and formed more tubules in vitro. In vivo, calvarial defects seeded with noggin shRNA human adipose-derived stromal cells exhibited a significantly higher number of vessels in the defect site than controls by immunohistochemistry (p < 0.05). In addition, bone morphogenetic protein-2-releasing scaffolds significantly enhanced vascular signaling in the defect site. CONCLUSIONS:Human adipose-derived stromal cells demonstrate significant increases in angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo with both noggin suppression and BMP-2 supplementation. By creating a cell with noggin suppressed and by using a scaffold with increased bone morphogenetic protein-2 signaling, a more angiogenic niche can be created.
Project description:Identification of appropriate donor cell types is important for lung cell therapy and for lung regeneration. Previous studies have indicated that mesenchymal stromal cells derived from human bone marrow (hBM-MSCs) and from human adipose tissue (hAT-MSCs) may have the ability to trans-differentiate into lung epithelial cells. However, these data remain controversial. Herein, the ability of hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs to repopulate acellular rodent lung tissue was evaluated. hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and lipoaspirate, respectively. Rat lungs were decellularized with CHAPS detergent, followed by seeding the matrix with hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs. Under appropriate culture conditions, both human MSC populations attached to and proliferated within the lung tissue scaffold. In addition, cells were capable of type 2 pneumocyte differentiation, as assessed by marker expression of surfactant protein C (pro-SPC) at the protein and the RNA level, and by the presence of lamellar bodies by transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, hAT-MSCs contributed to Clara-like cells that lined the airways in the lung scaffolds, whereas the hBM-MSCs did not. We also tested the differentiation potential of MSCs on different extracellular matrix components in vitro, and found that protein substrate influences MSC epithelial differentiation. Together our data show the capacity for human MSCs to differentiate toward lung epithelial phenotypes, and the possibility of using these cells for lung cell therapies and tissue engineering.
Project description:Current approaches to soft tissue regeneration include the use of fat grafts, natural or synthetic biomaterials as filler materials. Fat grafts and natural biomaterials resorb too quickly to maintain tissue regeneration, while synthetic materials do not degrade or regenerate tissue. Here, we present a simple approach to volume stable filling of soft tissue defects. In this study, we combined lipoaspirate with a silk protein matrix in a subcutaneous rat model. Silk biomaterials can be tailored to fit a variety of needs, and here were processed silk biomaterials into a porous sponge format to allow for tissue ingrowth while remaining mechanically robust. Over an 18 month period, the lipoaspirate seeded silk protein matrix regenerated subcutaneous adipose tissue while maintaining the original implanted volume. A silk protein matrix alone was not sufficient to regenerate adipose tissue, but yielded a fibrous tissue, although implanted volume was maintained. This work presents a significant improvement to the standard approaches to filling soft tissue defects by matching biomaterial degradation and tissue regeneration profiles.
Project description:As biomaterial therapies emerge to address adipose tissue dysfunction that underlies metabolic disease, the immune response to these systems must be established. As a potential therapy, we are investigating resveratrol delivery from porous poly(lactide- co-glycolide) scaffolds designed to integrate with adipose tissue. Resveratrol was selected for its ability to protect mice and primates from high fat diet and broad anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we report fabrication of scaffolds with high resveratrol loading that are stable and active for up to one year. In vitro release profiles indicate that drug release is biphasic with a burst release over 3 days followed by a plateau. Surprisingly, we find that PLG scaffolds implanted into adipose tissue of mice promote an anti-inflammatory environment characterized by high arginase-1 and low TNF-? and IL-6 compared to naïve unmanipulated fat. Resveratrol delivery from the scaffold augments this anti-inflammatory environment by decreasing monocyte and lymphocyte numbers at the implant site and increasing expression of IL-10 and IL-13, cytokines that promote healthy adipose tissue. In terms of therapeutic applications, implant of scaffolds designed to release resveratrol into the visceral fat decreases MCP-1 expression in mice fed a high fat diet, a molecule that drives both local and systemic inflammation during obesity. Taken together, resveratrol delivery to adipose tissue using poly(lactide- co-glycolide) scaffolds is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of adipose tissue inflammation that drives metabolic disease.