Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study.
ABSTRACT: Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women.
Project description:Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis.A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot.Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53-13.00, P<0.001). The association between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and chronic periodontitis was analyzed in 10 studies. The pooled result showed that HCMV also has a significant association with chronic periodontitis (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.41-9.16, P = 0.007). Similar results were found in the sensitivity analyses. No significant publication bias was observed. Two eligible studies were included to investigate the association between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and chronic periodontitis risk. The association between HSV and chronic periodontitis was inconclusive (OR = 2.81 95% CI = 0.95-8.27, P = 0.06). Only one included study investigated the association between human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21-4.86).The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV and HCMV, are significantly associated with chronic periodontitis. There is insufficient evidence to support associations between HSV, HHV-7 and chronic periodontitis.
Project description:Herpesviruses are common components of the human microbiome that become clinically relevant when a competent immunosurveillance is compromised, such as in transplantation. Members of the beta and gamma subfamilies are associated with a wide diversity of pathologies, including end-organ disease and cancer. In this study, we developed a multiplex qPCR technique with high specificity, sensitivity, efficiency and predictability that allowed the simultaneous detection and quantification of beta and gamma human herpesviruses. The technique was tested in a cohort of 34 kidney- or liver-transplanted pediatric patients followed up for up to 12 months post-transplant. Viral load was determined in 495 leukocyte-plasma paired samples collected bi-weekly or monthly. Human herpesvirus (HHV) 7 was the herpesvirus most frequently found in positive samples (39%), followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (20%). Also, EBV and HHV7 were present in the majority of coinfection episodes (62%). The share of positive samples exclusively detected either in leukocytes or plasma was 85%, suggesting that these herpesviruses tended to take a latent or lytic path in an exclusive manner. Infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and HHV6, as well as coinfection by EBV/HHV7 and EBV/HHV6/HHV7, were associated with graft rejection (RR = 40.33 (p = 0.0013), 5.60 (p = 0.03), 5.60 (p = 0.03) and 17.64 (p = 0.0003), respectively). The routine monitoring of beta and gamma herpesviruses should be mandatory in transplant centers to implement preventive strategies.
Project description:Background:Administration of systemic antibiotics may implement persuasive treatment effect for chronic periodontitis by intending tissue-invasive bacteria in addition to accustomed nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Aims:The aim of this study was to assess the ancillary effects of oral clarithromycin (CLM) along with NSPT for chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods:Thirty periodontitis patients were randomly divided into two equal groups in this double-blind, randomized, parallel group, and active-controlled trial: test group - scaling and root planning (SRP) plus CLM (500 mg thrice daily for 7 days, orally) was given, and control group - only SRP was done. Clinical analysis, such as gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL), were taken at baseline, 3 months, and 6-month intervals for both groups. Subgingival plaque samples were cultured for periodontopathic organisms. Immunological parameter C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were estimated. Results:SPSS version 14 was used for statistical analysis. The intragroup comparison showed a significant reduction in the mean scores of all the parameters from baseline to 6 months. The intergroup comparison showed a statistically significant reduction of PD from baseline to 3 months (P < 0.001). GI, CAL, and CRP levels were also reduced but not statistically significant. The mean colony-forming units (CFU) of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) showed a statistically significant reduction from baseline to 3 months only in the test group (P = 0.042) and (P = 0.046), respectively. There was no statistically significant reduction of Aa and Pg at 6 months. Conclusions:CLM conceivably accepted as an addendum to NSPT for a shorter period.
Project description:Background:Periodontitis is associated with increased concentration of inflammatory markers and saliva has been proposed as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in oral and systemic diseases. The levels of salivary biomarkers, such as cytokines, could potentially be used to distinguish periodontal healthy individuals from subjects with periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to characterize the salivary levels of two inflammatory biomarkers associated with periodontitis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), in order to assess whether these cytokines salivary levels could potentially be used to complement periodontitis pregnant women diagnose. Methods:Forty-four pregnant women were distributed into three groups, according to their periodontal status: healthy, mild/moderate periodontitis and severe periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected and analysis of TNF-? and IL-6 salivary levels were performed with Immulite®. Results:Women with periodontitis exhibited significantly higher levels (p = 0.001) of salivary IL-6 and TNF-? compared with the healthy group: 25.1 (±11.2) pg/mL vs. 16.3 (±5.0) pg/mL and 29.7 (±17.2) pg/mL vs. 16.2 (±7.6) pg/mL, approximately 1.5 and 1.8 times more, respectively. Additionally, cytokines were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in severe periodontitis compared to periodontal healthy pregnant women. Conclusions:These results revealed that IL-6 and TNF-? salivary biomarkers provide high discriminatory capacity for distinguishing periodontal disease from periodontal health in pregnant women.
Project description:Acute apical abscesses and cellulitis are severe endodontic diseases caused by opportunistic bacteria with possible coinfection with latent herpesviruses. The objectives of this study are to identify herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), and Varicella zoster virus (VZV) in patients (n = 31) presenting with acute apical abscesses and cellulitis of endodontic origin. Primary and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using virus-specific primers and DNA isolated from cell-free abscess fluid. From patients exhibiting concurrent spontaneous pain (n = 28), nine abscesses contained HCMV, two abscesses contained EBV, one abscess contained HSV-1, and no abscesses contained VZV. Control PCR using genomic or recombinant templates showed detection limits to a single genomic copy of HCMV, 100 genomic copies for EBV, and 1 to 10 copies for HSV-1 with no cross-amplification between herpesviral DNA targets. Nested PCR was required for detection of herpesviral DNA in the abscess specimens, indicating that these viruses were present in low copy number. Filtration of abscess specimens and virus transfer experiments using human fibroblastic MRC-5 cells confirmed the presence of HCMV particles in several abscess specimens. We conclude that herpesviruses are present but not required for the development of acute apical abscesses and cellulitis of endodontic origin.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Periodontitis affects more than 20% of the Latin American population. Oxidative markers are associated with greater progression of periodontitis; therefore, its role in pathogenesis should be studied. OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of the main oral bacteria and viruses associated with periodontitis and estimate the total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in saliva from patients with periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We conducted systemically a cross-sectional study in 101 healthy subjects, 87 of whom had been diagnosed with periodontitis (P), according to the criteria of the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology, and 14 without periodontal pockets as controls (C). In subgingival samples, major viruses and dental pathogenic bacteria were identified using PCR techniques. The levels of total antioxidant capacity and malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) were determined by spectrophotometry in samples of unstimulated saliva. RESULTS:The mean of periodontal depth pocket and clinical attachment loss in patients with periodontitis was 5.6 ± 1.7 and 6.1 ± 3.1 mm, respectively. The most prevalent microorganisms were Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (32.5%) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (18.6%). The patients from rural areas showed a higher percentage of A. actinomycetemcomitans (urban: 17.9% vs. rural: 48.9%, p=0.0018). In patients with periodontitis, the frequency of EBV, HSV1 and 2, and HCMV genes was 2.3%. Periodontitis patients had higher levels of MDA (P: 2.1 ± 1.5; C: 0.46 ± 0.3 ?mol/g protein; p=0.0001) and total antioxidant capacity (P: 0.32 ± 0.2; C: 0.15 ± 0.1 mM; p< 0.0036). Oxidative markers showed no modifications due to the presence of periodontopathic bacteria. CONCLUSIONS:Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was the most prevalent bacteria; its presence did not modify the levels of oxidative markers in the saliva of patients with periodontitis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Previous studies have found that herpesviruses are associated with aggressive periodontitis (AgP). However, these findings are controversial. This meta-analysis was aimed at clarifying the association between herpesviruses and AgP. METHODS:We identified eligible case-control studies evaluating the association between herpesviruses and AgP from PubMed and Embase databases in October 2015. Original data were extracted and quality assessment was done. Overall odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Random-effects model was determined. The stability was evaluated by sensitivity analysis. Finally, Egger's funnel plot was used to investigate the publication bias. RESULTS:Twelve case-control studies involving 322 patients and 342 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. The included case-control studies were assessed as high quality. The quantitative synthesis results for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) showed significance (10 studies: p = 0.0008, OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 2.13-17.51); nevertheless, evidence of publication bias for EBV was considerable (EBV: Egger's test, p<0.001). Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) had significant association with AgP (12 studies for HCMV: p = 0.009, OR = 3.63, 95% CI = 2.15-6.13; 4 studies for HSV-1: p<0.001, OR = 19.19, 95% CI = 4.16-79.06). Sensitivity analyses showed the results yielded consistency, and no significant publication bias was observed for HCMV. The association between Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and AgP was inconclusive (2 studies: p = 0.20, OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 0.51-23.51). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis suggests that HCMV and HSV-1 are significantly associated with AgP. However, due to the heterogeneity among studies these conclusions should be cautiously interpreted. There is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusion between EBV, HSV-2 and AgP based on the currently limited data.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of the present study is to compare and assess the risk of periodontitis due to the presence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria viz., Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter rectus, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. To fulfil the above objective, polymerase Chain reaction using the primers targeting 16S rRNA gene of the bacterial species was performed with the subgingival plaque collected from the permanent first molars of type 1 diabetic children and age matched healthy children. RESULTS:The prevalence of periodontal pathogens in diabetic and healthy children was 6% and 16% for E. corrodens, 18% and 36% for C. rectus, 2% and 2% for P. intermedia, 4% and 0%, for P. nigrescens respectively. Statistically, significant difference was not observed for the prevalence of all the four periodontal pathogens between type 1 diabetic and healthy children (P = 1.00). The results of the present study thus reveal a negative correlation of type I diabetes to periodontitis in association to Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter rectus, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens.
Project description:Periodontitis, a chronic infection by periodontopathic bacteria, induces uncontrolled inflammation, which leads to periodontal tissue destruction. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-glucoside (THSG), a polyphenol extracted from Polygoni Multiflori, reportedly has anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of THSG on the Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced inflammatory responses in human gingival fibroblasts and animal modeling of ligature-induced periodontitis. Human gingival fibroblast cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from P. gingivalis in the presence of resveratrol or THSG to analyze the expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 genes. Increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and SirT1 expression were induced by THSG. Treatment of THSG decreased the expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, enhanced AMPK activation, and increased the expression of SirT1. In addition, it suppressed the activation of NF-?B when cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis LPS. The anti-inflammatory effect of THSG and P. Multiflori crude extracts was reproduced in ligature-induced periodontitis animal modeling. In conclusion, THSG inhibited the inflammatory responses of P. gingivalis-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts and ameliorated ligature-induced periodontitis in animal model.
Project description:Chronic periodontitis is caused by interactions between the oral polymicrobial community and host factors. Periodontal diseases are associated with dysbiotic shift in oral microbiota. Vaccination against periodontopathic bacteria could be a fundamental therapeutic to modulate polymicrobial biofilms. Because oral cavity is the site of periodontopathic bacterial colonization, mucosal vaccines should provide better protection than vaccines administered systemically. We previously reported that bacterial flagellin is an excellent mucosal adjuvant. In this study, we investigated whether mucosal immunization with a flagellin-adjuvanted polypeptide vaccine induces protective immune responses using a Porphyromonas gingivalis infection model. We used the Hgp44 domain polypeptide of Arg-gingipain A (RgpA) as a mucosal antigen. Intranasal (IN) immunization induced a significantly higher Hgp44-specific IgG titer in the serum of mice than sublingual (SL) administration. The co-administration of flagellin potentiated serum IgG responses for both the IN and SL vaccinations. On the other hand, the anti-Hgp44-specific IgA titer in the saliva was comparable between IN and SL vaccinations, suggesting SL administration as more compliant vaccination route for periodontal vaccines. The co-administration of flagellin significantly potentiated the secretory IgA response in saliva also. Furthermore, mice administered a mixture of Hgp44 and flagellin via the IN and SL routes exhibited significant reductions in alveolar bone loss induced by live P. gingivalis infections. An intranasally administered Hgp44-flagellin fusion protein induced a comparable level of Hgp44-specific antibody responses to the mixture of Hgp44 and flagellin. Overall, a flagellin-adjuvanted Hgp44 antigen would serve an important component for a multivalent mucosal vaccine against polymicrobial periodontitis.